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Is Glaucoma Related To Diabetes

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Prevent Or Delay Eye Diseases

Dr. Raymond Iezzi, Jr., Diabetes, Glaucoma & Macular Degeneration

You can protect your vision and lower your chance for vision loss with these steps:

  • Get a dilated eye exam at least once a year so your eye doctor can spot any problems early when theyre most treatable.
  • Keep your blood sugar levels in your target range as much as possible. Over time, high blood sugar not only damages blood vessels in your eyes, it can also affect the shape of your lenses and make your vision blurry.
  • Keep your blood pressure and cholesterol levels in your target range to lower your risk for eye diseases and vision loss. Also good for your health in general!
  • Quit smoking. Quitting lowers your risk for diabetes-related eye diseases and improves your health in many other ways too.
  • Get active. Physical activity protects your eyes and helps you manage diabetes.
  • Ask your doctor for a referral to diabetes self-management education and support services. People who receive less diabetes education are twice as likely to get diabetic retinopathy as people who receive more education.

How Is Glaucoma Diagnosed

Glaucoma may be diagnosed by an optometrist by measuring your eye pressure, checking the eye at the optic nerve, and testing the field of your vision.

A common test these days is a noncontact tonometry test in which a brief puff of air will be directed into the front of your eye. The machine you sit in front of measures the resistance of your eye to the puff of air without needing to make contact with your eye. The puff of air is noticeable but is not painful.

Experts will quickly be able to determine if you have glaucoma.

What Is Diabetic Eye Disease

Diabetic eye disease is a group of eye problems that can affect people with diabetes. These conditions include diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema, cataracts, and glaucoma.

Over time, diabetes can cause damage to your eyes that can lead to poor vision or even blindness. But you can take steps to prevent diabetic eye disease, or keep it from getting worse, by taking care of your diabetes.

The best ways to manage your diabetes and keep your eyes healthy are to

Often, there are no warning signs of diabetic eye disease or vision loss when damage first develops. A full, dilated eye exam helps your doctor find and treat eye problems earlyoften before much vision loss can occur.

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What Is The Relationship Between Glaucoma And Diabetes

Glaucoma is one of the group of eye diseases that people who have diabetes may develop cataracts and diabetic retinopathy also fall into this group. Unfortunately, eye disease is a common side effect of diabetes and can sometimes lead to complete blindness. The relationship between glaucoma and diabetes, in particular, has been of interest to scientists for years and at the center of some debate.

The most common type of this eye disease is primary open-angle glaucoma it has long been believed that diabetics are twice as likely as non-diabetics to develop this form of glaucoma. Likewise, a person who already has POAG is at greater risk of developing diabetes than someone who does not have POAG. Although some research has disputed these claims, there remains a large amount of research such as the July 2010 Nurses Health Study that has shown a positive link between glaucoma and diabetes. This study monitored 76,318 women for 20 years and concluded that type II diabetes the most common type of diabetes, a mild form that develops gradually in adults is associated with POAG. Many doctors agree that a relationship between glaucoma and diabetes exists and that one can lead to the other.

Is Glaucoma Caused By Diabetes

Glaucoma Frequently Asked Questions: Queries &  Concerns ...

Not directly. The root causes for both appear to be the same. The connection is growth hormones. Plus the hormonal balance in the body.

Too much growth hormone seems to cause both diseases. So diet plays a key role. Because poor diet will cause growth hormone levels to go up. Industrial dairy products and processed foods are the worst offenders.

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What Are The Symptoms Of Diabetic Eye Disease

Often there are no early symptoms of diabetic eye disease. You may have no pain and no change in your vision as damage begins to grow inside your eyes, particularly with diabetic retinopathy.

When symptoms do occur, they may include

  • blurry or wavy vision
  • frequently changing visionsometimes from day to day
  • dark areas or vision loss
  • poor color vision
  • spots or dark strings
  • flashes of light

Talk with your eye doctor if you have any of these symptoms.

Danish Nationwide Data Reveal A Link Between Diabetes Mellitus Diabetic Retinopathy And Glaucoma

Anna HorwitzMiriam Kolko

1Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark

2Center for Healthy Aging, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark

3Department of Public Health, University of Szeged, Dóm Tér 10, Szeged 6720, Hungary

4Akershus University Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Campus Ahus, 1478 Lørenskog, Norway

5Aalborg University Hospital, Department of Health, Science and Technology, Niels Jernes Vej 12, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark

6Zealand University Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Vestermarksvej 23, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark


1. Introduction

Diabetic retinopathy is the most common late complication of diabetes mellitus in the working-age population and one of the leading causes of blindness in the elderly, accounting for a significant drop in quality of life and working ability for the patients . Nonproliferative DR presents clinically as superficial retinal hemorrhages, cotton wool spots, or microvascular abnormalities . Even so, proliferative diabetic retinopathy can remain asymptomatic for a very long time , and in that light, patients with DM in Denmark are therefore monitored closely by ophthalmologists annually.

2. Methods

2.1. Registers and Study Population
2.2. Definition of Pharmacotherapy and Comorbidity

DR was identified using ICD-10 and diagnosed as DH36, DH368, DH360H, DH360J, DH360K, DH368D, DH368D1, and DH368D2.

2.6. Outcome

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How Is Glaucoma Treated

Prescription eye drops and oral medications are among the initial recommendations to treat open-angle glaucoma. They diminish pressure buildup in your eye, either by improving how fluid drains or by reducing the amount of fluid your eye makes. Other treatment options include laser therapy, filtering surgery, drainage tubes, and minimally invasive glaucoma surgery.

Vision loss from glaucoma is irreversible, even with surgery. The key is early detection. You must visit your eye doctor and have a glaucoma test at least once a year, especially if you have diabetes. Once diagnosed with glaucoma, your doctor will discuss possible treatment to slow down its progress and save your eyesight.

Do you need to schedule your annual dilated eye exam? Visit Primary Eye Care in Tupelo, Mississippi, today. Call us at 200-9842 to book an appointment.

Am I At Risk For Glaucoma

Powerhouse Nutrients For AREDs Glaucoma, Cataracts, Macular Degeneration, Diabetic Retinopathy

What puts you at risk for glaucoma?

There are a number of factors that come into play. Diabetes, in fact, is one of the main risk factors or causes, and people with diabetes get glaucoma twice as often as people without diabetes.

In addition to diabetes, the following factors put you at increased risk for glaucoma:

  • halos around lights
  • tunnel vision

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Who Is More Likely To Develop Diabetic Eye Disease

Anyone with diabetes can develop diabetic eye disease. Your risk is greater with

  • high blood glucose that is not treated
  • high blood pressure that is not treated

High blood cholesterol and smoking may also raise your risk for diabetic eye disease.

Some groups are affected more than others. African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Hispanics/Latinos, Pacific Islanders, and older adults are at greater risk of losing vision or going blind from diabetes.

If you have diabetes and become pregnant, you can develop eye problems very quickly during your pregnancy. If you already have some diabetic retinopathy, it can get worse during pregnancy. Changes that help your body support a growing baby may put stress on the blood vessels in your eyes. Your health care team will suggest regular eye exams during pregnancy to catch and treat problems early and protect your vision.

Diabetes that occurs only during pregnancy, called gestational diabetes, does not usually cause eye problems. Researchers aren’t sure why this is the case.

Your chances of developing diabetic eye disease increase the longer you have diabetes.

Stages Of Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy has 2 main stages:

Early stage : Blood vessel walls in the retina weaken and bulge, forming tiny pouches . These pouches can leak blood and other fluid, which can cause a part of the retina called the macula to swell and distort your vision. Macular edema is the most common cause of blindness in people with diabetic retinopathy. About half of people with diabetic retinopathy will develop macular edema.

Advanced stage : In this stage, the retina begins to grow new blood vessels. These new vessels are fragile and often bleed into the vitreous . With minor bleeding, you may see a few dark spots that float in your vision. If theres a lot of bleeding, your vision may be completely blocked.

You may not notice symptoms in the early stage. Thats why its very important to get a dilated eye exam at least once a year to catch any problems early when treatment is most effective.

Symptoms in the advanced stage can include:

  • Blurry vision
  • Dark or empty areas in your vision
  • Vision loss

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Does Diabetes Lead To Other Kinds Of Glaucoma Besides Neovascular Glaucoma

The million-dollar question here is: does Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 diabetes lead to any other forms of glaucoma? We might be interested to know whether or not there is a link to the most common form of glaucoma in the Western hemisphere, POAG .

Is Type 1 diabetes a risk factor for Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma?

Although there is not much research to back it up, it appears that Type 1 diabetes is, at least, not a risk factor for POAG. Hyperglycemia in Type 1 diabetes makes retinal ganglion cells function better, not worse. This may be why a confirmed link has not been found between Type 1 diabetes and POAG.

Is Type 2 diabetes a risk factor for Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma?

When looking at Type 2 diabetes as a risk factor for the most common type of glaucoma, POAG, there does indeed seem to be a link for this. Of 47 studies including 3 million people, most with Type 2 diabetes and most with POAG, conclusions were that the length of time that someone has Type 2 diabetes and elevated fasting blood glucose levels were related to higher intraocular pressure.

Research points to insulin resistance in Type 2 diabetes being a contributing factor to glaucoma. Reducing insulin resistance should be the goal for patients for a myriad of health reasons, not just for glaucoma. One benefit for patients of reducing insulin resistance is lowered intraocular pressure, and a reduction in risk for POAG. However, more studies are needed to nail down the link between Type 2 diabetes and glaucoma.

Glaucoma And Diabetes: Whats The Link

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetes is a condition that causes your blood sugar level to be too high. Its relatively common: 1 in 15 people in the UK have it. It can cause a range of symptoms, such as weight loss and fatigue, but on top of this, it can also cause problems with your eyes and vision.

Particularly, diabetes has been linked to glaucoma, a condition that initially can cause blurriness in your peripheral vision, but if left unchecked causes permanent sight loss, or tunnel vision. These two conditions can have a big impact on our lives, so well take a closer look at both and see how they are connected.

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How Do Doctors Diagnose Eye Problems From Diabetes

Having a full, dilated eye exam is the best way to check for eye problems from diabetes. Your doctor will place drops in your eyes to widen your pupils. This allows the doctor to examine a larger area at the back of each eye, using a special magnifying lens. Your vision will be blurry for a few hours after a dilated exam.

Your doctor will also

Prescription Eye Drops For Glaucoma

There are two types of eye drops to treat glaucoma. One kind of eye drop reduces fluid in the eye, while the other kind of eye drop medication helps the fluid, or aqueous humor, to flow as it should through the eyes mesh channel. Your eye doctor will ask you about your other medications, any allergies to any medications, and if you have problems with your heart or lungs. This is because some ophthalmic medications for glaucoma can affect your heart and lungs. Some patients may require more than one kind of prescription eye drops for their glaucoma.

Side effects of prescription eye drops for glaucoma

Side effects for prescription eye drops for glaucoma can be:

  • allergic reaction
  • dry, irritated eyes

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Could Glaucoma Actually Be Diabetes Of The Brain A New Hypothesis Says Maybe

A group of medical researchers from India is proposing the radical new hypothesis that glaucoma may indeed be diabetes of the brain. The research, entitled Glaucoma Diabetes of the brain: A radical hypothesis about its nature and pathogenesis , has been published in the May 2014 issue of Medical Hypotheses. Published by Elsevier Inc., Medical Hypotheses is a forum for ideas in medicine and related biomedical sciences, publishing “interesting and important theoretical papers that foster the diversity and debate upon which the scientific process thrives.” The authors are Muneeb A. Faiq Rima Dada Daman Saluja and Tanuj Dada, who represent the following institutions: All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi India and the University of Delhi, India. What Is Glaucoma? The term “glaucoma” describes a group of eye diseases that can lead to blindness by damaging the optic nerve. It is one of the leading causes of vision loss and blindness. The human eye continuously produces a fluid, called the aqueous, that must drain from the eye to maintain healthy eye pressure. In primary open-angle glaucoma, the most common type of glaucoma, the eye’s drainage canals become blocked, and the fluid accumulation causes pressure to build within the eye. This pressure can cause damage to the optic nerve, which transmits information from the eye to the brain. Normal-tension glaucoma, also called low-tension glaucoma, is a type of glaucoma in which individualsContinue reading > >

How Does A Diabetic Eye Exam Work

How does diabetes affect the eye?

A diabetic eye exam can occur two ways:

  • An eye doctor places drops into your eyes to dilate the pupils and observe the health of the retina.
  • A special camera is used to take pictures of the back of the eyes.The pictures are sent to a computer program, which uses artificial intelligence to find diabetic retinopathy in the pictures.In less than a minute, the program will determine whether you have diabetic retinopathy and need to follow up with an eye doctor.
  • Getting dilated eye examinations are so important, says Cai. This allows your doctors to identify issues early and offer you treatments if you need them to prevent vision loss from diabetes.

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    Why Do People With Diabetes Get Glaucoma More Than Those Without Diabetes

    The reason why people with diabetes get glaucoma twice as often as people without diabetes is still quite unclear.

    There has not been a whole lot of research done to date. While researchers do disagree on whether diabetes causes glaucoma, they do agree that the insulin resistance in Type 2 diabetes causes a rare type of glaucoma, neovascular glaucoma. Similarly and conversely, people with glaucoma tend to get diagnosed with diabetes twice as often as people without glaucoma. So what is it? What is the relationship between diabetes and glaucoma, and vice-versa?

    The Link Between Diabetic Retinopathy And Glaucoma

    Many of these conditions can cause blindness. Diabetes is a complex disease in which micro vascular complications happen all over the body as a result of high blood glucose.

    It is no different for the eyes. The tiny vessels going to and from the eyes can become damaged. This is called diabetic retinopathy, which we will discuss further below. Sometimes the damage occurs in the form of increasing intraocular pressure, the primary problem in glaucoma. Glaucoma is just one of the diseases that can affect the eye of a person with diabetes. In addition to glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy, cataracts also pose a problem for people with diabetes. Cataracts are a cloudy covering over the lens of the eye that forms, and causes blurred vision. Cataract surgery is generally required to restore functional vision.

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    Type 2 Diabetics At Greater Risk For Glaucoma

    What is Type-2 Diabetes?

    Type-2 diabetes, the most common form of diabetes, is caused by insulin resistance which results in high blood glucose levels. The condition occurs most often in older or middle-aged adults, but it can also occur in teens and children.

    Unmanaged type-2 diabetes can lead to many health complications and can increase the risk of glaucoma, a family of eye diseases characterized by dangerously high eye pressure. Spikes in intraocular pressure can damage the optic nerve and can cause progressive vision loss and blindness.

    Glaucoma can be challenging to diagnose because it often develops slowly without noticeable symptoms. By the time changes in eyesight are noticed, permanent nerve damage has already occurred.

    If you have type-2 diabetes, you can take two proactive steps to prevent glaucoma and protect your vision.

    Manage Your Diabetes to Prevent Glaucoma

    Controlling your diabetes can help promote overall health and prevent glaucoma and vision loss. This includes eating a nutritious diet, exercising regularly and taking your medication as directed. When you regulate your blood sugar levels, blood pressure and cholesterol, you are actively reducing your risk of glaucoma.

    Being obese and leading a sedentary lifestyle contribute to insulin resistance, so talk to your doctor about how to lose weight with diet and exercise.

    Annual Eye Exams Can Prevent Glaucoma

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