How Long Can You Live With Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes doesnt have to be a chronic condition. To the contrary, a type 2 diabetes diagnosis is the moment to begin changing habits and working towards a healthier and longer life. What you do every day can make a difference, says Dr. Christofides. Park at the far-end of the lot. Try taking the stairs. Consider buying only fresh foods and avoiding things in packages.
There is no one best type 2 diabetes diet. Focus on fresh, and focus on balance. Include vegetables, lean proteins , whole grains, nuts, seeds, legumes, and whole fruits.
Get moving. Exercise is one of the most important things you can do for overall health, including mental well-being. Fitness is also one of the best ways to keep weight off once youve lost it.
Find activities you enjoy and try sharing those with friends and family. Exercise doesnt have to happen in the gym. Grab a friend and go for a fast walk through the neighborhood or take a hike in the park. The vitamin D will give you an extra boost of health and well-being.
How Can I Get The Best Results From My Diabetes Medicines
It is important to take your medicine every day. Ask your doctor questions about your medicines: How often do I take this pill?What if I miss a dose?What if I am taking other medicines? Talk to your doctor about any side effects you may be having, especially if you are taking other medicines.
Remember that diet and exercise should always be a part of your treatment because they work together with diabetes medicines to lower your blood sugar and make you feel better.
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Stroke Prevention In Diabetes
The 2010 American Heart Association/American Stroke Association guidelines for the primary prevention of stroke include the following recommendations for patients with diabetes:
Regular blood pressure screening
Physical activity 30 minutes or more of moderate-intensity activity on a daily basis
A low-sodium, high-potassium diet to reduce blood pressure a diet emphasizing consumption of fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products may lower stroke risk
A blood pressure goal of less than 130/80 mm Hg
Drug therapy with ACE inhibitors or ARBs
Statin therapy, especially in patients with other risk factors monotherapy with fibrates may also be considered to lower stroke risk
The AHA/ASA guidelines note that the benefit of taking aspirin for the reduction of stroke risk has not been fully demonstrated in diabetic patients.
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Automated Treatment With An Artificial Pancreas
For people that have already lost their insulin-producing cells, a shorter-term solution could be the artificial pancreas a fully automated system that can measure glucose levels and inject the right amount of insulin into the bloodstream, just like a healthy pancreas would.
Type 1 diabetes is very different from your standard disease. Insulin requirements vary greatly from one day to another and there is no way patients can know what they need, saidRoman Hovorka, Professor at the University of Cambridge.
His research group is working on the development of an algorithm that can accurately predict insulin requirements for a specific patient in real-time, which can be used to control insulin delivery via an insulin pump.
Replacing humans with computers could help patients better control their sugar levels and suffer fewer complications in the long term. However, in order to fully automate insulin therapy, there are several challenges yet to be addressed. First of all, faster forms of insulin are needed to react quickly enough to changes in sugar blood. In addition, current algorithms need to significantly improve to be able to make accurate predictions.
Heres How You Can Get Started:
- Work with your doctor to determine what level of physical activity you should engage in
- Figure out how much time per day you can devote to exercise
- Set fitness goalshaving clear goals can help you stay motivated
- Consider where youll start working outthe gym, in your neighborhood, in a park?
- Build different activities into your daily routine
- Start slowly and allow for recovery time
- Keep track of what you do and stay focused on your goals
- Listen to your body
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What Other Injectable Medicines Treat Type 2 Diabetes
Besides insulin, other types of injected medicines are available. These medicines help keep your blood glucose level from going too high after you eat. They may make you feel less hungry and help you lose some weight. Other injectable medicines are not substitutes for insulin. Learn more about noninsulin injectable medicines.
Treatment Of T2dm In Older Patients
Elderly people with diabetes have a risk of developing macrovascular and microvascular complications, similar to that of younger patients with diabetes. In addition, they have a higher rate of lower limb amputations, and other complications than any other age group and those 75 years have a higher rate of most complications than those between 65 and 74 years. Older people > 75 years have a significant increase in death by hypoglycaemia, and visits to the emergency room for hypoglycaemia, compared to the general population with diabetes.
Therefore, older people with diabetes have a number of characteristics that will influence their treatment, such as: presence of high co-morbidities presence of cognitive and functional impairment polypharmacy visual and hearing impairment decreased physical activity high risk of hypoglycaemia common situations of social isolation and dependence. Depression nutrition-related problems and heterogeneity in terms of clinical presentation of the diabetes .
Based on all the above, the treatment of diabetes in the elderly people should achieve the following objectives: to avoid disability, ensuring the best quality of life to avoid side effects of treatment, especially the most associated with impaired quality of life such as hypoglycaemia and falls and to have a global vision of the patient, introducing competitive risks in the decision-making process.
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Medicines For Type 2 Diabetes
Most people need medicine to control their type 2 diabetes.
Medicine helps keep your blood sugar level as normal as possible to prevent health problems. You may have to take it for the rest of your life.
Diabetes usually gets worse over time, so your medicine or dose may need to change.
Adjusting your diet and being active is usually necessary to keep your blood sugar level down.
Foot Damage And Type 2 Diabetes
Damage to nerves caused by diabetes can make it hard to feel injuries to the feet. At the same time, damage to the blood vessels can reduce circulation in the feet of people with diabetes. Sores that heal poorly and even gangrene are complications of diabetes that can occur in the feet. Amputation may be the result in severe cases.
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How Does Type 2 Diabetes Relate To Insulin Resistance
Insulin resistance causes type 2 diabetes, but a person can have insulin resistance without having type 2 diabetes. Diabetes is about energy in and energy out, explains Dr. Chistofides. In the case of type 2 diabetes, there is a mismanagement between how the body matches energy intake and energy demand. Insulin insensitivity is the symptom of this energy mismanagement that can lead to insulin resistance.
If you have a diet high in processed foods with added sugar, initially your body will keep releasing insulin as it tries to absorb and use glucose. If you have prediabetes and dont limit your over-consumption of sugary foods, heres what can happen:
Kidney Risks Related To Type 2 Diabetes
The risk for developing chronic kidney disease increases with time in people with diabetes. Diabetes is the most common cause of renal failure, making up about 44% of cases. Keeping your diabetes under control can reduce the risk of kidney failure. Medications are also used to reduce the risk of kidney disease in people with diabetes.
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How Does Diabetes Affect Your Heart Eyes Feet Nerves And Kidneys
Blood vessels are located throughout our bodys tissues and organs. They surround our bodys cells, providing a transfer of oxygen, nutrients and other substances, using blood as the exchange vehicle. In simple terms, diabetes doesnt allow glucose to get into cells and it damages blood vessels in/near these organs and those that nourish nerves. If organs, nerves and tissues cant get the essentials they need to properly function, they can begin to fail.Proper function means that your hearts blood vessels, including arteries, are not damaged . In your kidneys, this means that waste products can be filtered out of your blood. In your eyes, this means that the blood vessels in your retina remain intact. In your feet and nerves, this means that nerves are nourished and that theres blood flow to your feet. Diabetes causes damage that prevents proper function.
The Future Of Diabetes Treatment: Is A Cure Possible
Diabetes has become an epidemic, sentencing over 460 million people worldwide to lifelong medication. Science is striving to find a diabetes treatment that can cure this chronic disease, but how close are we?
Diabetes is the major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attack, and stroke. It is estimated that the number of people affected by diabetes will rise to 700 million by 2045. This has led the World Health Organization to consider diabetes an epidemic.
Despite its huge impact on the global population, there is still no cure for any type of diabetes. Most treatments help patients manage the symptoms to a certain extent, but diabetics still face multiple long-term health complications.
Diabetes affects the regulation of insulin, a hormone required for glucose uptake in cells, resulting in high levels of blood sugar. While there are some similarities in symptoms, the two main types of diabetes develop in different ways.
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that destroys insulin-producing beta-pancreatic cells. In contrast, patients with type 2 diabetes develop insulin resistance, meaning that insulin is less and less effective at reducing blood sugar.
The biotech industry is striving to develop new diabetes treatments and chasing the holy grail: a cure. Lets have a look at whats brewing in the field and how it will change the way diabetes is treated.
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How Nutrition Therapy Can Help Treat Type 2 Diabetes
If you have diabetes, you should have an individualized meal plan focused on management of not only blood sugar but also blood cholesterol and blood pressure, as well as any other medical conditions.
Theres no one-size-fits-all eating plan for people with diabetes, so it is often helpful to work with a registered dietitian or diabetes educator to design a diabetes meal plan that meets your diabetes goals and accommodates your food likes and dislikes, daily schedule, and usual access to food.
She notes that working with a registered dietitian to develop a meal plan to fit your lifestyle can be helpful, since the best diet is the one that a person can stick with for the long haul. To that end, Dungan notes that keeping a food log can help you understand how many calories, carbs, and nutrients youre consuming.
Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes
In type 2 diabetes, your body isnt able to effectively use insulin to bring glucose into your cells. This causes your body to rely on alternative energy sources in your tissues, muscles, and organs. This is a chain reaction that can cause a variety of symptoms.
Type 2 diabetes can develop slowly. The symptoms may be mild and easy to dismiss at first. The early symptoms may include:
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Why Physical Activity Is A Key Tool For Diabetes Treatment
That includes 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity aerobic activity, such as:
- Brisk walking
- Taking group fitness classes that involve using weights
- Using weight machines at the gym
- Heavy gardening or other activities that can help you build and maintain muscle
- Overhead arm stretches
- Torso twists
- Leg lifts or extensions
Before you start a formal exercise program or increase your level of physical activity, it’s important to get your doctor’s okay and to find out which activities you can do safely.
In general, though, exercise can provide people with diabetes with a lot of benefits. Exercise is critical for patients with diabetes to maintain heart health and maintain glucose control, Dungan says. She notes that its best to consult your doctor about the type and frequency of activity that is best for you, and find out whether you need additional testing to make sure that exercise is safe. Still, Dungan says, brisk walking nearly every day for at least 30 minutes is safe and beneficial for most people.
Attacking The Origin With Immunotherapy
In type 1 diabetes, insulin-producing cells are progressively destroyed by the immune system. Stopping this process early enough could preserve the cells and provide a cure.
That is the goal of Imcyse, a Belgian company running a phase I/II clinical trial with an immunotherapy designed to stop type 1 diabetes by specifically killing the immune cells that destroy the pancreas. A phase I trial showed there were no major safety issues related to the immunotherapy and some clinical benefits were also revealed.
Early after diagnosis, between three to six months, it is estimated that around 10% of the insulin-producing cells are still alive and producing insulin. After stopping the autoimmune process, the remaining beta cells would be protected and could continue producing insulin, explained Pierre Vandepapelière, CEO of Imcyse.
Belgian company ActoBio Therapeutics, a subsidiary of the US firm Precigen, is now running a phase I/II clinical trial with an unusual approach to stop the progression of type 1 diabetes. The company uses cheese-producing bacteria to deliver two drugs that stimulate regulatory T cells to instruct the immune system not to attack insulin-producing cells.
It is potentially a safe oral treatment that will be given for a limited period of time and could lead to patients who develop type 1 diabetes not needing to use insulin, or delay the need for insulin after diagnosis, said Pieter Rottiers, CEO of Precigen ActoBio.
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What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening condition. It happens when your liver breaks down fat to use as energy because theres not enough insulin and therefore glucose isnt being used as an energy source. Fat is broken down by the liver into a fuel called ketones. The formation and use of ketones is a normal process if it has been a long time since your last meal and your body needs fuel. Ketones are a problem when your fat is broken down too fast for your body to process and they build up in your blood. This makes your blood acidic, which is a condition called ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis can be the result of uncontrolled Type 1 diabetes and less commonly, Type 2 diabetes.Diabetic ketoacidosis is diagnosed by the presence of ketones in your urine or blood and a basic metabolic panel. The condition develops over several hours and can cause coma and possibly even death.
What Is The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes Treatment And Life
Type 1 diabetes: The cells of the pancreas that secrete insulin are destroyed the immune system or other causes, resulting in a congenital lack of insulin, and insulin must be injected to maintain the bodys sugar metabolism and prevent ketoacidosis.
Type 2 diabetes: the most common form of diabetes . It is usually caused certain physical conditions, such as obesity, that lead to insulin resistance, meaning that the body produces insulin but the insulin does not work, resulting in a state of hyperglycaemia.
The focus of the 2 types of diabetes is different
Because the causes of the two types of diabetes are different, the issues for patients are also different. To summarise, Type 1 diabetes requires the most attention to diet, while Type 2 diabetes is about weight.
Type 1 diabetes is born without insulin, so it must be treated with artificial insulin. However, it is not possible to adjust the amount of insulin secreted according to the needs of the body and the level of blood sugar, just like normal insulin secretion.
For example, if you want to have a snack in the afternoon, your blood sugar may suddenly spike because of the uncalculated calories and if you miss your meal time because you are busy, you may have a serious hypoglycemia because you have not taken the scheduled calories.
If you do get diabetes, you should not take it lightly, as it is a slow onset and you must take good care of it so that you can stay healthy for the future.
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What Does It Mean If Test Results Show I Have Protein In My Urine
This means your kidneys are allowing protein to be filtered through and now appear in your urine. This condition is called proteinuria. The continued presence of protein in your urine is a sign of kidney damage.
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Theres much you can do to prevent the development of diabetes . However, if you or your child or adolescent develop symptoms of diabetes, see your healthcare provider. The earlier diabetes is diagnosed, the sooner steps can be taken to treat and control it. The better you are able to control your blood sugar level, the more likely you are to live a long, healthy life.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 03/28/2021.