What Are The Treatments For Diabetes
Diabetes is a serious disease that you cannot treat on your own. Your doctor will help you make a diabetes treatment plan that is right for you — and that you can understand. You may also need other health care professionals on your diabetes treatment team, including a foot doctor, nutritionist, eye doctor, and a diabetes specialist .
Treatment for diabetes requires keeping close watch over your blood sugar levels with a combination of medications, exercise, and diet. By paying close attention to what and when you eat, you can minimize or avoid the “seesaw effect” of rapidly changing blood sugar levels, which can require quick changes in medication dosages, especially insulin. Find out how to choose the right diabetes treatment for you.
Who Should Have A Diabetes Test
You should have a diabetes test if you are at a high risk of type 2 diabetes. An AUSDRISK score of 12 or more is considered high risk.
You may also be at high risk of diabetes if you:
- have had a heart attack or stroke
- have had gestational diabetes
- take medications to treat psychosis
You should have a diabetes test every year if you have pre-diabetes.
What If You Dont Have A Doctor
You could have prediabetes for years without any clear symptoms. In fact, around 88 million American adults have prediabetes, but more than 84% of them dont even know it. With prediabetes, blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough yet to be diagnosed as diabetes. Having prediabetes increases the risk for type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.
People who have any prediabetes risk factors are urged to talk to their doctor about getting their blood sugar tested. If you dont have a doctor or are concerned about expense, there are free or low-cost options available as a first step:
- Free screeningsFree blood sugar testing is offered at some health fairs, community centers, and pharmacies.
- Medicare coveragePeople covered by Medicare can get up to two free screeningsexternal icon a year if they have certain risk factors for diabetes, such as high blood pressure or obesity.
- Low-cost health centers and labsFederally funded community health centersexternal icon provide low-cost blood sugar testing on a sliding scale based on income. Testing is also available at some walk-in labs for a small fee.
A word of caution: Free blood sugar screenings often arent accurate because people havent fasted 8 to 10 hours before the test. Make sure you know how to prepareexternal icon ahead of time.
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How To Tell If You Have Diabetes
There are a couple of tests available for detecting type 1 diabetes. These consist of fasting plasma glucose test , oral glucose tolerance test , and blood sugar level test . These tests are long-term and are created to be repeated on a weekly basis after a specified quantity of time. If after a week your blood glucose level is still raised, you must see a medical professional for a glucose screening to be done. Nevertheless, there are other diabetes symptoms you can watch out for, and if youre experiencing any of them you should seek advice from a medical professional as soon as possible.
What Insulin Medications Are Approved To Treat Diabetes
There are many types of insulins for diabetes. If you need insulin, you healthcare team will discuss the different types and if they are to be combined with oral medications. To follow is a brief review of insulin types.
- Rapid-acting insulins: These insulins are taken 15 minutes before meals, they peak at one hour and work for another two to four hours. Examples include insulin glulisine , insulin lispro and insulin aspart .
- Short-acting insulins: These insulins take about 30 minutes to reach your bloodstream, reach their peak effects in two to three hours and last for three to six hours. An example is insulin regular .
- Intermediate-acting insulins: These insulins reach your bloodstream in two to four hours, peak in four to 12 hours and work for up to 18 hours. An example in NPH.
- Long-acting insulins: These insulins work to keep your blood sugar stable all day. Usually, these insulins last for about 18 hours. Examples include insulin glargine , insulin detemir and insulin degludec .
There are insulins that are a combination of different insulins. There are also insulins that are combined with a GLP-1 receptor agonist medication .
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The Only Way You Can Find Out If You Or A Loved One Has Diabetes Is From Blood Tests That Measure You Blood Glucose Levels These Can Be Arranged Through Your Gp
A diagnosis of diabetes is always confirmed by laboratory results. Youll usually get the results of your blood test back in a few days. If you have symptoms that came on quickly and youve been taken into hospital, the results should come back in an hour or two.
A finger prick test using a home testing kit may show you have high blood sugar levels but won’t confirm you have diabetes.
A normal blood test result will show you don’t have diabetes. But the result will also show if you have diabetes or are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
Tests For Gestational Diabetes
Gestational diabetes is diagnosed using blood tests. Youll probably be tested between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. If your risk is higher for getting gestational diabetes , your doctor may test you earlier. Blood sugar thats higher than normal early in your pregnancy may indicate you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes rather than gestational diabetes.
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What Are The Target Ranges
Blood glucose targets are individualized based on:
- duration of diabetes
- conditions a person may have
- cardiovascular disease or diabetes complications
- hypoglycemia unawareness
- individual patient considerations
The American Diabetes Association suggests the following targets for most nonpregnant adults with diabetes. A1C targets differ based on age and health. Also, more or less stringent glycemic goals may be appropriate for each individual.
- A1C: Less than 7%A1C may also be reported as eAG: Less than 154 mg/dL
- Before a meal : 80130 mg/dL
- 1-2 hours after beginning of the meal *: Less than 180 mg/dL
What Is Type 1 Diabetes
There is no particular test for this type of diabetes. Diabetes of type 1 can lead to deadly organ failure, urinary tract infections, loss of sight, kidney failure, heart attack, stroke, and kidney disease. It can even trigger heart and eye problems, nerve damage, and amputation of extremities. If you have been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, you ought to talk with your doctor about methods to treat your symptoms and prevent additional illness.
Is Diabetes Contagious? How To Get Tested For Diabetes
No. The blood glucose levels that result from having diabetes are not the like the levels of blood sugar levels that result from eating a healthy diet and exercising regularly. Dont stress. Having diabetes does not mean that you will always pass it on to your household.
Is Diabetes Caused by a Poor Diet Plan and Lack of Exercise?
Diabetes is normally caused by a poor diet plan and absence of physical activity. Individuals who are obese or obese, and who do not work out routinely, are at a specifically high danger for diabetes. Scientists have actually likewise discovered that people who have diabetes but consume a healthy diet and get routine workout have a much lower opportunity of establishing diabetes after years of following simple blood sugar levels test.
Can I Avoid Diabetes Without Taking Medications?
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Non Fasting Blood Tests
An HbA1c test is the main blood test used to diagnose diabetes. It tests your average blood sugar levels for the last two to three months. You dont need to prepare for a HbA1c . Its a quick and simple test where a small amount of blood is taken from a vein in your arm. This is different to a finger-prick test, which is a snapshot of your blood sugar levels at that moment.
Youll normally get the test results in a few days. From these results, your healthcare professional will be able to see if you have diabetes. If you didnt have any of the symptoms of diabetes before you were tested, youll need to have the test again to confirm the result.
You have diabetes if your HbA1c level is 48mmol/mol or above..
You are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes if your HbA1c is between 42 and 48mmol/mol.
Random blood glucose test
If you have severe symptoms of diabetes, you may have a random blood test at any time of the day. This is a quick test, through a finger-prick or a vein in your arm.
If you have a finger-prick test, youll get the results straight away. If you have a blood test through a vein in your arm, youll get the results in a few days.
You or your loved one have diabetes if your blood glucose levels are 11.1mmol/l or more – regardless of how recently you ate.
But any diagnosis from a finger prick test will need to be confirmed by a blood test sent to a laboratory for results.
Other Tips For Checking:
- With some meters, you can also use your forearm, thigh, or fleshy part of your hand.
- There are spring-loaded lancing devices that make sticking yourself less painful.
- If you use your fingertip, stick the side of your fingertip by your fingernail to avoid having sore spots on the frequently used part of your finger.
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Diagnosed With Diabetes What Next
Being told you have diabetes or prediabetes will probably come as a shock. Being diagnosed with a long-term condition feels different for everyone. You might not know how to cope or what to do next. But if you get the right treatment and support, you can manage it and live well with diabetes.
Its usually quite difficult to take everything in and remember it. So think about asking a family member or friend to go along with you to meet your healthcare team and make a note of any questions you might have.
Often, your GP will start speaking to you about treatment and the steps you can take to start managing diabetes effectively. Theyll probably want to discuss your lifestyle habits, including what you eat and what exercise you do. Its important to consider whether you smoke and the amount of alcohol you drink as well. Knowing all this vital information can help them identify what steps need to be taken by you to live with diabetes safely.
Random Blood Sugar Test
This measures your blood sugar at the time youre tested. You can take this test at any time and dont need to fast first. A blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL or higher indicates you have diabetes.
|140 mg/dL or below||N/A|
*Results for gestational diabetes can differ. Ask your health care provider what your results mean if youre being tested for gestational diabetes.Source: American Diabetes Association
If your doctor thinks you have type 1 diabetes, your blood may also tested for autoantibodies that are often present in type 1 diabetes but not in type 2 diabetes. You may have your urine tested for ketones , which also indicate type 1 diabetes instead of type 2 diabetes.
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Who Should Get An A1c Test And When
Testing for diabetes or prediabetes:Get a baseline A1C test if youre an adult over age 45or if youre under 45, are overweight, and have one or more risk factors for prediabetes or type 2 diabetes:
- If your result is normal but youre over 45, have risk factors, or have ever had gestational diabetes, repeat the A1C test every 3 years.
- If your result shows you have prediabetes, talk to your doctor about taking steps now to improve your health and lower your risk for type 2 diabetes. Repeat the A1C test as often as your doctor recommends, usually every 1 to 2 years.
- If you dont have symptoms but your result shows you have prediabetes or diabetes, get a second test on a different day to confirm the result.
- If your test shows you have diabetes, ask your doctor to refer you to diabetes self-management education and support services so you can have the best start in managing your diabetes.
Managing diabetes:If you have diabetes, get an A1C test at least twice a year, more often if your medicine changes or if you have other health conditions. Talk to your doctor about how often is right for you.
What Are The Complications Of Diabetes
If your blood glucose level remains high over a long period of time, your bodys tissues and organs can be seriously damaged. Some complications can be life-threatening over time.
- Dental problems.
Complications of gestational diabetes:
In the mother:Preeclampsia , risk of gestational diabetes during future pregnancies and risk of diabetes later in life.
In the newborn: Higher-than-normal birth weight, low blood sugar , higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes over time and death shortly after birth.
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What Do My Results Mean
When you finish the blood sugar check, write down your results and note what factors may have affected them, such as food, activity, and stress. Take a close look at your blood glucose record to see if your level is too high or too low several days in a row at about the same time. If the same thing keeps happening, it might be time to change your diabetes care plan. Work with your doctor or diabetes educator to learn what your results mean for you. It can take time to make adjustments and get things just right. And do ask your doctor if you should report results out of a certain range right away by phone.
Keep in mind that blood glucose results often trigger strong feelings. Blood sugar numbers can leave you upset, confused, frustrated, angry, or down. It’s easy to use the numbers to judge yourself. Remind yourself that tracking your blood sugar level is simply a way to know how well your diabetes care plan is working, and whether that plan may need to change.
Who Should Be Tested For Diabetes And How Is Diabetes Diagnosed
Diabetes is diagnosed using one of four simple blood tests in a doctors office or health clinic. The tests measure your blood-glucose level, which means the amount of sugar in your blood. Many people with diabetes do not have symptoms so it is important to get tested if you have risk factors for the disease.
Who Should Be Tested For DiabetesThe American Diabetes Association recommends blood tests for diabetes in any person with symptoms of the disease. In people without symptoms, testing should begin at age 45 and every three years thereafter or earlier in adults who are overweight or obesemeaning a body mass index 25 kg/m2and have any of the following other risk factors:
- Parent or sibling with diabetes
- Physical inactivity
- African American, Hispanic American, Native American, Asian American, or Pacific Islander
- Women who had gestational diabetes or who gave birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds
- HDL cholesterol level 35 mg/dL
- Triglyceride level 250 mg/dL
- Impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose on previous blood-glucose testing
- History of heart disease
In children and adolescents, testing for type 2 diabetes should be considered for those who have diabetes symptoms or who are overweight and have two of the following risk factors:
Testing in children should begin at age 10 or when the child enters puberty and should be repeated every 3 years.
Table. Tests Used to Diagnose Diabetes
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How Do I Record My Blood Sugar Test Results
Keep good records of any blood, urine, or ketone tests you do. Most glucose monitors also have a memory. Your records can alert you to any problems or trends. These test records help your doctor make any needed changes in your meal plan, medicine, or exercise program. Bring these records with you every time you see your doctor.
What Can An Urgent Care Physician Do To Diagnose Diabetes
Because diabetes has such a variety of risk factors, the physician will have to take a very detailed history, noting any symptoms, changes in weight and other chronic illnesses or conditions. If youve been diagnosed before and are taking medication, the physician will also ask about your current medications, so make sure to bring them along if your medication list is extensive.
An urgent care physician can easily diagnose diabetes if you have obvious symptoms as well as through a test called a random blood glucose test. They take a small drop of your blood and instantly measure the glucose in it. If its above a certain number, then you will be diagnosed with diabetes.
If your symptoms are not severe or very noticeable because youve been dealing with them for so long, your physician might still suspect diabetes and can use other tests to confirm his suspicions.
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