Managing Type 2 Diabetes
Managing type 2 diabetes requires teamwork. Youll need to work closely with your doctor, but a lot of the results depend on your choices.
Your doctor may want to perform periodic blood tests to determine your blood glucose levels. This will help determine how well youre managing the condition. If you take medication, these tests will help gauge how well its working.
Your doctor may also recommend a home monitoring system to test your own blood glucose levels between visits. Theyll explain to you how often you should use it and what your target range should be.
Because diabetes can increase your risk of cardiovascular disease, your doctor may want to monitor your blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels. If you have symptoms of heart disease, you may need additional tests. These tests may include an electrocardiogram or a cardiac stress test.
It may also be helpful to bring your family into the loop. Educating them about the warning signs of blood glucose levels that are too high or too low will allow them to help in an emergency.
Type 2 Diabetes In Children And Teens
Childhood obesity rates are rising, and so are the rates of type 2 diabetes in youth. More than 75% of children with type 2 diabetes have a close relative who has it, too. But its not always because family members are related it can also be because they share certain habits that can increase their risk. Parents can help prevent or delay type 2 diabetes by developing a plan for the whole family:
- Drinking more water and fewer sugary drinks
- Eating more fruits and vegetables
- Making favorite foods healthier
- Making physical activity more fun
Healthy changes become habits more easily when everyone makes them together. Find out how to take charge family style with these healthy tips.
Things You Should Know About Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes is one of the most common health conditions around the world and in the United States. About 8.5 percent of adults worldwide and 9.3 percent of all AmericansTrusted Source live with the condition. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form you may have heard of, but you might be surprised by what you still dont know. Ongoing research in recent years has improved diagnosis, treatment, and knowledge about type 2 diabetes, allowing for better prevention and management. Here are six things everyone should know about type 2 diabetes.
Type 2 Diabetes And Life Expectancy
Diabetes can have serious health implications that affect life expectancy. The impact depends on various factors, such as how soon a person receives a diagnosis and treatment, and how well they and their healthcare team manage the condition.
Other influential factors include the severity and progression of symptoms, any complications, and how the body responds to treatment.
When they get a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, many people ask how it will affect the length of their life. Diabetes is complex, with many variables and possible complications, and each person is different. It is hard to know how the condition will affect an individuals life expectancy.
However, it appears likely that, with an early diagnosis and effective management, many people can expect to live as long as those without diabetes and to have a good quality of life.
This article will look at the factors that influence a person with type 2 diabetes life expectancy and how to maximize it.
Type 2 diabetes is a complex condition with many variables. At the time of diagnosis, the doctor will not be able to tell how the condition will affect a persons life expectancy.
In 2015, a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine concluded that the following could reduce the risk of death linked to type 2 diabetes:
Complications Of Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes can cause serious long-term health problems. It’s the most common cause of vision loss and blindness in people of working age.
Everyone with diabetes aged 12 or over should be invited to have their eyes screened once a year for diabetic retinopathy.
Diabetes is also responsible for most cases of kidney failure and lower limb amputation, other than accidents.
Read more about the complications of type 2 diabetes
When Should I See My Doctor
If you have any of the symptoms above, you should make an appointment with your doctor to discuss them since they might indicate undiagnosed type 2 diabetes.
Your doctor will look at your symptoms, review any risk factors you have for type 2 diabetes and they will recommend you be tested if needed.
Even if you dont have symptoms, all Australians should be screened for type 2 diabetes, every 3 years, starting at 40 years of age. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples should start screening at age 18. Your GP should carry out this screening. It may involve reviewing your risk factors only, or you may need a blood test.
Video provided by Diabetes Victoria.
Type 2 diabetes can also affect your mental health and can make you more vulnerable to anxiety or depression. SANE Australia and Diabetes Australia have produced a guide to good mental health for people affected by diabetes.
Its A Chronic Condition And Currently Has No Cure
Simply put, diabetes is a condition that occurs when your body has a problem managing its blood sugar levels. It is due to the bodys inability to either make or use insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar. Either your body doesnt produce enough or any insulin, or the cells of the body are resistant and unable to use the insulin it creates effectively. If your body cant use insulin to metabolize glucose, a simple sugar, it will build up in your blood, leading to high blood sugar levels. As a result of cellular resistance, the various cells in your body wont get the energy they need to function properly, causing further problems. Diabetes is a chronic condition, which means it lasts a long time. Currently, there is no cure, so it takes careful management and sometimes medication to keep blood sugar levels within their target range.
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What Are The Differences Between The Causes Of Type 1 And Type 2
Type 1 diabetes causes
Type 1 diabetes is believed to be due to an autoimmune process, in which the body’s immune system mistakenly targets its own tissues . In people with type 1 diabetes, the beta cells of the pancreas that are responsible for insulin production are attacked by the misdirected immune system. This tendency for the immune system to destroy the beta cells of the pancreas is likely to be, at least in part, genetically inherited, although the exact reasons that this process happens are not fully understood.
Exposure to certain viral infections or other environmental toxins have been suggested as possible reasons why the abnormal antibody responses develop that cause damage to the pancreas cells.
Type 2 diabetes causes
Both diabetes type 1 and diabetes type 2, require good control over their diet by eating foods that help regulate blood sugar, exercise, and in most patients, medical treatments to allow the patient to remain in good health.
Can Type 2 Diabetes Be Cured
Type 2 diabetes cannot be cured, but people with the condition may be able to manage their type 2 diabetes through lifestyle changes and, if needed, diabetes medications to control blood sugar levels.
Its also emerging that some people who are overweight or obese can put their type 2 diabetes into remission by losing a substantial amount of weight, especially early in their diagnosis. Their blood sugar measurements return to healthy levels below the diabetes range. Its not a permanent solution, and diabetes could come back, so it needs to be maintained. However, many people were still in remission 2 years later. This should only be tried under the supervision of your doctor.
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The Serious Warning Sign Of Type 2 Diabetes Hidden On Your Toenail
- 4:43 ET, Nov 23 2021
IF you’re diabetic, you’ll know that it’s important to look after your feet.
While there are four common signs of diabetes, there are also symptoms you can spot on your toenails.
The four most common symptoms of type 2 diabetes are easy to remember, as they are ‘4 Ts’.
If you’re going to the toilet a lot, are really thirsty and unable to quench your thirst, you’re feeling more tired than usual or if you look thinner than usual and have lost weight without any explanation then you might want to visit your GP.
The NHS says that if you’re diabetic, you are more susceptible to infection and because of this, cuts and wounds take longer to heal.
The feet are a well known site of complications with diabetes and signs on the toenails could mean you need to see your GP.
Symptoms in the feet would likely sit along other symptoms of diabetes.
Any change in bacteria for a diabetic is more serious than for someone who does not have the condition.
Lowering Your Type 1 Diabetes Risk
A persons risk for developing Type 1 diabetes often cannot be lowered or prevented since the disease is the result of an immune response. Several risk factors associated with the disease are also unable to be changed, such as ones family history, genetic makeup, race or ethnicity, or other autoimmune conditions.
It may be possible, however, to prevent injury or damage to the pancreas that can sometimes result in the development of Type 1 diabetes. The pancreas can be easily injured due to its lack of protection from the ribcage. Pancreatic trauma, the term for injury to the pancreas, is most often caused by a car accident or a direct blow to the abdomen. The trauma that occurs can be the result of blunt force or penetration.
If a pancreatic injury is suspected, it is important to seek immediate medical attention, especially where there is blood loss, persistent abdominal pain or other symptoms. Those conditions might include inflammation, bruising, dizziness, nausea and vomiting.
Signs and symptoms of a pancreatic trauma can surface hours or even days after the injury occurs. Surgery is often necessary to treat an injury to the pancreas that results in symptoms. Pancreatic injuries can sometimes become life-threatening.
Preventing Acute Pancreatitis
Other factors linked to the development of acute pancreatitis include:
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What Is Diabetes And How Serious Is It
Knowledge of the disease helps transition into daily treatment
Learning to control diabetes starts with finding out as much as possible about the disease and how serious it is. That will help reduce stress when making lifestyle changes necessary to stay in good health.Step 1: Learn About DiabetesDiabetes means that your blood glucose is too high.
There are two main types of diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes the body does not make insulin. Insulin helps the body use glucose from food for energy. People with type 1 need to take insulin every day.Type 2 diabetes the body does not make or use insulin well. People with type 2 often need to take pills or insulin. Type 2 is the most common form of diabetes.
Gestational diabetes occurs in some women when they become pregnant. It raises her future risk of developing diabetes, mostly type 2. It may raise her child’s risk of being overweight and developing type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes is serious.
You may have heard people say they have a touch of diabetes or that their sugar is a little high. These words suggest that diabetes is not a serious disease. That is not correct. Diabetes is serious, but you can learn to manage it!
Its not easy, but its worth it!
All people with diabetes need to make healthy food choices, stay at a healthy weight and move more every day.
Taking good care of yourself and your diabetes can help you feel better. It may help you avoid health problems caused by diabetes, like:
Step 2: Know Your Diabetes ABCs
It Can Go Unnoticed For Years
Many cases of type 2 diabetes are undiagnosed because of a lack of symptoms or because people dont recognize them as due to diabetes. Causes of symptoms such as fatigue, increased hunger, and increased thirst are sometimes hard to pin down, and often develop over a long period of time, if at all. For this reason, its especially important to get tested. Anyone 45 or older should get testedTrusted Source for diabetes, especially if youre overweight. If youre overweight and under 45, you may still want to consider being tested, since being overweight is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases even has a free diabetes risk testTrusted Source that will help you see if youre at risk for type 2 diabetes.
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It Poses A Higher Risk To Some Groups Of People
Its not completely understood why diabetes occurs in certain people and not others, but research shows that some groups face a higher riskTrusted Source. People who have the following characteristics are more likely to have type 2 diabetes than those who dont:
- overweight or obese
- carry most of their fat in their midsection
- inactive, exercising less than three times a week
- family history of diabetes, with a parent or sibling who has the condition
- history of gestational diabetes
- history of insulin resistance, such as those with polycystic ovary syndrome
- Black, Hispanic, American Indian, Pacific Islander, and/or Asian American background
- aged 45 or older
Diabetes Network Ni Helpline
Diabetes Network NI have set up a helpline for people living with diabetes who have concerns about coronavirus .
The contact details for the helpline are:
- telephone number: 028 9536 0600
The helpline is available seven days a week including bank holidays 9.00 am until 3.00 pm for 12 weeks until the end of June in the first instance.
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Checking Your Blood Sugar Levels
Checking your blood sugar levels is an important part of managing your diabetes, so well take you through how to check them and what your readings mean.
Impact Of Cardiovascular Disease
High blood sugar levels put stress on the body and can damage the nerves and small blood vessels, decreasing circulation.
This means that the heart has to work harder to deliver blood to the bodys tissues, especially those furthest away, such as in the feet and hands.
The increased workload damages the hearts own blood vessels. This can cause the heart to weaken and eventually fail.
A lack of blood reaching the bodys other organs and tissues starves them of oxygen and nutrition, which can cause them to die. Doctors refer to this as necrosis.
The American Heart Association estimate that adults with diabetes are two to four times more likely to experience fatal heart disease than those without diabetes.
Among people aged 65 or older with the disease, the AHA report that:
of moderately intense aerobic exercise each week, such as brisk walking or dancing.
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Risk Factors Of Type 2 Diabetes
Most people may be aware that being overweight increases the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, but there are a few other factors. In fact, not all people with Type 2 are overweight. Diabetes is complex and no two people with the disease are the same.
The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases offers a list for Type 2 diabetes risk factors, which includes:
- Age 45 years or older
- Being overweight
- Parent, brother or sister with diabetes
- Family background: African American, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian, Asian American or Pacific Islander
- Gestational diabetes while pregnant or had a baby weighing 9 pounds or more
- Higher than normal blood glucose
- Blood pressure above 140/90 or high normal blood pressure
- High cholesterol levels, HDL lower than 35 or triglycerides above 250
- Being physically active less than three times a week
- Having discolored, dirty looking skin in the armpits or around the neck despite scrubbing
- Blood vessel problems in the heart, brain or legs
Diagnosing Type 2 Diabetes
It’s important for diabetes to be diagnosed early. This is so treatment can begin as soon as possible.
If you experience the symptoms of diabetes , see your GP as soon as possible. They’ll ask about your symptoms and may ask for blood and urine tests.
Your urine sample will be tested for glucose. Urine doesn’t normally contain glucose. However, glucose can overflow through the kidneys and into your urine if you have diabetes.
If your urine contains glucose, a specialised blood test known as glycated haemoglobin can be used to find out whether you have diabetes.
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How Is The Blood Glucose Level Monitored
The blood test that is mainly used to keep a check on your blood glucose level is called the HbA1c test. This test is commonly done every 2-6 months by your doctor or nurse.
The HbA1c test measures a part of the red blood cells. Glucose in the blood attaches to part of the red blood cells. This part can be measured and gives a good indication of your average blood glucose level over the preceding 1-3 months.
Type 2 diabetes treatment aims to lower your HbA1c to below a target level. Ideally, it is best to maintain HbA1c to less than 48 mmol/mol . However, this may not always be possible to achieve and your target level of HbA1c should be agreed between you and your doctor.
If your HbA1c is above your target level then you may be advised to step up treatment to keep your blood glucose level down.
Some people with diabetes check their actual blood glucose level regularly with a blood glucose monitor. If you are advised to do this then your doctor or nurse will give you instructions on how to do it.