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Keto Diet Good For Type 2 Diabetes

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Type 2 Diabetes: Is the Keto Diet Right for You?

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The Difference Between A Keto Diet And A Diabetes Diet

While keto is one of the most well-known low-carb diets today, it is not the only option for people with diabetes. Youll likely be better off working with a registered dietician and your healthcare team to create the perfect diet for your own needs.

The team at US MED recently put together an article featuring some diabetes-related dietary tips. We encouraged people with diabetes to:

Focus on eating nutritious vegetables and proteins. Fruits generally have more carbs than vegetables, but they can still be healthy.

Avoid overeating carbohydrates but continue to eat some foods in this category. Whole grains such as oatmeal or brown rice are good choices processed grains are not.

Keep fats, oils, and sweets to the bare minimum to avoid weight gain since this can cause problems related to diabetes management.

A diet created with these tips in mind wont be as restrictive as the keto diet, and it may be the better option for people with diabetes overall.

Side Effects Of Ketogenic Diet

During the shift from carbohydrate to fat-based energy utilization there is a feeling of fatigue, lethargy, and headache . In diabetic patients, due to the efficacy of LCKD, hypoglycemia may occur and could result in a significant reduction in the units of insulin required to be administered or cessation or reduction in the doses of oral drugs administered for type 2 diabetes . Therefore, patients those who are on insulin or antidiabetic drugs should be monitored carefully.

Negative events of ketogenic diet include dehydration, dyselectrolytemia, and hypovitaminosis . In addition, short-term LCKD impairs bone mass density and mechanical properties of bone . Therefore, to minimize the above-mentioned side effects, daily supplements of electrolytes, multivitamins, potassium citrate and calcium, vitamin D, and minerals should be given during the period of ketogenic diet administration. Another side effect of LCKD is the formation of kidney stones and increased production and the decreased excretion of uric acid. This is due to limited fluid intake and the suppression of thirst by ketone bodies. Similarly, ketone bodies are also involved in the suppression of food intake. Hyperuricemia leads to urate stone formation. It should be noted that studies from our laboratory have observed a decrease in serum level of urea. To rectify this issue, inclusion of 5% carbohydrate composition in the diet is recommended .

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Beneficial Effect Of Ketogenic Diet In Type 2 Diabetes Patients

In this review, we report on the beneficial and side effects of ketogenic diet based on the studies that were conducted during the last 20 years in our laboratory and the studies of other investigators that substantiate our view. The first paper from our laboratory was published in 2003, where we studied the effects of ketogenic diet in eliminating or preventing the risk factors of heart disease in obese patients . In further studies we addressed the long-term effects of ketogenic diet in reducing body weight in obese subjects and in obese subjects with hypercholesteremia or type 2 diabetes . Also, we focused on the effect of ketogenic diet in animal models of cardiac tolerance to global ischemia and diabetes . Although we studied the diverse effects of ketogenic diets in humans and animal models, based on the focus of this review, only those studies that are directly involved with the effects of diabetes in human subjects and animal models are discussed here.

Table 4.

Statistical significance between week 1 and week 56 observation of various parameters studied in diabetic subjects

Fig. 1.

Changes in the level of blood glucose , body weight , total cholesterol , level of HDL , LDL , and triglycerides after the administration of ketogenic diet for 56 weeks . HDL, high-density lipoprotein LDL, low-density lipoprotein.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 6.
Table 5.

A summary of selected studies showing the beneficial effects of LCKD in type 2 diabetes

Precautions When Adopting Keto For Diabetes Management

Conquer Type 2 Diabetes with a Ketogenic Diet

The most significant risk of adopting keto for diabetes is that of developing diabetic ketoacidosis, a severe diabetic complication that can lead to coma and death. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when your body has too little insulin. People with Type 1 Diabetes are at a greater risk of diabetic ketoacidosis than those with type 2 diabetes.

If you are considering going on a keto diet, it is strongly recommended that you get support from a healthcare professional to adopt the diet safely. Your medications may also need to be adjusted once you begin restricting your carbohydrate intake.

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Potential Risks Involved In The Keto Diet And Diabetes

Undergoing any change in your diet or exercise regimen requires monitoring and aid from a medical professional. This is the best way to reduce your chances of experiencing dangerous risks or complications. The primary risk of the keto diet is unintentional diabetic ketoacidosis. While this is more common in people living with type 1 diabetes, it can happen in those with type 2 diabetes who are experimenting with the keto diet. Continue to test your blood sugar levels throughout the day and consider adding urinary ketone testing to your maintenance planespecially when you first begin the diet. There are urine strips available to help you monitor your ketones. Some of the other potential risks include:

What Foods Can You Eat In Ketogenic Diets

If you are thinking about going keto for better blood sugar control or even general health and wellness, the key thing is to make smart food choices. Remember, people lose weight only if their calorie intake is less than the calories burned on a daily basis.

Its important to understand that high-fat low-carbohydrate diets like the ketogenic diet do not involve overeating fats or eating unhealthy saturated fats. The focus should be on consuming moderate amounts of heart-healthy fats and monounsaturated fats, such as those found in eggs, cottage cheese, fish, avocado, nuts, seeds, and olive oil. If you combine this with very low carbohydrate intake, it can create a large calorie gap which will lead to quick weight loss, which, in turn, is good for blood sugar control.

Another thing to keep in mind is that diet and exercise are both equally important components of your diabetes therapy with lifestyle changes. No amount of smart food choices will help with losing weight if you dont get regular exercise.

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Animal Studies Have Mixed Results

A few animal studies have examined the effect of a ketogenic diet in type 1 diabetes, but their significance in humans is unclear. Poplawski et al examined the effects of an 8-week ketogenic diet vs a high carbohydrate diet in rat models of type 1 diabetes with nephropathy. The ketogenic diet group had a drastically improved albumin-creatinine ratio, indicating reversal of diabetic nephropathy.

Al-Khalifa et al placed 42 rats on either a normal diet, low carbohydrate diet, or high carbohydrate diet, all ad libitum, for 8 weeks. Half of each group was injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. Blood glucose levels and food and water intake increased with the normal and high-carbohydrate diets but not in the low-carbohydrate group . Weight gain was also significantly lower in the low-carbohydrate group . In the low-carbohydrate group, the number of beta cells did not differ between the control group and the group with the streptozotocin injection, while the other diet groups had a significant decrease in beta-cell mass in the streptozotocin groups vs controls. These results suggest that a low-carbohydrate diet may attenuate or prevent the development of diabetes.

Safety On A Ketogenic Diet

How to Use Ketogenic Diets in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

There is generally a lack of long-term studies into the safety and effectiveness of ketogenic diets and, this is why a doctors opinion is needed before starting the diet.

There are a few groups of people for whom a ketogenic diet may not be suitable, or at the very least, warrants close supervision.

These include pregnant women, children, people at risk of hypoglycemia, people with a very low BMI, and those with conditions that a ketogenic diet may exacerbate.

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Can A Keto Diet Turn Pre

Healthy Food Guide looks at the upsides and downsides of the ketogenic diet for managing type-2 diabetes

Q I have heard that the keto diet is great for reversing my type-2 pre-diabetes. But you guys dont seem to recommend it. Whats the story?

A The keto diet has been around a long time, since the 1920s, and certainly does have its place. Like many restrictive diets, it can be a quick way to lose weight. And dietary changes coupled with increased physical activity are among the best lifestyle modifications for type-2 diabetes and prediabetes treatment or management.

A common issue is whether you can keep up your dietary changes in the long term. With keto being so restrictive, this can be hard. Also, the science is emerging as to what other effects on your health it may have. We have written about it several times, see: Is keto or fasting better for weight loss?, Getting enough fibre on a keto diet and Keto diet may be best in small doses.

Is A Ketogenic Diet Just One More Fad Or Could It Help Manage Type 2 Diabetes

Figuring out a diet that fuels our bodys needs and keeps us healthy without sacrificing taste is a daunting task for anyone. Factor in diabetes and this task can suddenly seem like an insurmountable obstacle overcome only by the most health-conscious fitness guru. Some diets are clearly fads, popping up into existence seemingly overnight, selling books and recipes and often food itself, only to fade into the twilight and be overtaken the next day by yet another set of guidelines by which we are to become, optimistically, the best self we can be.

There are seemingly endless options to curate a diet to meet every notion or need. However, those living with diabetes may find that these diets dont always work to balance glycemic control and blood sugar. So what about the ketogenic diet? Is it a fad that will one day be supplanted by the next newest way to eat, or will the science behind it ensure it keeps a lifelong and loyal following? And if the latter, what role can it play in the lives of those living with diabetes?

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Clarifications On Fat Intake In The Keto Diet

While the keto diet focuses on consuming higher amounts of fats instead of carbohydrates, its important to differentiate between different types of fat. The key is incorporating high amounts of heart-healthy fats, not saturated or trans fats. This means eating more eggs, fatty fish, avocados, olives or olive oil, nuts, nut butter, seeds, and cottage cheese. Avoid or limit processed foods alongside trans-fat, saturated fat, and fats from deli meats. Similarly, fried food is high in unhealthy fat and can lead to other problems like heart disease and health conditions.

Blood Pressure Evidence Scant

How the Ketogenic Diet Works for Type 2 Diabetes ...

Data regarding the impact of a ketogenic diet on blood pressure have been inconsistent, and little exists specifically in the setting of type 1 diabetes. Several studies demonstrated no significant reduction in blood pressure with a ketogenic diet, while others suggested a mild benefit., A long-term study on the cardiovascular impact of a ketogenic diet on 10 children with glut-1 deficiency over the course of 10 years found no change in systolic or diastolic blood pressures compared with healthy controls .

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Weight Loss On The Ketogenic Diet

Type 2 diabetes and obesity are closely linked: 90% of people with type 2 diabetes are also overweight or obese. The CDC recommends weight loss as a means to maintaining a healthier body for those struggling with diabetes because it can positively affect blood sugar levels and reduce risks of other related health conditions3.

Because weight loss can have such a dramatic positive impact for those struggling with type 2 diabetes, most of the diets prescribed to diabetics focus on weight loss. The ketogenic diet is no exception, and often leads to substantial weight loss and improved body composition. Its also interesting to note that the ketogenic diet may contribute to a greater preservation of muscle mass during weight loss than other diets.

Should Diabetics Eat A Keto Diet For Blood Sugar Control

You should know that the American Diabetes Association doesnt recommend the ketogenic diet versus other diets. It is also important to understand that while the keto diet could help with blood sugar control and glycemic control, it is not a magic cure. With that said, many people have found that a ketogenic diet helps with weight loss, which, in turn, can help to reverse or reduce the impact of diabetes, along with diabetes medications if needed.

On the other hand, the ketogenic diet can pose serious risks to diabetes patients. When you change from a regular diet to a low carbohydrate diet such as the keto diet, it can lead to an increase in the amount of ketone levels in the blood . This can potentially lead to diabetic ketoacidosis , which is a medical emergency and can be fatal. People with type 1 diabetes are at greater risk, but people with type 2 diabetes are also at risk of DKA.

It is also worth noting that there is limited evidence about the safety and long-term effects of a ketogenic diet. People with diabetes should not make drastic dietary changes without talking to their doctor first because it can lead to fluctuations in blood sugar levels, including blood sugar spikes or low blood sugar, potentially leading to serious complications like diabetic coma.

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What Is A Keto Diet

A Keto diet is an eating plan that is low in carbohydrates but high in fats. Although most of the foods you eat daily are fats, either you take it in saturated or unsaturated fats foods. And most of these foods contain 20%-30% of protein, either you eat fatty or lean foods.

However, you need to limit your carbs intake it will help in reducing your sugar level. Most of the foods you take as the healthiest foods to take also contain carbs. Some foods like beans, some vegetables, some fruits, milk, and grains.

Most of them are carbs, and they may affect diabetes patients. If you are on a keto diet plan, your intake of carbs will be less than 50 grams daily with a moderate intake of protein. A Keto diet will help lower down your sugar level, which will greatly help your health.

A Keto diet helps prevent some heart disease factors, such as body fat, blood pressure, and blood sugar. It also helps slow tumor growth, so it is useful for cancer. And some still believe that it is helpful for brain injuries.

Significance Of The Study

Type 2 Diabetes: Is the Keto Diet Right for You?
  • This review unravels the therapeutic effects of low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet in diabetes.

  • Introducing low carbohydrate diet therapy in diabetic management may lead to better quality of life and in reducing the health care costs of diabetes.

  • Efficacy of carbohydrate restriction can lead to significant reduction in the units of insulin required, cessation, or reduction of the dose of antidiabetic agents.

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Its important to maintain a healthy body weight. You should also make sure that you drink plenty of water, and limit your intake of sugary drinks. In addition, make sure that you get regular exercise. You should also avoid alcoholic beverages. Lastly, you should avoid alcohol. These beverages contain high amounts of sugar. If you dont drink enough, youre not doing anything to prevent diabetes. Besides, drinking alcohol can be harmful to your health.

The most important thing to do is to follow the recommended diet. Eat more healthy foods that have low amounts of fat and high amounts of fiber. The best way to lose weight is to lose 7 percent of your body weight. If youre overweight, you should try to lose 14 pounds to reduce your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. However, you should not attempt to lose weight while pregnant. Talk to your doctor about what kind of weight is safe for you.

Besides high blood glucose, diabetes can also affect the nerves and skin. It may affect your sexual response and your nervous system. It can also affect your fertility. Women with diabetes are more likely to miscarry or have a baby with a birth defect. It can cause a person to have difficulty hearing and sleep. If the condition is left untreated, it can lead to type 1 diabetes and can even lead to amputation.

Benefits Of A Ketogenic Diet

Ketone bodies produced from burning fat for fuel have been shown to have potent weight loss effects, help lower blood glucose levels and reduce peoples reliance on diabetes medication.

The diet has also shown evidence of having benefits on:

  • Reducing high blood pressure
  • Raising HDL cholesterol levels
  • Improving mental performance

Read more about the benefits of ketogenic diets

In addition to that, there has been a lot of interest in therapeutic ketosis for other long-term conditions, such as cancer, epilepsy, Alzheimers disease or dementia.

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