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What Is The Most Common Form Of Diabetes

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Are The Same Tests Used To Diagnose Both Types

Are you at high risk for Type 2 diabetes?

A fasting blood sugar measurement can be used to diagnose any type of diabetes. This test measures the level of sugar in the bloodstream in the morning before eating breakfast. Normal fasting plasma glucose levels are less than 100 milligrams per deciliter . Fasting plasma glucose levels of more than 126 mg/dl on two or more tests on different days indicate diabetes. A random blood glucose test can also be used to diagnose diabetes. A blood glucose level of 200 mg/dl or higher indicates diabetes.

Another test that is often used is a blood test to measure levels of glycated hemoglobin . This test provides a measure of the average levels of blood glucose over the past 3 months. Other names for the A1C test are HbA1C and glycosylated hemoglobin test.

Tests to identify the abnormal antibodies produced by the immune system are used to diagnose type 1 diabetes. Some of the antibodies seen in type 1 diabetes include anti-islet cell antibodies, anti-insulin antibodies and anti-glutamic decarboxylase antibodies.

Type 1 treatment: Insulin is the treatment of choice for type 1 diabetes, because the body responds appropriately to insulin and the problem is a lack of insulin production by the pancreas.

What Are The Complications Of Diabetes

If your blood glucose level remains high over a long period of time, your bodys tissues and organs can be seriously damaged. Some complications can be life-threatening over time.

Complications include:

  • Dental problems.

Complications of gestational diabetes:

In the mother:Preeclampsia , risk of gestational diabetes during future pregnancies and risk of diabetes later in life.

In the newborn: Higher-than-normal birth weight, low blood sugar , higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes over time and death shortly after birth.

How Does Diabetes Affect Your Heart Eyes Feet Nerves And Kidneys

Blood vessels are located throughout our bodys tissues and organs. They surround our bodys cells, providing a transfer of oxygen, nutrients and other substances, using blood as the exchange vehicle. In simple terms, diabetes doesnt allow glucose to get into cells and it damages blood vessels in/near these organs and those that nourish nerves. If organs, nerves and tissues cant get the essentials they need to properly function, they can begin to fail.Proper function means that your hearts blood vessels, including arteries, are not damaged . In your kidneys, this means that waste products can be filtered out of your blood. In your eyes, this means that the blood vessels in your retina remain intact. In your feet and nerves, this means that nerves are nourished and that theres blood flow to your feet. Diabetes causes damage that prevents proper function.

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The Insulin Resistance Syndrome

Individuals with type 2 diabetes are more likely to be diagnosed with other medical problems such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia. Insulin resistance is thought to worsen and possibly directly cause these problems. The optimal medical care of type 2 diabetes includes not only controlling the blood glucose but also treating high blood pressure, high cholesterol or triglycerides, reducing excess weight and staying physically fit.

When To Contact A Medical Professional

The 8 Most Common Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms
  • Chest pain or pressure
  • Shortness of breath
  • Red, painful skin that is spreading quickly

These symptoms can quickly get worse and become emergency conditions .

Also call your provider if you have:

  • Numbness, tingling, or pain in your feet or legs
  • Problems with your eyesight
  • Sores or infections on your feet
  • Symptoms of high blood sugar
  • Symptoms of low blood sugar
  • Frequent feelings of depression or anxiety

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How Is Type 1 Diabetes In Children Managed

Type 1 diabetes is managed by monitoring glucose levels. In addition, the child will need to:

  • Check blood sugar levels a few times a day
  • Give themselves insulin injections or use an insulin pump
  • Eat a balanced, healthy diet
  • Get regular exercise
  • Work closely with healthcare providers and family to control diabetes
  • Follow treatment plan created by healthcare provider
  • Take the A1C blood test to check how well diabetes is being managed

Diabetes The Preventable Epidemic

Eat well and exercise. That is the simple message that could help reverse the spread of one of Europes most troubling epidemics Type 2 diabetes.

As a scientist, I want to understand what causes Type-2 diabetes, but sometimes I think my time would be better spent persuading people to eat less and exercise more, said Professor Frances Ashcroft, a British physiologist based at the University of Oxford, UK.

Diabetes occurs in some for no apparent reason, but the most common form, Type-2 diabetes, could often have been prevented. In 90 % of cases, it is linked to eating too much fat, sugar, and salt, and not exercising enough.

The disease now affects about one in 20 Europeans, and this number is said to increase if people keep on eating an unbalanced diet too rich in sugar in particular, and as obesity rates soar.

In fact, the number of European sufferers will increase by over a fifth in the next 20 years, according to the International Diabetes Federation, an umbrella organisation of national diabetes associations in over 160 countries.

The European Union has spent close to EUR 420 million on research to tackle diabetes and related health problems under its 2007 to 2013 funding programme, known as FP7. About EUR 135 million of that is devoted specifically to projects that tackle diabetes and obesity together, a field known as diabesity.

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What Is Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes insipidus is a rare condition in which there is a problem with the secretion of antidiuretic hormone . ADH, also called vasopressin, controls the amount of water the kidneys release in the urine. ADH is stored in the pituitary gland, which is located behind the bridge of the nose.

Patients with diabetes insipidus have high amounts of urine that is diluted because of this inability to control the amount of water in the urine. Most cases of diabetes insipidus occur because there isnt enough ADH, or because the kidneys are not responding properly to ADH.

The body produces more ADH when it is dehydrated or losing blood pressure. The increase in ADH tells the kidneys to hold onto more water instead of releasing it in urine.

For example, if a person without diabetes insipidus were in the desert with no access to water, he or she would produce more ADH hormone and hold water from the urine a person with diabetes insipidus would continue to urinate the water and would become dehydrated.

It is important to note the difference between diabetes insipidus and other conditions that are associated with an increase in urination, such as diabetes mellitus and urinary tract infections.

How Is Type 1 Diabetes In Children Diagnosed

What is Type 2 Diabetes? – Diabetes Management | Cano Health

Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed by testing blood samples for glucose levels and autoantibodies, which can show if the body is attacking itself. A urine test may be done to check for ketones, which are a result of the body breaking down fat. This happens when the body does not have the insulin to properly use energy the body gets from the food you eat.

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How Are Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosed

The primary test used to diagnose both type 1 and type 2 diabetes is known as the A1C, or glycated hemoglobin, test.

This blood test determines your average blood sugar level for the past 2 to 3 months. Your doctor may draw your blood or give you a small finger prick.

The higher your blood sugar levels have been over the past few months, the higher your A1C level will be. Test results are expressed as a percentage. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher indicates diabetes.

The A1C test isnt accurate for people with sickle cell anemia or the sickle cell trait. If you have this condition or trait, then your doctor will have to use a different test.

Heres How You Can Get Started:

  • Work with your doctor to determine what level of physical activity you should engage in
  • Figure out how much time per day you can devote to exercise
  • Set fitness goalshaving clear goals can help you stay motivated
  • Consider where youll start working outthe gym, in your neighborhood, in a park?
  • Build different activities into your daily routine
  • Start slowly and allow for recovery time
  • Keep track of what you do and stay focused on your goals
  • Listen to your body

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Here Are A Few Other Facts About Type 2 Diabetes

  • Diabetes is one of the top 10 leading causes of death in the United States.
  • Living with diabetes puts a person at a higher risk for heart disease, stroke, kidney failure and blindness.
  • About 10 percent of Americans live with type 2 diabetes.
  • Type 2 diabetes is caused by overweight and obesity about 90 percent of the time.
  • One out of every ten dollars spent on health care is spent on diabetes care.
  • Diabetes surgery is the most effective treatment for type 2 diabetes and may result in remission or improvement in nearly all cases.
  • For patients with type 2 diabetes and even milder degrees of obesity, bariatric surgery should be recommended. It is the single most effective way to resolve the condition and stop the need for medication.
  • Diabetes surgery is very safe with complication rates as low as common procedures such as knee replacement and gallbladder surgery

How Is Diabetes Treated

Demystifying Diabetes â Comparing Type 1 and Type 2 ...

Treatments for diabetes depend on your type of diabetes, how well controlled your blood glucose level is and your other existing health conditions.

  • Type 1 diabetes: If you have this type, you must take insulin every day. Your pancreas no longer makes insulin.
  • Type 2 diabetes: If you have this type, your treatments can include medications , insulin and lifestyle changes such as losing weight, making healthy food choices and being more physically active.
  • Prediabetes: If you have prediabetes, the goal is to keep you from progressing to diabetes. Treatments are focused on treatable risk factors, such as losing weight by eating a healthy diet and exercising . Many of the strategies used to prevent diabetes are the same as those recommended to treat diabetes .
  • Gestational diabetes: If you have this type and your glucose level is not too high, your initial treatment might be modifying your diet and getting regular exercise. If the target goal is still not met or your glucose level is very high, your healthcare team may start medication or insulin.

Oral medications and insulin work in one of these ways to treat your diabetes:

  • Stimulates your pancreas to make and release more insulin.
  • Slows down the release of glucose from your liver .
  • Blocks the breakdown of carbohydrates in your stomach or intestines so that your tissues are more sensitive to insulin.
  • Helps rid your body of glucose through increased urination.

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What Health Problems Are Associated With Diabetes Insipidus

Most people urinate one to two liters of urine a day, but a person with diabetes insipidus might urinate three liters or more. Patients often wake up in the middle of the night to urinate. Because they are losing a lot of water in the urine, these patients are at risk for dehydration.

Patients who have diabetes insipidus have increased thirst and tend to drink a great deal of water. If the patient has no access to drinking water, he or she cannot make up for the loss of water, and the chemicals in the body get concentrated. The person may have increased levels of sodium in the blood , which cause confusion and other changes in mental status.

How Often Do I Need To See My Primary Diabetes Healthcare Professional

In general, if you are being treated with insulin shots, you should see your doctor at least every three to four months. If you are treated with pills or are managing diabetes through diet, you should be seen at least every four to six months. More frequent visits may be needed if your blood sugar is not controlled or if complications of diabetes are worsening.

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The Different Types Of Diabetes

As the years progress, doctors are reimagining the diabetic world. Research is ongoing to try and find a cure, or at least a less intrusive treatment option. With that research there have been a number of accounts of rare forms of diabetes that often result from a specific condition1. Since these types of diabetes only account for a very small amount of cases 1, weve omitted them in this article.

If youre interested in learning more about the rare forms of diabetes, check out this article. For now, well focus on the two most common types of diabetes along with two types of diabetes that should be tested for.

How Is Gestational Diabetes Managed

What is the dfference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes?

If youre diagnosed with gestational diabetes, you may need more frequent checkups during your pregnancy. Your healthcare provider will check your blood sugar levels regularly. You may need to monitor your blood sugar at home with a tool called a glucose meter.

Some women need medication to manage gestational diabetes. But most women can keep their blood sugar levels under control with diet and exercise.

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How Do I Check My Blood Glucose Level Why Is This Important

Checking your blood glucose level is important because the results help guide decisions about what to eat, your physical activity and any needed medication and insulin adjustments or additions.

The most common way to check your blood glucose level is with a blood glucose meter. With this test, you prick the side of your finger, apply the drop of blood to a test strip, insert the strip into the meter and the meter will show your glucose level at that moment in time. Your healthcare provider will tell you how often youll need to check your glucose level.

Causes Of Type 2 Diabetes

People with type 2 diabetes have insulin resistance. The body still produces insulin, but its unable to use it effectively.

Researchers arent sure why some people become insulin resistant and others dont, but several lifestyle factors may contribute, including being inactive and carrying excess weight.

Other genetic and environmental factors may also play a role. When you develop type 2 diabetes, your pancreas will try to compensate by producing more insulin. Because your body is unable to effectively use insulin, glucose will accumulate in your bloodstream.

Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions , 34.2 million people in the United States were living with diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes in 2018. Thats a little over 1 in 10 people. Ninety to 95 percent of people with diabetes have type 2.

The percentage of people with diabetes increases with age.

About 10.5 percent of the general population has diabetes. Among those 65 years old and older, the rate reaches 26.8 percent. Only 25 out of every 10,000 Americans under 20 years old had been diagnosed with diabetes in 2018.

Men and women get diabetes at roughly the same rate. However, prevalence rates are higher among certain races and ethnicities.

Prevalence rates are higher for Hispanic Americans of Mexican or Puerto Rican descent than they are for those of Central and South American or Cuban descent.

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Iaccelerated Atherothrombosis: Epidemiological And Clinical Findings

Accelerated atherosclerosis is the main underlying factor contributing to the high risk of atherothrombotic events in DM patients. CAD, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, and increased intima-media thickness are the main macrovascular complications. Diabetics are 24 times more likely to develop stroke than people without DM.2 CVD, particularly CAD, is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with DM.4 Patients with T2DM have a 2- to 4-fold increase in the risk of CAD, and patients with DM but without previous myocardial infarction carry the same level of risk for subsequent acute coronary events as nondiabetic patients with previous MI.5 Furthermore, people with diabetes have a poorer long-term prognosis after MI, including an increased risk for congestive heart failure and death.

DM is a strong independent predictor of short- and long-term recurrent ischemic events, including mortality, in acute coronary syndrome ,6,7 including unstable angina and non-ST-elevation MI ,8 ST-elevation MI treated medically,9 and ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention .10,11 Furthermore, the concomitant presence of cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities that negatively affect the outcomes of ACS is higher in DM patients.12

Surgery To Treat Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 is the most common form of diabetes ...

Nearly all individuals who have surgery to treat diabetes show improvement in their diabetes, sometimes as quickly as a few days after surgery. They experience lower blood sugar levels, need less diabetes medications, and see an improvement in diabetes-related health problems. Overall, 78 percent of patients experience remission thus eliminating the need for diabetes medications.

Diabetes surgery performed today has been highly refined over the course of the past 70 years and is among the best studied therapies in modern medicine. These operations result in less food intake and decreased calories absorbed. Most importantly, however, these operations result in changes to the metabolism that affect intestinal hormones that regulate blood sugar control, often before the patient loses any weight. In addition, these procedures reduce hunger, increase the sense of fullness after meals, and assist the bodys ability to achieve a healthy weight. Diabetes surgery has been proven to be the most effective therapy for diabetes but also greatly improves obesity and other associated conditions.

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