Blood Sugar Target Numbers
The following are blood glucose target numbers, based on test type, and levels that are indicators of prediabetes or diabetes:
- Normal: less than 100 mg/dl
- Prediabetes: 100 mg/dl to 125 mg/dl
- Diabetes: 126 mg/dl or higher
Oral glucose tolerance test :
- Normal: less than 140 mg/dl
- Prediabetes: 140 mg/dl to 199 mg/dl
- Diabetes: 200 mg/dl or higher
Random glucose test:
- Diabetes: 200 mg/dl or higher
What Is Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a condition wherein the body is not able to process the glucose formed by the food you eat. The time you eat something, it is broken down into sugar molecules called glucose. Then the glucose flows to the cells through bloodstreams where it is absorbed by the cells to produce energy for the body. But all this happens in a normal body. And when this very function is not held properly, signs of type 2 diabetes start to get noticed.
In a body with type 2 diabetes, the function of processing of the glucose produced is affected. It so happens that either the body is unable to produce enough insulin or the body is unable to utilize the insulin being produced in a proper way. As a result, the glucose remains in the blood, and the blood sugar level of the body keeps on rising.
Out of all diabetics, 90% of them have type 2 diabetes. Apart from this, there are two other main types of diabetes:
If You Ignore The Signs Of Diabetes
Its hard to ignore the signs of type 1 diabetes because symptoms can often appear quite quickly. But leaving it untreated can lead to serious health problems, including diabetic ketoacidosis, which can result in a potentially fatal coma.
Although the majority of people with type 1 diabetes are diagnosed in childhood and early adulthood, the symptoms are the same at any age. Adults with type 1 diabetes may not recognise their diabetes symptoms as quickly as children, which could mean their diagnosis and treatment may be delayed.
Type 2 diabetes can be easier to miss as it develops more slowly, especially in the early stages when it can be harder to spot the symptoms. But untreated diabetes affects many major organs, including your heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes and kidneys. Being diagnosed early and managing your blood sugar levels can help prevent these complications. Use our Know Your Risk tool to check your risk of type 2 diabetes.
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Medicines For Type 2 Diabetes
There are many types of diabetes medications and they work in different ways to control blood glucose. If you have diabetes, over time it can change, meaning your medications may need to change too. For example, you may need more than one medication to control your blood glucose levels. Some people with type 2 diabetes may eventually need insulin to manage their condition.
If you are living with type 2 diabetes, you can join the National Diabetes Services Scheme to access support services, including free or subsidised products. Visit Diabetes Australia for information and resources.
Maybe Its A Different Type
If you or someone you know is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes but isnt responding well to the typical treatments for type 2 diabetes, it may be worth a visit to an endocrinologist to determine what type of diabetes is happening. Generally, this requires antibody tests and possibly the measurement of a C-peptide level.
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Increased Urination Is Arguably The Most Common
A significant increase in how often you urinate is a tell-tale symptom of high blood sugar.
As a point of reference, the average person pees 4 to 7 times in a 24-hour period.
Waking up during the night to go, even though you already went right before bed, is a common red flag.
Why does this happen?: Your kidneys are working overtime to expel the excess sugar in your blood. Sugar that the kidneys are unable to absorb must be urinated out. Therefore high sugar levels leads to more urination.
When Lifestyle Changes And Medication Arent Enough
Sometimes even medications and lifestyle changes cant control diabetes. When this happens, there are other treatment options, including:
Bariatric surgery: This may be an option for you if you have type 2 diabetes and youre obese, defined as a body mass index over 35. Because this surgery helps you lose weight, it can also significantly improve your blood sugar levels.
Transplantation: A pancreas transplant may help certain people with type 1 diabetes. Organ transplants carry many risks, so these need to be weighed along with the benefits. Another type of transplant thats being researched is a pancreatic islet transplant. This involves transplanting the groups of cells that make insulin, called islets, from a donor pancreas into yours.
Immunotherapy: This is also being studied as a possibility for treating type 1 diabetes.
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Type 1 Vs Type 2 Diabetes: Whats The Difference
Type 2 diabetes is not the same as Type 1 diabetes. In Type 1 diabetes, your pancreas doesnt make any insulin. In Type 2, your pancreas doesnt make enough insulin, and the insulin it is making doesnt always work as it should. Both types are forms of diabetes mellitus, meaning they lead to hyperglycemia .
Type 2 diabetes usually affects older adults, though its becoming more common in children. Type 1 diabetes usually develops in children or young adults, but people of any age can get it.
What Is Diabetes Education
Diabetes education will start right away. Diabetes education may also happen later to refresh your memory. Your diabetes care team may include physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants. It may also include nurses, dietitians, exercise specialists, pharmacists, dentists, and podiatrists. Family members, or others who are close to you, may also be part of the team. You and your team will make goals and plans to manage diabetes and other health problems. The plans and goals will be specific to your needs. Members of your diabetes care team teach you the following:
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Who Is At Risk For Type 2 Diabetes
You are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes if you:
- Are over age 45. Children, teenagers, and younger adults can get type 2 diabetes, but it is more common in middle-aged and older people.
- Have prediabetes, which means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes
- Had diabetes in pregnancy or gave birth to a baby weighing 9 pounds or more.
- Have a family history of diabetes
- Are overweight or have obesity
- Are Black or African American, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian, Asian American, or Pacific Islander
- Are not physically active
- Have low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides
- Have acanthosis nigricans – dark, thick, and velvety skin around your neck or armpits
What Warning Signs And Symptoms Of Diabetes Are The Same In Men And Women
There are diabetes warning signs and symptoms that both women and men have in common, for example:
- Excessive thirst and hunger
Men who have type 2 diabetes are twice as likely to have low testosterone than men who do not have diabetes. Because of the low levels of the hormone testosterone, men with diabetes can have unhealthy symptoms that are not seen in women with diabetes.
Erectile dysfunction , or inability to get or maintain an erection, is a common symptom of diabetes in men. Diabetic men experience erectile dysfunction at earlier ages than men who do not have diabetes.
Another diabetes-related sexual dysfunction symptom in men is reduced amounts of ejaculation, or retrograde ejaculation. Retrograde ejaculation is a condition in which the semen goes into the bladder, rather than out of the body through the urethra. Diabetes and damage to the blood vessels causes nerve damage to the muscles that control the bladder and urethra, which results in this problem.
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Excessive Thirst Is One Of The Classic Early Signs Of Diabetes
Drinking unusually large amounts of fluids throughout the day and even overnight is a glaring symptom.
Intake can be something like 4 litres or more per day. You can even start to feel thirsty immediately after youve just had a drink.
The more you drink, the more you urinate, which feeds back into the excessive urination cycle.
Why does this happen?: This is the bodys response to increased urination. With all that extra fluid loss, you become very dry and thirsty.
Receiving A Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis
Whether or not you have prediabetes, you should see your doctor right away if you think you may be experiencing symptoms of diabetes. Your doctor can get a lot of information from blood work. Diagnostic testing may include the following:
- Hemoglobin A1C test.This test measures average blood glucose levels for the previous 2 or 3 months. You dont need to fast for this test, and your doctor can diagnose you based on the results. Its also called a glycosylated hemoglobin test.
- Fasting plasma glucose test. This test measures how much glucose is in your plasma. You may need to fast for 8 hours before taking it.
- Oral glucose tolerance test. During this test, your blood is drawn three times: before, 1 hour after, and 2 hours after you drink a dose of glucose. The test results show how well your body deals with glucose before and after the drink.
If you have diabetes, your doctor will provide you with information about how to manage the disease, including:
- how to monitor blood glucose levels on your own
- dietary recommendations
- physical activity recommendations
- information about any medications that you need
You may need to see an endocrinologist who specializes in the treatment of diabetes. Youll probably need to visit your doctor more often at first to make sure your treatment plan is working.
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Will I Need Medication Or Insulin For Type 2 Diabetes
Some people take medication to manage diabetes, along with diet and exercise. Your healthcare provider may recommend oral diabetes medications. These are pills or liquids that you take by mouth. For example, a medicine called metformin helps control the amount of glucose your liver produces.
You can also take insulin to help your body use sugar more efficiently. Insulin comes in the following forms:
- Injectable insulin is a shot you give yourself. Most people inject insulin into a fleshy part of their body such as their belly. Injectable insulin is available in a vial or an insulin pen.
- Inhaled insulin is inhaled through your mouth. It is only available in a rapid-acting form.
- Insulin pumps deliver insulin continuously, similar to how a healthy pancreas would. Pumps release insulin into your body through a tiny cannula . Pumps connect to a computerized device that lets you control the dose and frequency of insulin.
What Are The Symptoms Of Diabetes
Symptoms of diabetes include
- numbness or tingling in the feet or hands
- sores that do not heal
- unexplained weight loss
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowlyover the course of several yearsand can be so mild that you might not even notice them. Many people have no symptoms. Some people do not find out they have the disease until they have diabetes-related health problems, such as blurred vision or heart disease.
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Early Signs Of Diabetes
Both types of diabetes have some of the same telltale warning signs.
- Hunger and fatigue. Your body converts the food you eat into glucose that your cells use for energy. But your cells need insulin to take in glucose. If your body doesn’t make enough or any insulin, or if your cells resist the insulin your body makes, the glucose can’t get into them and you have no energy. This can make you hungrier and more tired than usual.
- Peeing more often and being thirstier. The average person usually has to pee between four and seven times in 24 hours, but people with diabetes may go a lot more. Why? Normally, your body reabsorbs glucose as it passes through your kidneys. But when diabetes pushes your blood sugar up, your kidneys may not be able to bring it all back in. This causes the body to make more urine, and that takes fluids. The result: You’ll have to go more often. You might pee out more, too. Because you’re peeing so much, you can get very thirsty. When you drink more, you’ll also pee more.
- Dry mouth and itchy skin. Because your body is using fluids to make pee, there’s less moisture for other things. You could get dehydrated, and your mouth may feel dry. Dry skin can make you itchy.
- Blurred vision. Changing fluid levels in your body could make the lenses in your eyes swell up. They change shape and canÃ¢â¬â¢t focus.
What Is Type Ii Diabetes
Just a disclaimer, but it is well known that there are two forms of diabetes. Type I and Type II. for the sake of brevity, we will only talk about type II.
That’s because its onset and causes can be avoided and managed which is what we want to provide insight on. Type I, as far as we know, just, unfortunately, happens to some people, and is beyond control with current medical knowledge.
With that said, type II diabetes is when your body can no longer effectively regulate blood glucose levels. This happens when your cells become insulin resistant, meaning they don’t respond when insulin tells them to store excess sugar as glycogen. The accumulation of glucose in the blood because of this can have a severe impact on your health.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Low Blood Glucose Symptoms Of Diabetes Type 2 In Adults
Symptoms include blurred vision, dry mouth, quick or irregular heart beat, headache, lightheadedness, exhaustion, irregularity, and swollen feet or hands. You might also experience indigestion, regular urination, uneasyness, fatigue, irritability, insomnia, and chills. See a physician immediately if you experience any of these symptoms. These symptoms might also indicate other conditions, so it is very important to have your doctor check you out thoroughly.
What Are The Risks Of Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes that is not controlled can damage your nerves, veins, and arteries. Your risk for dementia increases faster the longer your diabetes is not controlled. High blood sugar levels may damage other body tissues and organs over time. Damage to arteries may increase your risk for heart attack and stroke. Nerve damage may also lead to other heart, stomach, and nerve problems. Diabetes can become life-threatening if it is not controlled.
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How Is Type 2 Diabetes Treated
The goal of treatment is to prevent or delay complications of diabetes, such as heart or kidney disease. Treatment includes eating healthy foods and being active. You may also need insulin or other medicine to help control blood sugar levels. You may need medicine to lower your risk for heart disease. An example is medicine to lower or control your cholesterol.
Nerve Pain Or Numbness
If you have type 2 diabetes, you might experience tingling or numbness in your hands, fingers, feet, and toes. This is a sign of nerve damage, or diabetic neuropathy.
This condition typically develops slowly. Youre likely to experience this after years of living with diabetes, but it can be a first sign for some.
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Overweight Obesity And Physical Inactivity
You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. The location of body fat also makes a difference. Extra belly fat is linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart and blood vessel disease. To see if your weight puts you at risk for type 2 diabetes, check out these Body Mass Index charts.
What Causes Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes occurs when your immune system, the bodys system for fighting infection, attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Scientists think type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and environmental factors, such as viruses, that might trigger the disease. Studies such as TrialNet are working to pinpoint causes of type 1 diabetes and possible ways to prevent or slow the disease.
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Ayurvedic Way Of Management Of Diabetes
In many situations, diabetes is correlated with the disease Prameha mentioned in the Ayurvedic texts. The main symptom being Polyuria, Prameha shares the clinical manifestation of diabetes to an extent. But in a total sense, conditions of Aama, kleda, Kapha-medo dushti, and Prameha should be understood as diabetes. Also, there are different types based on the predominant doshas like Kapha pitta or Vaata. Management is different in each dosha. For example, taking a hot spicy and pungent diet will make the Pitta prameha worse than taking sweets.
So analyzing the patient in detail is very important. Ayurvedaforall will not prescribe a medicine for a simple high blood sugar value. It needs a tenfold examination system, to know the details of the patient & disease, Only after considering minute details like the patients favorite taste, sleep schedule, etc. the physician finds his body constitution and disease condition. Then only medicines and therapies are advised. Diet modifications based on body constitution along with adapting the patient into a healthy daily routine & lifestyle is a very important step in the treatment. Mental stress should be dealt with extreme care, as it can cause the blood sugar levels to shoot up.