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Primary Cause Of Type 2 Diabetes

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Living With Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus (type 1, type 2) & diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)

Having type 2 diabetes can bring up lots of questions about your lifestyle, but were here with the answers. From nutritional advice and recipes to help you know what to eat when you have type 2 diabetes, tips about diabetes and alcohol and keeping active and staying fit were here to support you.

Weve also got more information for different age groups, such as young people and older people, as well as practical school advice for parents of children with diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes is also associated with other health conditions, such as thyroid disease and dental problems. Its important to be aware of these, so make sure to read our information about diabetes related conditions.

What Health Problems Can People With Diabetes Develop

Following a good diabetes care plan can help protect against many diabetes-related health problems. However, if not managed, diabetes can lead to problems such as

  • heart disease and stroke
  • gum disease and other dental problems
  • sexual and bladder problems

Many people with type 2 diabetes also have nonalcoholic fatty liver disease . Losing weight if you are overweight or obese can improve NAFLD. Diabetes is also linked to other health problems such as sleep apnea, depression, some types of cancer, and dementia.

You can take steps to lower your chances of developing these diabetes-related health problems.

Lack Of Insulin Production

This is primarily the cause of type 1 diabetes. It occurs when insulin-producing cells are damaged or destroyed and stop producing insulin. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar into cells throughout the body. The resulting insulin deficiency leaves too much sugar in the blood and not enough in the cells for energy.

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Can Diabetes Be Prevented Or Avoided

Talk to your doctor about your risk factors for diabetes. Although you may not be able to change all of them, you can make changes to significantly lower your risk.

  • Exercise and weight control. Exercising and maintaining a healthy weight can reduce your risk of diabetes. Any amount of activity is better than none. Try to exercise for 30 to 60 minutes most days of the week. Always talk with your doctor before starting an exercise program.
  • Diet. A diet high in fat, calories, and cholesterol increases your risk of diabetes. A poor diet can lead to obesity and other health problems. A healthy diet is high in fiber and low in fat, cholesterol, salt, and sugar. Also, remember to watch your portion size. How much you eat is just as important as what you eat.

How Is Type 2 Diabetes Managed

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Theres no cure for Type 2 diabetes. But you can manage the condition by maintaining a healthy lifestyle and taking medication if needed. Work with your healthcare provider to manage your:

  • Blood sugar: A blood glucose meter or continuous glucose monitoring can help you meet your blood sugar target. Your healthcare provider may also recommend regular A1c tests, oral medications , insulin therapy or injectable non-insulin diabetes medications.
  • Blood pressure: Lower your blood pressure by not smoking, exercising regularly and eating a healthy diet. Your healthcare provider may recommend blood pressure medication such as beta blockers or ACE inhibitors.
  • Cholesterol: Follow a meal plan low in saturated fats, trans fat, salt and sugar. Your healthcare provider may recommend statins, which are a type of drug to lower cholesterol.

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Treatment For Low Blood Glucose

If you have type 2 diabetes that’s controlled using insulin or certain types of tablets , you may experience episodes of hypoglycaemia.

Hypoglycaemia is where your blood glucose levels become very low.

Mild hypoglycaemia can make you feel shaky, weak and hungry, but it can usually be controlled by eating or drinking something sugary.

If you have a hypo, you should initially have a form of carbohydrate that will act quickly, such as a sugary drink or glucose tablets.

This should be followed by a longer-acting carbohydrate, such as a cereal bar, sandwich or piece of fruit.

In most cases, these measures will be enough to raise your blood glucose level to normal. You should aim for a hypo to be treated and to recheck your blood glucose level within 15 minutes.

If blood glucose still less than 4mmol/l then repeat the treatment using a fast acting carbohydrate. When your blood glucose returns to normal then have your longer acting carbohydrate.

If you develop severe hypoglycaemia, you may become drowsy and confused, and you may even lose consciousness.

If this occurs, you may need to have an injection of glucagon into your muscle or glucose into a vein. Glucagon is a hormone that quickly increases your blood glucose levels.

You may require input from a health care professional. If the glucagon is not successful, you may require an injection of dextrose into your vein.

Your diabetes care team can advise you on how to avoid a hypo and what to do if you have one.

About Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes is usually a lifelong condition that causes a person’s blood glucose level to become too high.

The hormone insulin produced by the pancreas is responsible for controlling the amount of glucose in the blood

There are two main types of diabetes:

  • type 1 where the pancreas doesn’t produce any insulin
  • type 2 where the pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin or the body’s cells don’t react to insulin

This topic is about type 2 diabetes.

Read more about type 1 diabetes

Another type of diabetes, known as gestational diabetes, occurs in some pregnant women and tends to disappear after birth.

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Impaired Endothelial Function And Atherosclerosis Development

Endothelium plays an important role in the regulation of vascular tone and structure through a balanced release of endothelial-derived relaxing and contracting factors. This balance is altered in T2DM leading to alteration of the physicochemical properties of the vascular wall via endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, platelet hyperreactivity, and inflammation . These abnormalities lead to enhanced vasoconstriction, development of atherosclerosis, and favored thrombus formation .

6.2.1. Mechanisms Leading to Endothelial Dysfunction in T2DM

Vascular endothelial cells are particularly susceptible to developing intracellular hyperglycemia because glucose diffuses passively through their plasma membrane. In T2DM, the excess of glucose can be metabolized in the sorbitol pathway to sorbitol and fructose by aldose reductase, which activates the aldose reductase secondary metabolic pathway, with concomitant oxidation of NADPH to NADP+ and reduction of NAD+ to NADH. NADPH depletion and an increased NADH/NAD+ cytosolic ratio leads to a change in redox potential that accelerates glycolysis and increases de novo synthesis of DAG . As a result, protein kinase C is activated, nitric oxide is reduced. These effects cause vascular permeability and increase contractility. Simultaneously, the increased NADH/NAD+ ratio also results in higher production of O2, LDL oxidation, cytotoxic effects on endothelial cells and reduced NO availability, leading to endothelial dysfunction .

Genetics As A Primary Cause Type 2 Diabetes

Pathophysiology – Type II diabetes | Endocrine system diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

Well yes, genetics do have a role. The only thing to note here is that the role of genetics can be overridden to avert developing type 2 diabetes.

Yes, having one or two parents only predisposes you to becoming a diabetic in later life. But it doesnt necessarily mean you will become a diabetic if this scenario applies to you. This is especially true if you take active steps to prevent that from happening.

There are stories of twins who generally have had diverse life outcomes even though both twins have the same genetic makeup, had the same upbringing, shared the same childhood experiences which extends to the teen age years until they left home.

Typical story here in the guardian of two twins, Barbara and Christine.

Grown up together, shared everything together in childhood and parents ensured they were treated as one and the same in every way possible until they drifted apart in later years having flown the nest.

Yet Barbara and Christine now exhibit different personas which are almost diametrically opposed. One twin is more confident than the other. One is lot more conscientious in the way she applies herself. One suffers from depression whilst the twin sister has no such problem.

Professor Tim Spector, head of twin research at Kings College, London who is conducting a long running twins research says

How does one explain that?

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How Is Type 2 Diabetes Treated

Treatment will depend on your symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is.The goal of treatment is to keep blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible, but not too low. To do this, you will need to control your blood sugar. You will need to check it regularly.You may be able to control your Type 2 diabetes with:

  • Weight loss
  • Exercise
  • Healthy eating habits

But you may also need to take medicine or insulin.Treatment may include some or all of these:

Type 2 Diabetes Care At Uw Medicine

At UW Medicine, diabetes care begins with your primary care provider. If you are on insulin and are having trouble managing your diabetes, you may be referred to the UW Medicine Diabetes Institute at South Lake Union, which supports patients with a comprehensive treatment plan and care team. As an accredited American Diabetes Association program, the clinic offers classes in diabetes management. Diabetes support groups are also available for established patients.

Our Diabetes Institute Clinic offers you complete diabetes care cardiology, ophthalmology, endocrinology, nephrology and research in one location. Our certified diabetes education nurses provide information and assistance on various treatments. Registered dietitians offer nutritional counseling. Clinical pharmacists specialize in the use of diabetes medications and work with you to find medication options that fit your budget.

UW Medicine also offers a bilingual program focused on the needs of Latinx patients with diabetes. Since Latinx individuals are disproportionately affected by diabetes and at a younger age, UW Medicine has a weekly program with dedicated Spanish-speaking staff familiar with your unique needs. Team members include a physician specializing in diabetes care, a nutritionist/certified diabetes educator and patient services specialists who help with scheduling and referrals.

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Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes

The classic symptoms of diabetes are the following:

  • fatigue
  • unusual thirst and
  • unexplained weight loss.

In type 1 diabetes, the symptoms usually progress quickly and are often dramatic. In type 2 diabetes, symptoms are slower to progress. However, it is important to note that many people who have type 2 diabetes may have no symptoms. These people may find out they have type 2 diabetes when they go to the doctor for another, unrelated problem.

What Is The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

About Type 2 Diabetes

In type 1 diabetes, people produce little or no insulin, as the insulin-producing cells have been destroyed by the bodys immune system. Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune disease.

In type 2 diabetes, the body may make enough insulin early in the disease, but doesnt respond to it effectively. As type 2 diabetes progresses, the pancreas gradually loses the ability to produce enough insulin. Type 2 diabetes is associated with inherited factors and lifestyle risk factors such as being overweight or obese, poor diet, and insufficient physical activity.

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Overweight Obesity And Physical Inactivity

You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. The location of body fat also makes a difference. Extra belly fat is linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart and blood vessel disease. To see if your weight puts you at risk for type 2 diabetes, check out these Body Mass Index charts.

Newly Diagnosed With Type 2 Diabetes

Knowing where to get started following a type 2 diagnosis can be a challenge. You may feel overwhelmed, but its important to know there isnt a one-size fits all approach to managing the condition.

As well as using the information on this page to understand your condition, you can meet other people with type 2 diabetes in our Learning Zone. Youll hear advice from others in your position, and get practical tools to help you feel more confident managing your condition.

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Symptoms In Children And Teens

Type 2 diabetes is more likely to appear after the age of 45 years, but it can affect children and teens who:

  • have excess weight
  • slow healing of cuts or wounds
  • numbness or tingling in hands and feet
  • itchy skin

If caregivers notice these symptoms, they should take the child to see a doctor. These are also symptoms of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 is less common but more likely to affect children and teenagers than adults. However, type 2 diabetes is becoming more common in young people than it was in the past.

Learn more here about how diabetes affects children and teens and how to spot the symptoms early.

How Refined Sugar Is The Major Cause Of Type 2 Diabetes

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Refined sugar refers to white flour and white sugar, which are commonly found in foods such as white bread, pasta, pastries, soda and muffins. These foods have been processed and stripped of many important nutrients, especially fibre.

Without fibre intact, refined sugar breaks down very rapidly into the bloodstream and demands an excessive amount of insulin to be released from the body. The insulin then overwhelms the cells by trying to bring in too much sugar at once.

Its this sequence of events caused by refined sugar that encourages your cells to stop responding to insulin.

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What Are The Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes

Symptoms of Type 2 diabetes tend to develop slowly over time. They can include:

Rarely, Type 2 diabetes leads to a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis . DKA is a life-threatening condition that causes your blood to become acidic. People with Type 1 diabetes are more likely to have DKA.

What Are The First Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes

Many people with type 2 diabetes do not experience any symptoms at first and it may go undiagnosed for years. If they do have symptoms, these may include:

  • being very thirsty
  • having cuts that heal slowly

Over time, diabetes can lead to complications, which can then cause other symptoms.

Blood glucose testing is important for detecting pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes before complications arise.

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Treatment For Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes can be managed, and in some cases, reversed. Most treatment plans will include checking your blood glucose levels, and your doctor will tell you how often you should do it. The goal is to stay within a specific range.

Additional lifestyle changes your doctor will most likely advise to help treat your type 2 diabetes include:

  • eating foods rich in fiber and healthy carbohydrates eating fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can help keep your blood glucose levels steady
  • eating at regular intervals
  • learning to listen to your body and learn to stop eating when youre full
  • manage your weight and keep your heart healthy, which typically means keeping refined carbohydrates, sweets, and animal fats to a minimum
  • get about half an hour of physical activity daily to help keep your heart healthy exercise can help to control blood glucose, too.

Your doctor will explain how to recognize the early symptoms of blood sugar thats too high or too low and what to do in each situation.

Additionally, working with a dietician can help you learn which foods can help you manage your blood sugar and which ones might cause it to become unbalanced.

Not everyone with type 2 diabetes needs to use insulin. If you do, its because your pancreas isnt making enough insulin on its own, and its crucial that you take insulin as directed. There are other prescription medications that may help as well.

Keto Diet For Type 2 Diabetes: Does It Work

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Correlations With And Influencing Factors On T2dm

Heritable genetic correlation. Genetic component: Although we have not completely elucidated the pathophysiology of T2DM so far, it is the case that the disease has a major genetic component. Higher concordance rates are found among monozygotic than dizygotic twins in some , but not all twin studies, which has been a compelling evidence of a significant genetic component in T2DM. Moreover, 40% of first-degree relatives of T2DM patients may develop diabetes, whereas the incident rate is only 6% in the general population .

Type 2 Diabetes In Children

Type 2 diabetes in children is a growing issue. According to the American Diabetes Association , around 193,000 Americans under age 20 have type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

One 2016 study found that the incidence of type 2 diabetes in youth has increased to about 5,000 new cases per year. Another study from 2017 also showed a significant increase, particularly in minority races and ethnic groups.

If your child has been diagnosed with diabetes, their doctor will need to determine if its type 1 or type 2 before suggesting a specific treatment.

In the same way that lifestyle choices can help adults manage or even reverse their type 2 diabetes diagnosis, you can help lower your childs risk by encouraging them to eat well and to be physically active every day.

report the following statistics about diabetes in the United States:

  • Over 30 million people have diabetes. Thats around 10 percent of the population.
  • 1 in 4 people has no idea they have diabetes.
  • Prediabetes affects 84.1 million adults, and 90 percent of them are unaware of it.
  • Non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and Native American adults are to have diabetes as non-Hispanic white adults.

The ADA reports the following statistics:

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