Latent Autoimmune Diabetes In Adults
LADA is a type of diabetes which seems to straddle type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Bits of it are more like type 1, and other bits are more like type 2. That’s why some people call it type 1.5 diabetes or type 1 ½ diabetes.
Its not actually classified as a separate type of diabetes at the moment, but there’s some medical research going on to try and pinpoint exactly what makes it different from type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
What Is Diabetes And What Are The Different Types
Anyone that has diabetes understands what it is because it is often a life or death situation if you dont. Diabetes is a serious, yet manageable disease, but you need to stay educated if you want to stay healthy and keep a safe blood glucose level. Besides a few exceptions, most people without diabetes dont understand it fully. This makes a new diagnosis in yourself or a family member scary. The more you understand about something, the easier it is to cope with.
Whether youve just received a new diagnosis or you want to brush up on the science behind diabetes, youve come to the right place. As with everything, starting at the basics is essential. So what exactly is diabetes and what are the different types?
Testing For Type 2 Diabetes And Prediabetes In Asymptomatic Adults
Prediabetes and diabetes meet criteria for conditions in which early detection is appropriate. Both conditions are common and impose significant clinical and public health burdens. There is often a long presymptomatic phase before the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Simple tests to detect preclinical disease are readily available. The duration of glycemic burden is a strong predictor of adverse outcomes. There are effective interventions that prevent progression from prediabetes to diabetes and reduce the risk of diabetes complications .
Additional considerations regarding testing for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes in asymptomatic patients include the following:
Testing recommendations for diabetes in asymptomatic adults are listed in . Age is a major risk factor for diabetes. Testing should begin at age 45 years for all patients, particularly those who are overweight or obese.
BMI and Ethnicity
Evidence also suggests that other populations may benefit from lower BMI cut points. For example, in a large multiethnic cohort study, for an equivalent incidence rate of diabetes, a BMI of 30 kg/m2 in non-Hispanic whites was equivalent to a BMI of 26 kg/m2 in African Americans .
Certain medications, such as glucocorticoids, thiazide diuretics, and atypical antipsychotics , are known to increase the risk of diabetes and should be considered when ascertaining a diagnosis.
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Are You Experiencing The Signs And Symptoms Of Di
Diabetes insipidus can affect anyone of any age. Age is a risk factor for development, but the genetic variations that create the disease can be present from birth. The biggest risks of DI are becoming too dehydrated and having excessive urination that interrupts daily living activities. Children may also experience pain, diarrhea, and vomiting when DI is present.
Some people can manage their diabetes insipidus symptoms on their own just by making sure there are enough fluids around. They may pack a backpack full of water bottles, be near convenience stores, or fill large containers with tap water in case of an emergency. Others can control their DI symptoms through hormone replacements or other medications. A lucky few will have their symptoms resolve.
Use the information here to ask questions about diabetes insipidus if you see the signs and symptoms of it at your next medical appointment. Do not self-diagnose. This will just create more stress and anxiety, which can enhance the symptoms. Keep fluid intakes at healthy levels and follow any treatment plan as instructed and diabetes insipidus can become one more challenge that has been defeated.
In Addition To Type 1 Type 2 And Gestational Diabetes There Are A Range Of Other Types Of Diabetes Which Are Just As Important
About 2% of people have these other types of diabetes. These include different types of monogenic diabetes, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, and diabetes caused by rare syndromes. Certain medications such as steroids and antipsychotics could lead to other types of diabetes, as well as surgery or hormonal imbalances.
Unfortunately, many of these people are misdiagnosed leading to delays in getting the right treatment. Were proud of the research we have supported to ensure better diagnosis and treatments for all types of diabetes, and its taught us a lot about the condition. Get more information on other types of diabetes:
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Clinical Definition Of Dm
Diabetes is defined by the American Diabetes Association as a group of disorders characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of different organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels .
Diabetes is a disorder that causes chronically high concentrations of sugar in the bloodstream. This chronic hyperglycemia gradually produces tissue damage, especially to eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and both large and small blood vessels. To simplify the definition for patients, you could say that in diabetes the body doesnt use food effectively. Although the hallmark symptom of diabetes is hyperglycemia, as noted above there are four different classes or types of diabetes based on the different pathologies involved.
Several patients may present with similar symptoms but be diagnosed with different types of diabetes mellitus. See if you can determine what type of diabetes each patient has.
An 8-year-old Caucasian girl presents with polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, and fatigue for two months.
A 57-year-old obese African American man presents with polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, and fatigue for two months.
A 28-year-old overweight pregnant Hispanic woman presents with polyuria, polydipsia, and fatigue for two months.
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What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening condition. It happens when your liver breaks down fat to use as energy because theres not enough insulin and therefore glucose isnt being used as an energy source. Fat is broken down by the liver into a fuel called ketones. The formation and use of ketones is a normal process if it has been a long time since your last meal and your body needs fuel. Ketones are a problem when your fat is broken down too fast for your body to process and they build up in your blood. This makes your blood acidic, which is a condition called ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis can be the result of uncontrolled Type 1 diabetes and less commonly, Type 2 diabetes.Diabetic ketoacidosis is diagnosed by the presence of ketones in your urine or blood and a basic metabolic panel. The condition develops over several hours and can cause coma and possibly even death.
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How Common Is Diabetes
Diabetes is more common than youd think, as many cases continue to go undiagnosed. However, it is estimated that there are about 415 million people living with diabetes today, or about 1 in 11 adults5. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form in adults today and accounts for close to 90% of all cases5.
What Is Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is a life-long autoimmune condition that is usually diagnosed in childhood or early adulthood but can occur at any age.
In type 1 diabetes, the bodys own immune system attacks and destroys the beta cells in the pancreas that are responsible for producing insulin. As the body needs insulin to survive, people with type 1 diabetes must replace this insulin every day through injections or an insulin pump.
Reda more about type 1 diabetes treatment.
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Idf Diabetes Atlas 10th Edition 2021
Get the latest national, regional and global diabetes data
Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas is no longer able to make insulin, or when the body cannot make good use of the insulin it produces.
Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas, that acts like a key to let glucose from the food we eat pass from the blood stream into the cells in the body to produce energy. All carbohydrate foods are broken down into glucose in the blood. Insulin helps glucose get into the cells.
Not being able to produce insulin or use it effectively leads to raised glucose levels in the blood . Over the long-term high glucose levels are associated with damage to the body and failure of various organs and tissues.
Types of diabetes
There are three main types of diabetes type 1, type 2 and gestational.
How Is Diabetes Treated
Treatments for diabetes depend on your type of diabetes, how well controlled your blood glucose level is and your other existing health conditions.
- Type 1 diabetes: If you have this type, you must take insulin every day. Your pancreas no longer makes insulin.
- Type 2 diabetes: If you have this type, your treatments can include medications , insulin and lifestyle changes such as losing weight, making healthy food choices and being more physically active.
- Prediabetes: If you have prediabetes, the goal is to keep you from progressing to diabetes. Treatments are focused on treatable risk factors, such as losing weight by eating a healthy diet and exercising . Many of the strategies used to prevent diabetes are the same as those recommended to treat diabetes .
- Gestational diabetes: If you have this type and your glucose level is not too high, your initial treatment might be modifying your diet and getting regular exercise. If the target goal is still not met or your glucose level is very high, your healthcare team may start medication or insulin.
Oral medications and insulin work in one of these ways to treat your diabetes:
- Stimulates your pancreas to make and release more insulin.
- Slows down the release of glucose from your liver .
- Blocks the breakdown of carbohydrates in your stomach or intestines so that your tissues are more sensitive to insulin.
- Helps rid your body of glucose through increased urination.
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Who Gets Diabetes What Are The Risk Factors
Factors that increase your risk differ depending on the type of diabetes you ultimately develop.
Risk factors for Type 1 diabetes include:
- Having a family history of Type 1 diabetes.
- Injury to the pancreas .
- Presence of autoantibodies .
- Physical stress .
- Exposure to illnesses caused by viruses.
Risk factors for prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes include:
- Family history of prediabetes or Type 2 diabetes.
- Being African-American, Hispanic, Native American, Asian-American race or Pacific Islander.
- Being overweight.
Risk factors for gestational diabetes include:
- Family history of prediabetes or Type 2 diabetes.
- Being African-American, Hispanic, Native American or Asian-American.
- Being overweight before your pregnancy.
- Being over 25 years of age.
Which Type Of Diabetes Do I Have
In some cases, it may not be clear which type of diabetes you have. If your doctor cannot be sure which type of diabetes you have, they may run one or more tests to help determine your diabetes type
Learn about the differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes
There are a number of different types of diabetes. In this video we look at 5 of the most common types of diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes amongst adults about 85% of people with diabetes in the UK have type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is the second most common approximately 15% of people with diabetes in the UK have type 1. There are also other less common types of diabetes including gestational diabetes, LADA and MODY.
The risk of type 2 diabetes increases with age, meaning that most people who develop type 2 diabetes are usually middle aged or older. However, type 2 diabetes can develop earlier in adulthood or even childhood. Diabetes UK reports that obesity accounts for over 80% of the overall risk of developing Type 2 diabetes.
Other risk factors include having a close family member with type 2 diabetes, being of African/Caribbea, South Asian or Middle Eastern descent, or having high blood pressure and/or cholesterol. Type 2 diabetes can be treated with diet and exercise alone, or with tablets, insulin or other injectable medication.
The symptoms of type 2 diabetes come on slowly and may take months or years to appear.
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Can Diabetes Kill You
Yes, its possible that if diabetes remains undiagnosed and uncontrolled it can cause devastating harm to your body. Diabetes can cause heart attack, heart failure, stroke, kidney failure and coma. These complications can lead to your death. Cardiovascular disease in particular is the leading cause of death in adults with diabetes.
The Different Types Of Diabetes
As the years progress, doctors are reimagining the diabetic world. Research is ongoing to try and find a cure, or at least a less intrusive treatment option. With that research there have been a number of accounts of rare forms of diabetes that often result from a specific condition1. Since these types of diabetes only account for a very small amount of cases 1, weve omitted them in this article.
If youre interested in learning more about the rare forms of diabetes, check out this article. For now, well focus on the two most common types of diabetes along with two types of diabetes that should be tested for.
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Can Diabetes Be Cured Or Reversed
Although these seem like simple questions, the answers are not so simple. Depending on the type of your diabetes and its specific cause, it may or may not be possible to reverse your diabetes. Successfully reversing diabetes is more commonly called achieving remission.
Type 1 diabetes is an immune system disease with some genetic component. This type of diabetes cant be reversed with traditional treatments. You need lifelong insulin to survive. Providing insulin through an artificial pancreas is the most advanced way of keeping glucose within a tight range at all times most closely mimicking the body. The closest thing toward a cure for Type 1 is a pancreas transplant or a pancreas islet transplant. Transplant candidates must meet strict criteria to be eligible. Its not an option for everyone and it requires taking immunosuppressant medications for life and dealing with the side effects of these drugs.
Its possible to reverse prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes with a lot of effort and motivation. Youd have to reverse all your risk factors for disease. To do this means a combination of losing weight, exercising regularly and eating healthy . These efforts should also lower your cholesterol numbers and blood pressure to within their normal range. Bariatric surgery has been shown to achieve remission in some people with Type 2 diabetes. This is a significant surgery that has its own risks and complications.
Understanding Diabetes From Other Causes
In addition to type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes, a small minority of people develop specific types of diabetes due to other causes. This includes:
- Monogenic diabetes syndromes, such as neonatal diabetes and maturity-onset diabetes of the young
- Diseases of the exocrine pancreas, such as cystic fibrosis and pancreatitis
- Drug or chemical-induced diabetes, such as with glucocorticoid use, in the treatment of HIV/AIDS or after organ transplantation
Because these types of diabetes are rare, they are often misdiagnosed as other types of diabetes. You can learn more about these types of diabetes in the Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes section in the Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. If you think you might have one of these types, be sure to talk with your doctor.
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What Is Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes, affecting approximately 85 to 90 per cent of all people with diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, the body still produces some insulin, but it may not be enough or work well enough to keep BGLs within a healthy range.
Type 2 diabetes can be managed with lifestyle changes such as losing weight , healthy eating and engaging in regular physical activity but often medications such as tablets or insulin may also be required.
Read more about type 2 diabetes treatment.
Animal Models In Dm Type 1 Research
Animal models are used in autoimmune diabetes research to understand the pathogenesis and etiology of this disease, and to find and test predictive biomarkers and therapeutic interventions. Currently available models of T1D can be divided into spontaneously autoimmune, chemically induced, virus induced and genetically induced.
- Non-obese diabetic mouse
The NOD mouse is the best known and most widely used animal model for type 1 DM research. It is an inbred, genetically well characterized mouse strain that spontaneously develops T1D. The onset of insulitis occurs at 3â4 weeks of age. The islets of Langerhans are infiltrated by CD4+, CD8+ T lymphocytes, NK cells, B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages and neutrophils, similar to the disease process in humans. Insulitis leads to destruction of Î²-cells, resulting in the apparent occurrence of T1D, which varies by sex. The incidence is about 60-80% in females and 10-30% in males. In addition to sex, breeding conditions, gut microbiome composition or diet also influence the onset of T1D. NOD Mice are used to understand the pathogenesis and etiology of the disease, to identify novel autoantigens and biomarkers or to test new intervention strategies.
- BioBreeding Diabetes-Prone rat
- LEW -1AR1 / -iddm rat
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Maturity Onset Diabetes Of The Young
MODY is a rare form of diabetes which is different from both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and runs strongly in families. MODY is caused by a mutation in a single gene. If a parent has this gene mutation, any child they have, has a 50 per cent chance of inheriting it from them. If a child does inherit the mutation they will generally go on to develop MODY before theyre 25, whatever their weight, lifestyle, ethnic group etc.