What Are Treatments For Type 2 Diabetes
Unless its absolutely necessary, insulin should not be used to treat type 2 diabetes. Dr. Bergquist explains, Injecting insulin improves blood sugar but worsens underlying insulin resistance. Insulin is a fat-storage hormone. Higher insulin leads to more fat storage in organs where its toxic, making them more insulin resistant.
Insulin should only be used when the pancreas fails and the B cells cannot be regenerated, says Dr. Apovian. When type 2 diabetes is caught early enough, you can reverse it with lifestyle, medication, and bariatric surgery. In certain cases, when a person is severely overweight, bariatric surgery is a successful treatment for type 2 diabetes, because it effectively decreases a persons body weight set point and can reverse hormonal imbalances that underlie obesity and fuel type 2 diabetes.
Additionally, new type 2 diabetes medications have been approved by the FDA, including a class of drugs known as glucagon-like-peptides , which aid the pancreas in producing more insulin by decreasing glucose production in the liver. Researchers are also working to understand the role that inflammation and hormonal imbalances have in the development of T2D.
Type 2 Diabetes Treatments
Articles On Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes
Your doctor will help you figure out if you need to take medicine, which kind is right for you, and how often you should take it.
Over your lifetime, you’ll probably handle your disease in different ways. Sometimes medications stop working, and you’ll have to switch. You’ll need to adjust to changes in your body as you age. And researchers are looking for new diabetes medicines and ways to treat it.
Type 2 Diabetes Treatments and Medications
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Medications are often the first kind of medicine people with type 2 diabetes try when diet and exercise alone aren’t enough to keep their blood sugar in a healthy range. There are many of them, and they work in different ways.
Injectable drugs slow how quickly food leaves your stomach and make you feel full. And they tell your liver to back off making glucose around mealtimes.
- GLP-1 receptor agonists help your pancreas make insulin. Some of them you take every day, while others last a week.
- Pramlintide acts like a hormone, amylin, that your pancreas sends out with insulin. You only take it if you’re also using insulin.
You can take insulin in one of several ways:
Type 2 Diabetes Management
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Youâll need to make lifestyle changes to help you successfully manage type 2 diabetes.
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Type 2 Diabetes Risk Factors
Certain things make it more likely that youâll get type 2 diabetes. The more of these that apply to you, the higher your chances of getting it are. Some things are related to who you are:
- Age. 45 or older
- Family. A parent, sister, or brother with diabetes
- Ethnicity. African American, Alaska Native, Native American, Asian American, Hispanic or Latino, or Pacific Islander American
Risk factors related to your health and medical history include:
- Sleeping too little or too much
Are Some People More Likely To Develop Type 2 Diabetes Than Others
A person who has a highly inflammatory diet and carries excess adiposity around their central organs is more likely to get type 2 diabetes, says Dr. Christofides. Excess weight and obesity are risk factors for type 2 diabetes, but how your body stores and manages weight can also be an early indicator of risk.
Research has shown that people who carry too much fat around their middle are more prone to health risks such as type 2 diabetes. Certain communities also show a greater propensity for developing type 2 diabetes, including people who are Black, Latinx, Asian, and Indigenous.
Factors that can put you at an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes include:
- Genetic predisposition
- Family history of diabetes and cardiovascular disease
- High blood pressure
- A diet high in processed foods and added sugars
- History of heart disease or stroke
- Elevated triglyceride levels in your blood
- Higher waist to hip ratio
- Systemic inflammation
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Using Insulin Alone In Type 2 Diabetes
Despite the fact that the efficacy of treatment with insulin alone in type 2 diabetes, in terms of glycemic control improvement and also protection of the -cell function, has been supported by many studies, this therapeutic approach is widely underused.
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey showed a decline between the years 19881994 and 19992000 in the percentage of type 2 diabetic patients using treatment with insulin alone, which was accompanied by a concomitant increase of combination therapy . Contrasting to common guidelines that call for ever tighter glycemic control, the comparison of the two periods demonstrated that a lower proportion of subjects achieved the desirable glycemic targets in the years 19992000, suggesting inappropriate treatment.
Furthermore, the introduction of rapid-acting analogs has also been associated with better control of postprandial excursions in type 2 diabetic patients .
Different authors highlighted the important role of postprandial hyperglycemia on the development of macrovascular complications . Ceriello showed that postload hyperglycemia determines overproduction of superoxide in the mitochondria and that this is the initial step in the activation of all the other pathways involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes complications.
Mateo et al. demonstrated that the daily number of pills is the major predictor of nonadherence to one or more drugs in multifactorial treatment in type 2 diabetic patients.
Type 2 Diabetes Do You Have It
Many people have type 2 diabetes without realising. This is because symptoms do not necessarily make you feel unwell.
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes include:
- Peeing more than usual, particularly at night
- Feeling thirsty all the time
- Feeling very tired
- Losing weight without trying to
- Itching around your penis or vagina, or repeatedly getting thrush
- Cuts or wounds taking longer to heal
- Blurred vision.
See a GP if you have any of the symptoms of type 2 diabetes youre worried you may have a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes, advises the NHS.
Youll need a blood test, which you may have to go to your local health centre for if it cannot be done at your GP surgery, explains the health body.
The earlier diabetes is diagnosed and treatment started, the better.
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What Is The Best Treatment Option For Diabetes
Diabetes is a chronic condition that causes high blood sugar and adversely affects a patients quality of life. Specialists at CHW Cares, includingMihail Medvedovsky MD, recommend that the best way to manage diabetes is to maintain a healthy weight. Some lifestyle changes to make include:
What Are Key Differences Between Type 1 Diabetes And Type 2 Diabetes
When comparing type 1 vs type 2 diabetes, there are a few major differences:
- Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. You cant reverse type 1 diabetes, you can only manage it. Type 2 diabetes can be reversed with effective intervention and lifestyle changes.
- In type 1 diabetes, your pancreas is unable to produce insulin, whereas in type 2 diabetes, your insulin production is limited, and the response of your body to that insulin is decreased.
- A person with type 1 diabetes could die without their insulin medication. A person with type 2 diabetes should avoid treatment with insulin, unless their pancreas is completely failing.
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Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes
In type 2 diabetes, your body isnt able to effectively use insulin to bring glucose into your cells. This causes your body to rely on alternative energy sources in your tissues, muscles, and organs. This is a chain reaction that can cause a variety of symptoms.
Type 2 diabetes can develop slowly. The symptoms may be mild and easy to dismiss at first. The early symptoms may include:
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What Problems Can Happen With Type 2 Diabetes
Sometimes, kids and teens with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, or obesity might develop thick, dark, velvet-like skin around the neck, armpits, groin, between fingers and toes, or on elbows and knees a cosmetic skin condition called acanthosis nigricans. This skin darkening can lighten over time with improvement in insulin resistance.
Polycystic ovary syndrome in girls is also often associated with insulin resistance. This hormone problem can make the ovaries become enlarged and develop cysts . Girls with PCOS might have irregular periods, might stop having periods, and may have excess facial and body hair growth. It also can cause fertility problems.
People with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes are also more likely to develop hypertension or abnormal levels of blood fats . When these problems cluster together, it’s called metabolic syndrome. People with metabolic syndrome are at risk for heart disease, stroke, and other health problems.
Diabetes also can cause heart disease and stroke, as well as other long-term complications, including eye problems, kidney disease, nerve damage, and gum disease. While these problems don’t usually show up in kids or teens who’ve had type 2 diabetes for only a few years, they can affect them in adulthood, particularly if their diabetes isn’t well controlled.
What Are The Signs & Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes
The symptoms of type 2 diabetes aren’t always obvious and they can take a long time to develop. Sometimes, there are no symptoms. It’s important to remember that not everyone with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes develops these warning signs, and not everyone who has these symptoms necessarily has type 2 diabetes.
But kids or teens who develop type 2 diabetes may:
- Need to pee a lot. The kidneys respond to high levels of glucose in the blood by flushing out the extra glucose in urine . Kids with high blood sugar levels need to pee more often and make more pee.
- Drink a lot of liquids. Because they’re peeing so often and losing so much fluid, they can become very thirsty and drink a lot in an attempt to keep the levels of body water normal.
- Feel tired often. This is because the body can’t use glucose for energy properly.
Can Type 2 Diabetes Be Prevented
You can take steps to help prevent or delay type 2 diabetes by losing weight if you are overweight, eating fewer calories, and being more physically active. If you have a condition which raises your risk for type 2 diabetes, managing that condition may lower your risk of getting type 2 diabetes.
NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Assessing Efficacy And Safety
Upon initiating weight-loss medication, assess efficacy and safety at least monthly for the first 3 months and at least quarterly thereafter. Modeling from published clinical trials consistently shows that early responders have improved long-term outcomes . Unless clinical circumstances or other considerations suggest otherwise, those who achieve sufficient early weight loss upon starting a chronic weight-loss medication should continue the medication. When early use appears ineffective , it is unlikely that continued use will improve weight outcomes as such, it should be recommended to discontinue the medication and consider other treatment options.
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Treatment For Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes can be managed, and in some cases, reversed. Most treatment plans will include checking your blood glucose levels, and your doctor will tell you how often you should do it. The goal is to stay within a specific range.
Additional lifestyle changes your doctor will most likely advise to help treat your type 2 diabetes include:
- eating foods rich in fiber and healthy carbohydrates eating fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can help keep your blood glucose levels steady
- eating at regular intervals
- learning to listen to your body and learn to stop eating when youre full
- manage your weight and keep your heart healthy, which typically means keeping refined carbohydrates, sweets, and animal fats to a minimum
- get about half an hour of physical activity daily to help keep your heart healthy exercise can help to control blood glucose, too.
Your doctor will explain how to recognize the early symptoms of blood sugar thats too high or too low and what to do in each situation.
Additionally, working with a dietician can help you learn which foods can help you manage your blood sugar and which ones might cause it to become unbalanced.
Not everyone with type 2 diabetes needs to use insulin. If you do, its because your pancreas isnt making enough insulin on its own, and its crucial that you take insulin as directed. There are other prescription medications that may help as well.
Why Building A Diabetes Care Team Is Critical For Effective Treatment
Your first resource for managing your type 2 diabetes should be your primary care provider. Dungan notes that most patients with type 2 diabetes can rely on their primary care provider alone for treatment. But its important for people with type 2 diabetes to also stay up-to-date on diet and treatment recommendations by coordinating with a certified diabetes care and education specialist , a dietitian, a nurse, or a pharmacist, Dungan says. That education should occur at the time of diagnosis and periodically over time, such as after the start of insulin therapy, Dungan explains.
As for other healthcare professionals, Dungan notes that many diabetes clinics have dietitians, pharmacists, social workers, and mental health specialists on staff, all of whom can contribute to your diabetes management program.
Each patients needs will differ slightly, Dungan says. For instance, if you cant control your blood sugar with standard treatments or if you have frequent or severe hypoglycemia, you should consider seeing an endocrinologist, she says. If you develop complications, like heart disease, kidney disease, or foot ulcers, you may need to see specialists who can help with those conditions.
Each year, everyone with diabetes should see an eye care professional who has experience treating patients with diabetes, Dungan says.
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What Are The Different Types Of Medicines Used To Treat Type 2 Diabetes And How Do They Work
There are several types of diabetes pills used for patients with type 2 diabetes. These pills work in different ways to lower high blood sugar levels. If one pill does not lower your blood sugar to the normal range, then your doctor may prescribe two or three pills for you to take together.
Unfortunately, diabetes pills do not work for everyone and some patients will eventually need to take insulin shots. Some of the brand names of diabetes medicines include Micronase, Glucotrol, Prandin, Glucophage, Avandia, Actos, Acarbose and Miglitol. Talk to your doctor about the different types of medicines and which ones are right for you.
Management Of Coronary Heart Disease
There is contradictory epidemiologic evidence as to whether diabetes is in fact a CHD risk equivalent. For the present, however, that is the position adopted by most groups, such as the National Cholesterol Education Program and the ADA.
Although the risk for CHD is 2-4 times greater in patients with diabetes than it is in individuals without diabetes, control of conventional risk factors is probably more important in event reduction than is glycemic control. Control of hypertension, aspirin therapy, and lowering of LDL cholesterol levels are vitally important in reducing CHD risk.
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What Is The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes
In type 1 diabetes, people produce little or no insulin, as the insulin-producing cells have been destroyed by the bodys immune system. Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune disease.
In type 2 diabetes, the body may make enough insulin early in the disease, but doesnt respond to it effectively. As type 2 diabetes progresses, the pancreas gradually loses the ability to produce enough insulin. Type 2 diabetes is associated with inherited factors and lifestyle risk factors such as being overweight or obese, poor diet, and insufficient physical activity.