Human Insulin Signaling Pcr Array
The human insulin signaling pathway PCR array was used to quantify gene expression in muscle biopsy preparations before and after chromium therapy in 8 subjects. This array profiles the expression of 84 genes coding for insulin receptor-associated proteins PI-3 kinase pathway proteins, MAPK pathway proteins primary target proteins for insulin signaling and target proteins for PPAR. Each subject was measured in duplicates both before and after treatment. The PCR reaction was performed using manufacturer instructions. Plots of the two technical replicates against each other as well as hierarchical clustering confirmed that the reproducibility of the PCR array was very high. Five housekeeping genes were used: B2M , HPRT1 , RPL13A , GAPDH and ACTB . Based on quality control analyses, we chose to normalize PCR cycle counts of the target cDNAs such that all arrays have the same average Ct of HPRT1, RPL13A and ACTB. The normalized cycle counts are averaged for each pair of duplicates and gene expressions are calculated as 2-.
Buying Guide For Best Chromium Supplements
Chromium is a trace mineral thats present in our food and considered essential by many nutrition experts for the healthy functioning of the body. Most people get enough chromium by literally eating their broccoli. However, if youre suffering from diabetes or trying to lose weight, there are well-researched benefits to taking a chromium supplement in addition to eating a balanced diet. Chromium may also be beneficial to heart and brain health and is used by some alternative healthcare practitioners to treat other health conditions.
If youre not sure what kind of chromium supplement is right for you, were here to help you figure that out. Our shopping guide can help you decipher recommended doses of chromium as well as some of its uses. Be sure to check out our top-choice chromium supplement selections from brands and formulas that stand out.
Chromium Picolinate: What Are The Benefits
Chromium picolinate is a form of the mineral chromium that can be found in supplements.
Many of these products claim to improve nutrient metabolism and produce weight loss.
However, many people wonder about the safety and effectiveness.
This article will discuss several possible benefits of chromium picolinate and help you decide whether or not it is worth trying.
This safe form, trivalent chromium, is typically considered essential, meaning that it must be obtained from the diet.
Although some researchers question whether this mineral is truly essential, it does serve several important functions in the body .
For example, it is part of a molecule called chromodulin, which helps the hormone insulin perform its actions in the body .
Insulin, a molecule released by the pancreas, is important in your bodys processing of carbs, fat and protein .
Interestingly, the absorption of chromium in the intestines is very low, with less than 2.5% of ingested chromium being absorbed .
However, chromium picolinate is an alternate form of chromium that is absorbed better. For this reason, this type is commonly found in dietary supplements (
Chromium is a mineral found in low doses in many foods. It plays a role in the metabolism of nutrients through its impact on the hormone insulin. Chromium picolinate is the form often found in dietary supplements.
In people with diabetes, there are problems with the bodys normal response to insulin.
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Improved Blood Sugar Control In People Without Diabetes
Many people develop impaired responsiveness to insulin and mildly abnormal blood sugar levels. A few small, double-blind trials have found that chromium supplementation may be helpful,52-55 although two studies found no benefit.56,100 Another small double-blind trial found that chromium improved the body’s response to insulin among overweight people at risk of developing diabetes.57 There is growing evidence that mildly impaired blood sugar control increases the risk of heart disease, suggesting that chromium supplementation might be useful.
Chromium May Reduce Blood Glucose Levels
The most bioavailable form of chromium is chromium picolinate. And supplementation of chromium picolinate in diabetic patients has shown some pretty impressive results.
Several rat studies have shown chromium intake prevents hyperglycemia . And in terms of clinical trials in humans, there have been a few.
In 71 poorly controlled type 2 diabetics, researchers gave them 600g/day chromium picolinate over a 4 month period. They were eating the typical American Diabetes Association diet , and still took their regular medications. The results showed that the supplemented group had reduced fasting glucose of 31.0mg/dL , reduced post meal glucose by 37.0mg/dL , and they had a 1.9% lower A1c compared to just 1% in the non supplemented group.
A Chinese study conducted in 180 diabetic patients administered either placebo, 100 mcg or 500 mcg of chromium picolinate twice daily for the duration of 4 months, found that at the conclusion of the study, those being supplemented at 500 mcg had improvement in all of their outcomes!
Their fasting and post meal blood glucose levels decreased, insulin levels decreased and their levels of A1C also dropped.
The same researchers conducted another study whereby chromium picolinate was supplemented in 833 poorly controlled diabetic patients, 500 mcg daily. All diabetics in the study were on medications or taking insulin. The fasting and post meal glucose improved in 90% of people.
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Studies Measuring Fasting Plasma Glucose
displays mean changes from baseline to post supplementation in FPG in patients enrolled in the chromium supplementation and placebo arms of the RCTs. Sixteen of the 20 studies enrolled patients on hypoglycemic agents, most of whom were also on lifestyle modifications. and 3B also show the treatment goals for FPG. Mean levels in all the studies at baseline were above the FPG levels considered diagnostic for diabetes. In general, mean FPG did not change or decreased only slightly with the chromium supplement, but, as is evident in the figure, they rarely reached normal levels, and supplementation appeared to have only modest effects on FPG. Again, in 10 studies, the FPG levels in the placebo arm also decreased. Large changes were noted in the placebo arms of 2 studies in a single-blind study, FPG increased from 12.6 to 13.8mmol/L , and in the other study, in which 26 of 39 subjects had dropped out, FPG decreased from 14.4 to 12.3mmol/L . Striking changes in FPG were not evident in the remainder of studies, and values generally remained above treatment goals.
shows the same data by duration of the chromium supplementation again, duration did not seem to dramatically affect FPG levels. Fasting plasma glucose outcomes for patients concurrently receiving hypoglycemic drugs and chromium supplements were not markedly different from those in patients on chromium supplements alone.
Transfer From Other Antidiabetic Therapy
When transferring patients from standard oral hypoglycemic agents other than chlorpropamide to Metformin or Metformin XR, no transition period generally is necessary. When transferring patients from chlorpropamide, care should be exercised during the first 2 weeks because of the prolonged retention of chlorpropamide in the body, leading to overlapping drug effects and possible hypoglycemia.
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Chromium May Influence Metabolism
If you have diabetes, you have metabolic syndrome a condition of altered metabolism symptoms of which include hypertension, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance.
Chromium is needed for glucose metabolism, whereby it acts as a second messenger in the cells to help enhance the function of insulin. And as you will soon read below, studies have shown it may reduce blood sugar levels and A1C.
In several animal studies it has been shown to play a central role in reducing obesity and hypertension. Though, in terms of these functions, at this stage evidence in humans is limited.
Study Quality And Funding Source
For glycosylated hemoglobin in participants with type 2 diabetes and for fasting glucose in participants with diabetes or normal glucose tolerance , poor-quality studies had significantly greater favorable net effects than high-quality studies .
There was a trend among studies of fasting glucose in participants with diabetes in that studies funded by industry had greater net improvements than other studies . For other outcomes and subpopulations, there was no evidence of bias based on study quality or funding source.
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Evaluation Of Specific Expression Patterns By Western
All analyses were performed two times for each sample. The cells / tissue were lysed by homogenisation in lysis buffer , 1 % DTT , 2 % CHAPS , 0.8 % Bio-Lyte, pH 310 , 5 mM Pefabloc followed by a centrifugation step. The protein concentration was quantified by the DC-Protein Assay . Forty µg protein of each sample were loaded onto 12 % SDS-polyacrylamide gels and electrophoresed to separate proteins. The proteins were then transferred to nitrocellulose membranes and afterwards incubated at room temperature in blocking-buffer for 1 hour. Primary anti-body incubation was performed at room temperature using a 1:250 dilution of the specific anti-bodies in washing buffer I for 1 hour. The membranes were then washed four times in the same solution. The horseradish peroxidase-labelled anti-goat secondary antibody was incubated at room temperature with the membranes in washing buffer I followed by three washes in washing buffer II and three washes in washing buffer I. Then the membranes were reacted with chemiluminescent reagent ECL plus for 1 hour and processed for auto-radiography. The individual signals were measured densitometrically using the Quantity One imaging system .
Chromium May Improve Cholesterol Levels
According to research, chromium picolinate may help reduce LDL and increase levels of HDL . Having elevated blood lipids is pretty common in type 2 diabetes, which puts you at increased risk of atherosclerosis and can eventually lead to heart attacks and stroke.
A review of clinical trials of chromium supplementation in type 2 diabetics showed an average total cholesterol reduction of 6.7 mg/dl .
One clinical trial found that heart disease risk factors significantly improved from chromium supplementation in type 2 diabetic subjects lower triglyceride levels and a change in the LDL/ HDL ratio.
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Evaluating The Impact Of Chromium On Glycemic Control Despite Heterogeneity In Studies
Chromium supplements on the market today vary widely in dose and form . The manufacturers of 3 trademarked chromium-containing supplements have self-declared that their formulations are generally recognized as safe . The present analysis revealed so many other factors that varied between the studies that it was impossible to determine if the form or the dose of the supplement had clinically significant effects. For example, as shown in and further detailed in Supplementary Data in the Supporting Information online, those studies in which subjects were consuming a chromium supplement at > 500µg/d concurrent with hypoglycemic drugs numbered only 5 and reflected 3 different formulations of chromium: picolinate, chromium III, and a yeast preparation, thus making interpretation of any trends impossible.
The quality of some of the extant meta-analyses was also questionable. None of the 6 meta-analyses specifically stated whether they followed the PRISMA guidelines. Two authors used the Cochrane Collaboration review template,, and one meta-analysis was performed under contract with the Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research, with rigorous descriptions of each study. Both the meta-analysis by Balk et al. and the first meta-analysis published in 2002 were published before the PRISMA guidelines were released.
Chromium And Cinnamon Supplements For Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: How Strong Is The Evidence
Q: What types of chromium supplements are available?
A: Chromium is an essential trace element that is found in foods such as whole grain, broccoli, nuts, green beans, wine, and beer.1 Severe chromium deficiency is rare,1 but chromium has become a commonly sold supplement accounting for $85 million in sales in 2002.2 There are different forms available, including chromium chloride, chromium nicotinate, and chromium picolinate. Chromium picolinate is designed to be better absorbed than the others.1
Q: How does chromium affect patients with type 2 diabetes?
A: The relationship between chromium and diabetes was first noted in the 1950s when diabetes developed in chromium-deficient rats as a result of insulin resistance, which was reversed by chromium supplementation.1 It is proposed that chromium decreases insulin resistance, which is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes, but the exact mechanism remains unknown.
Q: Does chromium supplementation make a difference?
Q: What types of cinnamon supplements are available?
A: Cinnamon is produced by drying of the inner bark of Cinnamomum trees.4 Although there are many species of Cinnamomum, the most commonly used species in studies has been Cinnamomum cassia. Different preparations of cinnamon are available commercially, including water-soluble extract of cinnamon rather than the whole spice. It is not known whether these different preparations have different, if any, antidiabetic effects.
Q: Does cinnamon supplementation make a difference?
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Chromium Picolinate Side Effects
Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction:hives difficulty breathing swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Stop using chromium picolinate and call your doctor at once if you have:
thinking problems, trouble concentrating
problems with balance or coordination or
liver problems–nausea, upper stomach pain, itching, tired feeling, loss of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice .
Common side effects may include:
sleep problems or
mood changes, feeling irritable.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
Highly Individual Reaction Of Diabetic Animals Towards Crpic
Despite group-specific patterns, the subcellular imaging of comet assay indicated that each animal within a group responded individually to the same dosage of CrPic administered and treatment duration. Within diabetic groups, experimental animals demonstrated highly individual comet patterns with respect to single dosages and treatment algorithms. This observation is important in regard of highly individual response to the treatment algorithms applied. We conclude individual reaction of diabetic animals towards doses and duration of CrPic treatment. This observation can explain discrepancies in the literature concerning harmful effects of CrPic-therapy . Our interpretation is an individual reaction towards CrPic-treatments unpredictable for a patient-cohort as a whole.
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How To Take Chromium Picolinate
Use Chromium Picolinate exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. Do not use in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.
When considering the use of herbal supplements, seek the advice of your doctor. You may also consider consulting a practitioner who is trained in the use of herbal/health supplements.
If you choose to use chromium picolinate, use it as directed on the package or as directed by your doctor, pharmacist, or other healthcare provider. Do not use more of this product than is recommended on the label.
Check your blood sugar carefully if you are diabetic.
The recommended dietary allowance of chromium picolinate increases with age. Follow your healthcare provider’s instructions. You may also consult the National Academy of Sciences “Dietary Reference Intake” or the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s “Dietary Reference Intake” listings for more information.
Chromium picolinate may be only part of a treatment program that may also include diet, exercise, and weight control. Follow your diet, medication, and exercise routines very carefully.
Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat.
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.
Chromium Acts As An Antioxidant
There are increased levels of oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes. Oxidative stress is where dangerous free radicals travel through the bloodstream threatening to attack healthy cells and triggering inflammatory reactions.
Chromium supplementation has been shown to reduce oxidative stress in diabetic patients. This likely occurs due to chromiums potent antioxidant activities. Basically, chromium binds to these unstable free radicals preventing them from doing damage to your bodys cells.
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Chromium Picolinate Dosage For Diabetes Blood Sugar Support
Diabetes can be a hard thing to deal with. There particularly can be lots of struggles when a person is newly detected, however the primary one is being in rejection about it. Some people may get great blood sugar control with diet plan and fitness just, however then just having glucose examined when at the physicians see. Another struggle might be the lack of interest, products or care to check that glucose at least once a day.
For lots of people with diabetes, food is the biggest struggle. The countless us who have ever attempted a diet know how difficult it is to alter how we eat. Sadly, diabetes is filled with food misconceptions, so most need assist knowing whats real and whats not. Your time and money will be well invested if you decide to get some education from a signed up dietitian or a qualified diabetes teacher.
No matter how you or a loved one is battling with diabetes, theres always hope in those struggles going away or improving. Were here to help do simply that! Initially, lets dive a little much deeper into the depths of this disease and get a food understanding of what everything implies.
A Critical Review Of Chromium Picolinate And Biotin
US Pharm. 2006 31:1-4.
Improved Glucose Metabolism and HDL Cholesterol Levels: JCR:LA-cp rats, a genetically obese, insulin-resistant animal model, were given CrPic and biotin combined or separately. This animal model exhibits many cardiovascular risk factors seen in obese humans. All nutrients, except for the lowest CrPic dose, significantly raised HDL cholesterol levels. The highest doses of CrPic/biotin worked synergistically to increase HDL-C and improved glucose metabolism beyond that of either nutrient alone .10 Researchers hypothesized that the combination might benefit people who are insulin resistant and at risk for cardiovascular disease .Importantly, some combinations of CrPic and biotin were more effective than others and were defined in these preclinical studies prior tohuman clinical trials.10
1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Data & Trends: Prevalence of Diabetes. Available at: www.cdc.gov/diabetes/statistics/prev/national/figpersons.htm. Accessed October 2, 2006.
2. Cefalu WT, Hu FB. Role of chromium in human health and in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004 27:2741-2751.
3. Anderson RA. Chromium in the prevention and control of diabetes. Diabetes Metab. 2000 26:22-27.
4. Davies S, McLaren Howard J, et al. Age-related decreases in chromium levels in 51,665 hair, sweat, and serum samples from 40,872 patients: implications for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 1997 46:469-473.
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