Managing Blood Pressure And Cholesterol
Keeping your blood pressure and cholesterol within the recommended range is very important to help prevent long-term problems, especially to your heart, blood vessels, kidneys and eyes.
Regular diabetes checks of your eyes, feet , heart, blood pressure, kidneys and long-term blood glucose are an important part of diabetes management. Your doctor and diabetes educator will help you arrange these tests.
S You Can Take To Reduce Your Risk
The good news is that you can take steps to manage your blood glucose to help delay or prevent the onset of diabetes. While some risk factors cannot be changed , other risk factors such as your weight or activity level can be altered.
Tips to reduce your risk of type 2 diabetes include:
- Reach a healthy weight. Excess weight is directly linked to an increased risk for type 2 diabetes as well as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart disease and stroke. Losing even 5-10% of your body weight can help to prevent developing diabetes. Read more about sustainable weight loss here.
- Choose healthy foods that you enjoy. Knowing what to eat and how much to eat is a great start. You can speak with a dietitian who can help you set up a healthy eating meal plan. Read more about diabetes dietitians here.
- Keep active! Find something that you love to do, and commit to doing it often! It is recommended that you engage in physical activity for 30 minutes each day, five times a week. If you have never done exercise, start slow, for example, 10 minutes per day, and work up to 30 minutes.
What Are Next Steps
After diagnosis, you may be referred to a diabetes educator who can customize a plan to help you manage your health and well-being.
You also will learn lifestyle skills to manage prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes. This may include meal planning, exercise, medication management, stress management and sleep hygiene. People with prediabetes may be able to prevent or delay the development of Type 2 diabetes significantly through lifestyle changes including achieving and maintaining a healthy weight.
It’s important to know that most prediabetes treatment plans do not include medications or routine monitoring of blood sugar.
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Previously Given Birth To Larger Baby
Women who have given birth to large babies, 9 pounds or greater, are at an increased risk for developing gestational diabetes. This is known as infant macrosomia. This occurs due to the increased levels of insulin resistance during pregnancy.
Blood glucose is passed through the placenta to the baby during fetal circulation. Research has shown that infants of women with gestational diabetes are at an increased risk of becoming overweight at a young age.
Calculating Type 2 Diabetes Risk
The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Disorders has a tool that people can use to calculate their risk of type 2 diabetes.
The test takes seven risk factors, including weight and height, into account to calculate a persons body mass index score.
BMI is a crucial aspect of diabetes risk. While BMI is not the most accurate measure of health, a high BMI can give an indicator of diabetes risk.
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How Does Diabetes Lead To Amputation
Unmanaged diabetes can lead to poor blood flow . Without oxygen and nutrients , you are more prone to the development of cuts and sores that can lead to infections that cant fully heal. Areas of your body that are farthest away from your heart are more likely to experience the effects of poor blood flow. So areas of your body like your toes, feet, legs and fingers are more likely to be amputated if an infection develops and healing is poor.
When Should I Call My Doctor
If you havent been diagnosed with diabetes, you should see your healthcare provider if you have any symptoms of diabetes. If you already have been diagnosed with diabetes, you should contact your provider if your blood glucose levels are outside of your target range, if current symptoms worsen or if you develop any new symptoms.
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Prediabetes Symptoms Causes Treatment Options
Prediabetes is a condition that affects millions of people in the United States and it is defined as having a blood sugar level that is higher than normal, but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. When you have prediabetes, it often leads to type 2 diabetes if it is not treated. In this article, we will discuss what prediabetes is, the symptoms of prediabetes, the causes of prediabetes, and the treatment options for prediabetes among other topics.
Risk Factors For Gestational Diabetes
Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that develops when a person is pregnant.
Most women with gestational diabetes will not have had any diabetes before. Gestational diabetes resolves after the birth of the baby.
Once a woman has had gestational diabetes, the chances are that it will return in future pregnancies. Also, having had gestational diabetes, the individuals risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases sevenfold.
Risk factors for gestational diabetes are much the same as other kinds of diabetes. These include:
- a family or personal history of diabetes
There is no cure for diabetes at present. However, a person can reverse diabetes or see it go into remission.
A return to normal blood glucose levels for at least 1 year without using medication suggests that diabetes is in remission.
Early diagnosis and proper treatment can help prevent or delay diabetes-induced difficulties. Knowing the risk factors can help people to identify and manage diabetes before it causes problems.
While a person cannot avoid some risk factors, such as age and race, they can take steps to reduce the damage of others, including high blood pressure, excess body weight, and a poor diet.
Controlling these risk factors can go a long way towards of diabetes or the possibility of developing it.
These steps include:
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When Can You Develop Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes can develop at any stage in life. Historically, it has always been more common in those under 20. However, recent studies have shown that people are increasingly developing type 1 diabetes as adults. Its almost equal to or more common than onset in children and adolescents.
So, it is possible to develop type 1 diabetes as an adult, but the severity is often less than in children. In many cases, doctors could misdiagnose it as type 2.
What Are The Risk Factors For Type 2 Diabetes
You can develop type 2 diabetes at any age, even during childhood. You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you1
- are age 35 or older. Children and teens can also develop type 2 diabetes, but the risk increases as a person gets older.
- have a family history of diabetes.
- are African American, American Indian, Asian American, Hispanic/Latino, or Pacific Islander.
- are not physically active, because of physical limitations, a sedentary lifestyle, or a job that requires sitting for long periods of time.
- have prediabetes.
- have a history of gestational diabetes, a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy, or gave birth to a baby weighing 9 pounds or more.
Children and teens are also at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes if, in addition to the previous risk factors, they were born with a low birth weight or if their parent had gestational diabetes while pregnant with the child.1
You are encouraged to talk with a doctor about any of the health conditions listed above that may require medical treatment. Managing health problems may help reduce your chances of developing type 2 diabetes.2 Also, ask your doctor about any medicines you or your child take that might increase your risk. You can also take the Diabetes Risk Test to learn more about your risk for type 2 diabetes.
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Symptoms Of Dry Eye Syndrome
The discomforts of dry eye patients may have a burning sensation, foreign body sensation, stickiness, watering, red eye, photophobia, and blurring of vision. It has been seen that a gritty sensation is the most prominent symptom followed by the abnormalities of the tear film in patients with diabetes-related DES. Severe cases may give rise to ocular complications such as Keratoepitheliopathy and keratitis. These issues will need to be addressed by healthcare professionals.
Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes
High blood glucose levels often cause signs and symptoms of diabetes. Common signs and symptoms include:
- being more thirsty than usual
- passing more urine
People can assess their risk of developing type 2 diabetes by completing the Australian type 2 diabetes risk test . However the AUSDRISK score is not accurate in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people they need to have a blood test each year to check for diabetes. If you are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes, it is strongly recommended that you have a laboratory blood glucose test ordered by your doctor to check if you have diabetes. Dont wait for symptoms to develop, as these may not appear until blood glucose levels are quite high.
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What Does It Mean If Test Results Show I Have Protein In My Urine
This means your kidneys are allowing protein to be filtered through and now appear in your urine. This condition is called proteinuria. The continued presence of protein in your urine is a sign of kidney damage.
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Theres much you can do to prevent the development of diabetes . However, if you or your child or adolescent develop symptoms of diabetes, see your healthcare provider. The earlier diabetes is diagnosed, the sooner steps can be taken to treat and manage it. The better you are able to manage your blood sugar level, the more likely you are to live a long, healthy life.
Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services.Policy
Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services.Policy
What Environmental Factors Affect Diabetes Risk
Having a virus at an early age may trigger type 1 diabetes in some individuals.
People are also more likely to have type 1 diabetes if they live in a cold climate. Doctors also diagnose people with type 1 diabetes in the winter more often than the summer.
Several studies suggest that air pollution might also put you at an increased risk of developing diabetes.
For type 1 diabetes, its unclear if there are any lifestyle related risk factors.
Type 2 diabetes is often lifestyle-related. Lifestyle factors that increase risk include:
According to the American Academy of Family Physicians, obesity is the single greatest risk factor for type 2 diabetes.
People are also more likely to experience type 2 diabetes if they have the following conditions:
- acanthosis nigricans, a skin condition that makes the skin appear darker than usual
- hypertension greater than 130/80 mm Hg
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Controllable Risk Factors For Diabetes
You may not be able to control your genetics or the hand of time, but there are a number of factors that you can change that might reduce your risk of developing diabetes.
Controllable risk factors include:
- High blood pressure or high cholesterol
- Not physically active
Carrying excess weight may be the biggest risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Nearly 90% of the people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese. Researchers arent really sure how weight increases diabetes risk, but theorize that the extra weight may make your body less sensitive to insulin, making it less effective.
If you have high blood pressure or high cholesterol your risk of developing diabetes increases. Losing weight and making changes to your diet may help lower both your blood pressure and cholesterol and reduce your risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
Its hard enough juggling work and life, let alone trying to find time to make it the gym. But if youre not making time to be more active, you might be putting yourself at risk of developing diabetes. Inactivity isnt as big of a risk factor as weight, but its up there and its something you can easily change.
How Does Diabetes Affect Your Heart Eyes Feet Nerves And Kidneys
Blood vessels are located throughout our bodys tissues and organs. They surround our bodys cells, providing a transfer of oxygen, nutrients and other substances, using blood as the exchange vehicle. In simple terms, diabetes doesnt allow glucose to get into cells and it damages blood vessels in/near these organs and those that nourish nerves. If organs, nerves and tissues cant get the essentials they need to properly function, they can begin to fail. Proper function means that your hearts blood vessels, including arteries, are not damaged . In your kidneys, this means that waste products can be filtered out of your blood. In your eyes, this means that the blood vessels in your retina remain intact. In your feet and nerves, this means that nerves are nourished and that theres blood flow to your feet. Diabetes causes damage that prevents proper function.
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Symptoms And Complications Of Gdm
There are many women who experience no symptoms of gestational diabetes and go on to have a healthy pregnancy. However, for those that do, these symptoms typically can include:
- General fatigue
Some complications and pregnancy outcomes can include:
- Low blood sugar in the infant at birth
- Increased risk of cesarean delivery
- Postpartum type 2 diabetes
What Causes Gestational Diabetes
Most researchers believe gestational diabetes is somehow tied to an overproduction of hormones by the placenta that occurs during the course of pregnancy.
Some insulin resistance is expected during pregnancy, usually as a result of hormonal changes and weight gain. However, there are several factors that can put women at an increased risk of gestational diabetes.
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Are You Eligible For An Nhs Health Check
Whether you have any other risk factors or not, if youre over 40 your risk of type 2 diabetes and other conditions is higher. If you’re aged 40 to 74 and living in England, you may be eligible for a free NHS Health Check.
It’s a great way to check your health and get personalised advice on keeping yourself healthy and active.
Find out more about the health check on the NHS website, or talk to your GP for more information.
What Is Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome
Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome develops more slowly than diabetes-related ketoacidosis. It occurs in patients with Type 2 diabetes, especially the elderly and usually occurs when patients are ill or stressed. If you have HHNS, you blood glucose level is typically greater than 600 mg/dL. Symptoms include frequent urination, drowsiness, lack of energy and dehydration. HHNS is not associated with ketones in the blood. It can cause coma or death. Youll need to be treated in the hospital.
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Can Diabetes Kill You
Yes, its possible that if diabetes remains undiagnosed and unmanaged it can cause devastating harm to your body. Diabetes can cause heart attack, heart failure, stroke, kidney failure and coma. These complications can lead to your death. Cardiovascular disease in particular is the leading cause of death in adults with diabetes.
Risks For Gestational Diabetes
Gestational diabetes is a temporary condition that occurs during pregnancy. Three to 20 per cent of pregnant women develop gestational diabetes, depending on their risk factors.
All pregnant women should be screened for gestational diabetes between 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy. Women who are at high risk for type 2 diabetes should be screened before 20 weeks of pregnancy.
You’re more likely to develop gestational diabetes if you:
- are 35 years of age or older
- are from a high-risk group
- use corticosteroid medication
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Is Type 2 Diabetes Hereditary
Your genetic makeup refers to your genes or DNA . Genetic disorders are characterized by gene mutations or a change or difference in your DNA sequence. However, this doesnt always mean that genetic mutations are inherited.
When you inherit a genetic mutation, its present at birth. But genes can also mutate or change based on environmental factors. Genes that mutate after birth are not inherited.
Your chance of getting type 2 diabetes increases when you have a first-degree relative who has it. First-degree relatives are your siblings, parents, and children.
One study noted the following statistics regarding family connections:
- If you have one sibling with type 2 diabetes, your risk increases by 2-3%.
- If you have two siblings with type 2 diabetes, your risk increases by 30%.
- The risk is higher if the parent who has it is your mom rather than your dad.
Researchers have identified 150 genetic variations that may increase the risk of diabetes. How these mutations contribute to the disease is still unknown. Most likely, a combination of hereditary and environmental factors causes type 2 diabetes.
Do these statistics mean you inherit type 2 diabetes? Not necessarily. They just show a family connection and a possible genetic predisposition to the disease. Shared lifestyles may also contribute to the family link.
Genetic Risk Score Ascertainment For Type 2 Diabetes
Genetic data were available from participants who underwent genome wide association study from the NHS II nested case-control studies for chronic diseases or participants who underwent genotyping of candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms of type 2 diabetes as part of the Diabetes and Womens Health study. Details about the GWAS/genotyping and quality assurance have been published previously. We constructed an unweighted genetic risk score by selecting 59 SNPs associated with type 2 diabetes. We excluded non-white women to reduce population stratification and women who had a poor genetic sample quality . Of the 4275 women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus, 1372 with high quality genetic data were included in the genetic risk score analysis. Baseline characteristics by status of genetic risk score availability were similar between the two groups. For those participants with missing values in some SNPs, the score was rescaled by dividing by the number of available SNPs and then multiplying by 59.
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