Learn How To Live With Diabetes
It is common to feel overwhelmed, sad, or angry when you are living with diabetes. You may know the steps you should taketo stay healthy, but have trouble sticking with your plan over time. This section has tips on how to cope with your diabetes,eat well, and be active.
Cope with your diabetes.
- Stress can raise your blood sugar. Learn ways to lower your stress. Try deep breathing, gardening, taking a walk, meditating, working on your hobby, or listening to your favorite music.
- Ask for help if you feel down. A mental health counselor, support group, member of the clergy, friend, or family member who will listen to your concerns may help you feel better.
- Make a diabetes meal plan with help from your health care team.
- Choose foods that are lower in calories, saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and salt.
- Eat foods with more fiber, such as whole grain cereals, breads, crackers, rice, or pasta.
- Choose foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, bread and cereals, and low-fat or skim milk and cheese.
- Drink water instead of juice and regular soda.
- When eating a meal, fill half of your plate with fruits and vegetables, one quarter with a lean protein, such as beans, or chicken or turkey without the skin, and one quarter with a whole grain, such as brown rice or whole wheat pasta.
Know what to do every day.
Talk to your health care team.
- Ask your doctor if you have any questions about your diabetes.
- Report any changes in your health.
Dipeptidyl Peptidase Iv Inhibitors
DPP-4 inhibitors are a class of drugs that prolong the action of incretin hormones. DPP-4 degrades numerous biologically active peptides, including the endogenous incretins GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide . DPP-4 inhibitors can be used as a monotherapy or in combination with metformin or a TZD. They are given once daily and are weight neutral.
A study comparing the efficacy and safety of monotherapy with sitagliptin or metformin in treatment-naive patients with type 2 diabetes found no statistical differences between the 2 drugs in terms of decreases in HbA1c and fasting glucose levels. The 1050 participants in the study had baseline HbA1c levels of 6.5-9% and received sitagliptin or metformin for 24 weeks.
In this study, the incidence of adverse GI effects was lower with sitagliptin than with metformin . Specifically, diarrhea and nausea were significantly less common with sitagliptin.
A study by Vilsboll et al in patients receiving stable-dose insulin therapy found that the addition of sitagliptin produced a greater reduction in FPG and 2-hour postprandial glucose than did placebo. Sitagliptin reduced HbA1c by 0.6%, while no reduction was seen with placebo. In addition, 13% of patients attained an HbA1c level of less than 7% with sitagliptin, compared with 5% with placebo.
Black Seed Oil For Diabetes
Why does it work?
Black seed oil is rich in antioxidants, which reduces the risk of oxidative stress and blood sugar levels. The oil has anti-inflammatory properties which reduce chronic inflammation and helps in retaining the insulin resistance. It preserves pancreatic integrity with its antioxidants content. It has potential cardiovascular protector properties. It reduces systolic blood pressure.
How to use?
- Black seed oil capsules can be taken directly.
- If you are fine with the taste, consume the oil directly.
- If you are not fine with the flavor of the oil, you can consume it with honey.
How much to use?
As it helps in monitoring the blood glucose levels and can reduce the glucose levels by increasing the secretion of insulin.
How to use?
- Add apple cider vinegar to water and then consume it with cheese or a little butter before bedtime.
- Mix 1 teaspoon of ACV, a ¾ teaspoon of ground cinnamon and one teaspoon of stevia and consume this concoction before meals.
- Mix 2 tablespoons of ACV with a ½ teaspoon of baking soda and consume it all. Use a couple of orange wedges to get rid of the acidic taste in your mouth.
You can also use raw-unfiltered apple cider vinegar directly in the quantity of a teaspoon for the same results.
How much to use?
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How Is Diabetes Diagnosed
Diabetes is diagnosed and managed by checking your glucose level in a blood test. There are three tests that can measure your blood glucose level: fasting glucose test, random glucose test and A1c test.
- Fasting plasma glucose test: This test is best done in the morning after an eight hour fast .
- Random plasma glucose test: This test can be done any time without the need to fast.
- A1c test: This test, also called HbA1C or glycated hemoglobin test, provides your average blood glucose level over the past two to three months. This test measures the amount of glucose attached to hemoglobin, the protein in your red blood cells that carries oxygen. You dont need to fast before this test.
- Oral glucose tolerance test: In this test, blood glucose level is first measured after an overnight fast. Then you drink a sugary drink. Your blood glucose level is then checked at hours one, two and three.
|Type of test|
How Is Diabetes Treated
Treatments for diabetes depend on your type of diabetes, how well controlled your blood glucose level is and your other existing health conditions.
- Type 1 diabetes: If you have this type, you must take insulin every day. Your pancreas no longer makes insulin.
- Type 2 diabetes: If you have this type, your treatments can include medications , insulin and lifestyle changes such as losing weight, making healthy food choices and being more physically active.
- Prediabetes: If you have prediabetes, the goal is to keep you from progressing to diabetes. Treatments are focused on treatable risk factors, such as losing weight by eating a healthy diet and exercising . Many of the strategies used to prevent diabetes are the same as those recommended to treat diabetes .
- Gestational diabetes: If you have this type and your glucose level is not too high, your initial treatment might be modifying your diet and getting regular exercise. If the target goal is still not met or your glucose level is very high, your healthcare team may start medication or insulin.
Oral medications and insulin work in one of these ways to treat your diabetes:
- Stimulates your pancreas to make and release more insulin.
- Slows down the release of glucose from your liver .
- Blocks the breakdown of carbohydrates in your stomach or intestines so that your tissues are more sensitive to insulin.
- Helps rid your body of glucose through increased urination.
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How Do Carbs Affect Blood Sugar
Carbs in food make your blood sugar levels go higher after you eat them than when you eat proteins or fats. You can still eat carbs if you have diabetes. The amount you can have and stay in your target blood sugar range depends on your age, weight, activity level, and other factors. Counting carbs in foods and drinks is an important tool for managing blood sugar levels. Make sure to talk to your health care team about the best carb goals for you.
When To Call 911
- You pass out and no glucagon is available.
- You need a second dose of glucagon.
- You had glucagon but are not responding.
- Your blood sugar is still too low 20 minutes after treatment.
- Anytime you or someone with you is concerned about your severely low blood sugar.
Let your provider know as soon as possible if you were given glucagon, as well as if you continue to have hypoglycemia. A change in your diabetes treatment plan may be needed.
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What Are The Complications Of Diabetes
If your blood glucose level remains high over a long period of time, your bodys tissues and organs can be seriously damaged. Some complications can be life-threatening over time.
- Dental problems.
Complications of gestational diabetes:
In the mother:Preeclampsia , risk of gestational diabetes during future pregnancies and risk of diabetes later in life.
In the newborn: Higher-than-normal birth weight, low blood sugar , higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes over time and death shortly after birth.
Nutrition And Meal Timing For Diabetes
Eating a balanced diet is vital for people who have diabetes, so work with your doctor or dietitian to set up a menu plan. If you have type 1 diabetes, the timing of your insulin dosage is determined by activity and diet. When you eat and how much you eat are just as important as what you eat. Usually, doctors recommend three small meals and three to four snacks every day to maintain the proper balance between sugar and insulin in the blood.
A healthy balance of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in your diet will help keep your blood glucose on target. How much of each will depend on many factors, including your weight and your personal preferences. Watching your carbohydrates — knowing how much you need and how many you are eating — is key to blood sugar control. If you are overweight, either a low-carbohydrate, low-fat/low calorie, or Mediterranean diet may help you get your weight to goal. No more than 7% of your diet should come from saturated fat, and you should try to avoid trans fats altogether.
Try to fill half your plate with nonstarchy vegetables such as:
- Whole oats oatmeal
- Whole wheat
In general, less-processed food is better. It has a lower glycemic index, which means it may have less of an effect on your blood sugar. For example, oatmeal from whole oats has a lower glycemic index than instant oatmeal.
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Stroke Prevention In Diabetes
The 2010 American Heart Association/American Stroke Association guidelines for the primary prevention of stroke include the following recommendations for patients with diabetes:
Regular blood pressure screening
Physical activity 30 minutes or more of moderate-intensity activity on a daily basis
A low-sodium, high-potassium diet to reduce blood pressure a diet emphasizing consumption of fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products may lower stroke risk
A blood pressure goal of less than 130/80 mm Hg
Drug therapy with ACE inhibitors or ARBs
Statin therapy, especially in patients with other risk factors monotherapy with fibrates may also be considered to lower stroke risk
The AHA/ASA guidelines note that the benefit of taking aspirin for the reduction of stroke risk has not been fully demonstrated in diabetic patients.
Eat Foods With Low Glycemic
Foods which are high in glycemic cause a fast increase in blood sugar level compared to low glycemic foods . The reason behind this is the foods with high glycemic digested and converted to sugar faster than the low glycemic foods.
Low Glycemic foods include:
Foods rich in magnesium include:
- Nuts and seeds
- Green leafy vegetables like spinach and kale
- Seafood etc
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The Best Ways To Treat Diabetes And Lower Blood Sugar
- To treat diabetes, you may need to take insulin, use medication like metformin, get regular exercise, and maintain a healthy diet.
- The best treatment for your diabetes depends on whether you have type 1 or type 2, but regardless, you will need to follow similar recommendations to effectively lower blood sugar.
- This article was reviewed by Jason R. McKnight, MD, MS, a family medicine physician and clinical assistant professor at Texas A& M College of Medicine.
- This story is part of Insider’s guide to Diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes must be treated with insulin, since the pancreas does not produce insulin naturally. People with type 2 or gestational diabetes don’t always need insulin treatment, and will often focus on lifestyle changes and oral medications that encourage insulin production or decrease insulin resistance.
With proper access to healthcare, diabetes is highly treatable, says Katherine Araque, MD, an endocrinologist and director of endocrinology of the Pacific Neuroscience Institute at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, California.
Here are the four main ways you can treat and manage your diabetes.
How Can I Check My Blood Sugar
Use a blood sugar meter or a continuous glucose monitor to check your blood sugar. A blood sugar meter measures the amount of sugar in a small sample of blood, usually from your fingertip. A CGM uses a sensor inserted under the skin to measure your blood sugar every few minutes. If you use a CGM, youll still need to test daily with a blood sugar meter to make sure your CGM readings are accurate.
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How To Use The Record
First read the shaded bar across the page. This tells you:
- the name of the test or check-up
- how often to get the test or check-up
- what your personal goal is
Then, write down the date and results for each test or check-up you get. Take this card with you on your health carevisits. Show it to your health care team. Talk about your goals and how you are doing.
|A1C At least twice each year||My goal: ______|
What Oral Medications Are Approved To Treat Diabetes
Over 40 medications have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of diabetes. Its beyond the scope of this article to review all of these drugs. Instead, well briefly review the main drug classes available, how they work and present the names of a few drugs in each class. Your healthcare team will decide if medication is right for you. If so, theyll decide which specific drug are best to treat your diabetes.
Diabetes medication drug classes include:
Many oral diabetes medications may be used in combination or with insulin to achieve the best blood glucose control. Some of the above medications are available as a combination of two medicines in a single pill. Others are available as injectable medications, for example, the GLP-1 agonist semaglutide and lixisenatide .
Always take your medicine exactly as your healthcare prescribes it. Discuss your specific questions and concerns with them.
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Are You At Risk For High Blood Sugar How To Know
- Eat too many processed or fast foods
- Dont exercise regularly
- Eat large meals, or engage in binge eating
- Are under a lot of stress on a regular basis, either from work, dating, or another factor
- Have recurring illnesses
When Should I Call My Doctor
If you havent been diagnosed with diabetes, you should see your healthcare provider if you have any symptoms of diabetes. If you already have been diagnosed with diabetes, you should contact your provider if your blood glucose levels are outside of your target range, if current symptoms worsen or if you develop any new symptoms.
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Correcting High Blood Sugar Levels With Insulin
If you take insulin, one way to reduce blood sugar is to inject insulin.
However, be careful as insulin can take 4 hours or longer to be fully absorbed, so you need to make sure you take into account how much insulin you may already have in your body that is yet to be absorbed by the blood. Insulin that is yet to be absorbed by the blood is called active insulin.
If you decide to correct with insulin, watch you dont over correct as this can lead to hypoglycemia and can be dangerous, particularly so before bed.
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How Is Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosed
A hemoglobin A1C test measures your average blood sugar levels and is typically used to diagnose and monitor type 2 diabetes. It is the average of 3 separate fasting blood glucose tests taken monthly for 3 months. The result is given in percentages. A diagnosis of type 2 diabetes means you have increased blood sugar levels, typically indicated by a hemoglobin A1C of 6.5% or higher. A1C levels between 5.7 and 6.4% can indicate prediabetes.