How Does Insulin Work
Insulin is a hormone that allows the body to efficiently use glucose as fuel. After carbohydrates are broken down into sugars in the stomach, glucose enters the blood circulation and stimulates the pancreas to release insulin in the proper amount. Insulin allows body cells to uptake glucose as energy.
Articles On Treatment Options For Type 2 Diabetes
You have lots of options to manage diabetes. Food, exercise, and medication work together to bring your blood sugar under control.
Your doctor will help you figure out if you need to take medicine, which kind is right for you, and how often you should take it.
Over your lifetime, you’ll probably handle your disease in different ways. Sometimes medications stop working, and you’ll have to switch. You’ll need to adjust to changes in your body as you age. And researchers are looking for new diabetes medicines and ways to treat it.
What Other Injectable Medicines Treat Type 2 Diabetes
Besides insulin, other types of injected medicines are available. These medicines help keep your blood glucose level from going too high after you eat. They may make you feel less hungry and help you lose some weight. Other injectable medicines are not substitutes for insulin. Learn more about noninsulin injectable medicines.
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Newer Diabetes Medications: Weighing Benefits And Risks
Lately, newer treatment options for type 2 diabetes glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors have been heavily advertised. These newer drug classes lower blood sugar and also have cardiovascular and kidney benefits.
GLP-1 receptor agonists are drugs that lower blood sugar after eating by helping your bodys insulin work more efficiently. All drugs in this group except one are self-injected under the skin, either daily or weekly. Several of them, such as liraglutide , semaglutide , and dulaglutide , have been shown to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease in people who are at high risk for it, or who have pre-existing heart disease. They also promote weight loss. Some people who take GLP-1 receptor agonists may have side effects such as nausea and vomiting, and in very rare cases pancreatitis.
While these diabetes medications certainly have more to offer than just improvements in blood sugar, they remain costly and inaccessible to many individuals. This is why it is essential to have an open and honest conversation with your doctor about what is most important to you and what aligns with your goals and preferences. Management of a complex disease like diabetes takes an entire team, with you being the key team member.
How Is Type 2 Diabetes Managed
Theres no cure for Type 2 diabetes. But you can manage the condition by maintaining a healthy lifestyle and taking medication if needed. Work with your healthcare provider to manage your:
- Blood sugar: A blood glucose meter or continuous glucose monitoring can help you meet your blood sugar target. Your healthcare provider may also recommend regular A1c tests, oral medications , insulin therapy or injectable non-insulin diabetes medications.
- Blood pressure: Lower your blood pressure by not smoking, exercising regularly and eating a healthy diet. Your healthcare provider may recommend blood pressure medication such as beta blockers or ACE inhibitors.
- Cholesterol: Follow a meal plan low in saturated fats, trans fat, salt and sugar. Your healthcare provider may recommend statins, which are a type of drug to lower cholesterol.
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Emerging And Investigational Drug Therapies
Colesevelam , a bile acid sequestrant used for the treatment of hyperlipidemia, was recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of T2DM. The Glucose-Lowering Effect of WelChol Study showed overall hemoglobin A1c level reduction of up to 1.0% in patients with baseline hemoglobin A1c level greater than 8% over 12 weeks of treatment. This combined improvement in glycemic control and lipid profile gives colesevelam an advantage in the treatment of T2DM. It is administered orally, and its main side effects are gastrointestinal, particularly constipation. The mechanism of action is thought to be delayed or altered absorption of glucose in the intestines .
Ranolazine is FDA approved for the treatment of angina. It is thought to inhibit sodium potassium channels, which promote release of calcium. Recent data from the Metabolic Efficiency With Ranolazine for less Ischemia in Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 36 trial indicate that ranolazine reduces hemoglobin A1c level by 0.6% over 4 months of therapy in patients who presented with diabetes and an acute coronary syndrome. It also reduced hemoglobin A1c level and fasting glucose in nondiabetic patients. Ranolazine reduced the risk of recurrent ischemia and did not increase the risk of hypoglycemia .
Stop Diabetes New Solution In Diabetes Treatment Type 2 Diabetes Surgery Operator Doctor Mehmet Toprak
It is now possible to treat diabetes at the rate of 95%! The most effective method of treatment for Type 2 Diabetes is Type 2 Diabetes Surgery.In order to apply this treatment method, which is also known as , some tests must be performed and The patient’s Body mass index should be above 27.5. If all conditions are suitable, the patient is taken to Type 2 Diabetes Surgery. You Can Say Stop to Type 2 Diabetes. All you have to do is contact the Free Health Consultant for Type 2 Diabetes Treatment Surgery. We carry out Type 2 Diabetes Surgery with our 25 years experienced professor surgeon doctors who are experts in diabetes treatment. We perform Type 2 Diabetes Surgery suitability tests and all other treatment procedures in our hospitals with the latest system and technological equipment. For Type 2 Diabetes treatment surgery, you can contact the Free Health Consultant to answer any questions or find out all the details.
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Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
JOE A. FLORENCE, M.D., and BRYAN F. YEAGER, PHARM.D., University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky
Am Fam Physician. 1999 May 15 59:2835-2844.
See related patient information handout on new treatments for diabetes, provided by an AAFP staff patient education writer.
This article exemplifies the AAFP 1999 Annual Clinical Focus on management and prevention of the complications of diabetes.
Diabetes mellitus affects approximately 16 million people in the United States and accounts for about one sixth of all expenditures for health care.1 Ninety percent of patients with diabetes have type 2 diabetes and often require oral agents or insulin for glucose control. The mortality rate in patients with diabetes may be up to 11 times higher than in persons without the disease.1 Diabetes is a leading cause of blindness, renal failure, and foot and leg amputations in adults. Managed care and budgeted resources challenge clinicians to provide comprehensive health care to patients with diabetes.
Medication To Reduce The Blood Glucose Level
Most of the medicines for type 2 diabetes are given in tablet form. However, some people with type 2 diabetes need insulin injections to help control blood sugar levels. Some people gain a great deal of benefit from insulin injections and these are sometimes used fairly soon after the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes has been made. Insulin injections can be used in combination with other medicines to further improve glucose control.
Medication is used in addition to, and not instead of, the above lifestyle measures.
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Sglt2 Inhibitors And Glp
In 2018, new guidelines also recommended prescribing additional drugs for people with:
- atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
- chronic kidney disease
These are sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors or glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists.
For those with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and a high risk of heart failure, the guidelines advise doctors to prescribe an SGLT2 inhibitor.
GLP-1 receptor agonists work by increasing the amount of insulin the body produces and decreasing the amount of glucose that enters the bloodstream. It is an injectable medication. People may use it with metformin or alone. Side effects include gastrointestinal problems, such as nausea and a loss of appetite.
SLGT2 inhibitors are a new type of drug for lowering blood sugar levels. They work separately from insulin, and may be useful for people who are not ready to start using insulin. People can take it by mouth. Side effects include a higher risk of urinary and genital infections and ketoacidosis.
effective diabetes management , helping to regulate meal scheduling, physical activity, and when to take medication, including insulin.
While self-monitoring blood glucose machines vary, they will generally include a meter and test strip for generating readings. It will also involve using a lancing device to prick the skin for obtaining a small quantity of blood.
Living With Type 2 Diabetes
Having type 2 diabetes can bring up lots of questions about your lifestyle, but were here with the answers. From nutritional advice and recipes to help you know what to eat when you have type 2 diabetes, tips about diabetes and alcohol and keeping active and staying fit were here to support you.
Weve also got more information for different age groups, such as young people and older people, as well as practical school advice for parents of children with diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is also associated with other health conditions, such as thyroid disease and dental problems. Its important to be aware of these, so make sure to read our information about diabetes related conditions.
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Medicines For Type 2 Diabetes
Most people need medicine to control their type 2 diabetes.
Medicine helps keep your blood sugar level as normal as possible to prevent health problems. You may have to take it for the rest of your life.
Diabetes usually gets worse over time, so your medicine or dose may need to change.
Adjusting your diet and being active is usually necessary to keep your blood sugar level down.
Signs And Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes
The symptoms of type 2 diabetes can be so mild that you don’t notice them. About 8 million people who have it don’t know it. Symptoms include:
- Being very thirsty
- Weight loss without trying
- Getting more infections
If you have dark rashes around your neck or armpits, see your doctor. These are called acanthosis nigricans, and they can be signs that your body is becoming resistant to insulin.
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Causes Of Type 2 Diabetes
Insulin is a naturally occurring hormone. Your pancreas produces it and releases it when you eat. Insulin helps transport glucose from your bloodstream to cells throughout your body, where its used for energy.
If you have type 2 diabetes, your body becomes resistant to insulin. Your body is no longer using the hormone efficiently. This forces your pancreas to work harder to make more insulin.
Over time, this can damage cells in your pancreas. Eventually, your pancreas may not be able to produce any insulin.
If you dont produce enough insulin or if your body doesnt use it efficiently, glucose builds up in your bloodstream. This leaves your bodys cells starved for energy. Doctors dont know exactly what triggers this series of events. It may have to do with cell dysfunction in the pancreas or with cell signaling and regulation.
While lifestyle choices are typically what trigger type 2 diabetes, you may be with it if:
- theres a genetic predisposition to developing type 2 diabetes in your family
- theres a genetic predisposition to developing obesity in your family, which can increase the risk of insulin resistance and diabetes
- you are at least 45 years old
- you are Black, Hispanic/Latino, Native American, or of Alaska Native descent
While the definitive trigger of type 2 diabetes is your bodys resistance to insulin, theres usually a combination of factors that increase your risk of that resistance occurring.
There Are A Number Of Treatments Available To Help You Manage And Treat Your Diabetes Everyone Is Different So Treatment Will Vary Depending On Your Own Individual Needs
If you have type 1 diabetes, youll need to use insulin to treat your diabetes. You take the insulin by injection or by using a pump.
If you have Type 2 diabetes, you may have to use insulin or tablets, though you might initially be able to treat your diabetes by eating well and moving more.
If you have another type of diabetes, your treatment options may be different. Speak to your healthcare professional, or call our helpline if youre not sure.
Your GP or a healthcare professional can help you find the right diabetes treatment plan to suit you and your lifestyle.
People with diabetes are entitled to free prescriptions.
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Type 2 Diabetes In Children And Teens
Childhood obesity rates are rising, and so are the rates of type 2 diabetes in youth. More than 75% of children with type 2 diabetes have a close relative who has it, too. But its not always because family members are related it can also be because they share certain habits that can increase their risk. Parents can help prevent or delay type 2 diabetes by developing a plan for the whole family:
- Drinking more water and fewer sugary drinks
- Eating more fruits and vegetables
- Making favorite foods healthier
- Making physical activity more fun
Healthy changes become habits more easily when everyone makes them together. Find out how to take charge family style with these healthy tips.
Type 2 Diabetes And Eye Damage
Diabetic retinopathy is damage to the tiny blood vessels within the retina of the eye due to high blood sugar levels over time. This can cause progressive and permanent vision loss. Diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of new blindness in people between 20 and 74. This image shows pools of blood, or hemorrhages, in the retina.
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Take Medicines As Prescribed
Several medicines are available for people with type 2 diabetes. They work in different ways to help the body make or respond to insulin better.
Sometimes pills for diabetes even when combined with diet and exercise aren’t enough to keep blood sugar levels under control. Some people with type 2 diabetes also have to take insulin. The only way to get insulin into the body now is by injection with a needle or with an insulin pump. If someone tried to take insulin as a pill, the acids and digestive juices in the stomach and intestines would break down the medicine, and it wouldn’t work.
Getting insulin injections today is nearly painless, thanks to smaller needles. Insulin pumps cut down on the number of injections needed.
Different kinds of insulin are used for different purposes. The types of insulin you use and how you take it each day will depend on what’s best for you and your daily schedule.
If you take an insulin shot but forget to eat, your blood sugar levels can get too low. So try to avoid skipping meals or snacks. If your parents remind you to eat when you take your insulin, it’s probably because they worry about you, not because they’re trying to nag you!
Your diabetes health care team will teach you how and when to give yourself insulin.
Complications Of Type 2 Diabetes Treatment
Medications for type 2 diabetes, like most other medications, can cause side-effects in some people. You can find out more about diabetes medications and their side-effects from our separate leaflet called Type 2 Diabetes Treatment.
However, one important side-effect which can affect people taking insulin and/or certain diabetes tablets is hypoglycaemia . This occurs when the level of glucose becomes too low, usually under 4 mmol/L. Not all tablet medicines used for diabetes can cause a hypo – for example, metformin does not cause this.
A hypo may occur if you have too much diabetes medication, have delayed or missed a meal or snack, or have taken part in unplanned exercise or physical activity. You can find out more about the symptoms and treatments of hypos from our separate leaflet called Hypoglycaemia .
Until about 20 years ago, the medication options for treatment of type 2 diabetes were fairly limited. Insulin, along with a group of medicines called the sulfonylureas, can cause hypos . In the last 20 years, as newer medication has been developed, many people do not need to take sulfonylureas. In fact, more and more people never need to take insulin as newer agents offer more options for type 2 diabetes treatment.
Note: hypoglycaemia cannot occur if you are treated with diet alone.
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Postprandial Hyperglycemia And Cardiovascular Disease
Reports from epidemiologic studies suggest that postprandial hyperglycemia is associated with increased cardiovascular risk independent of fasting hyperglycemia . Furthermore, some available evidence indicates that postprandial glycemic excursion may be a more dominant cardiovascular risk factor than fasting hyperglycemia . In a meta-analysis of several studies with a pooled population of more than 95 000 subjects, the relative cardiovascular event risk was 1.33 in subjects with impaired fasting glucose compared to 1.58 in individuals with IGT . Postprandial hyperglycemia has been demonstrated to correlate negatively with endothelial function in patients with T2DM .
Postprandial hyperglycemia can lead to vascular complications by several mechanisms including activation of nuclear factor ÎºB, which in turn can increase the expression of a number of genes in endothelial cells, monocyte-macrophages, and vascular smooth muscle cells . Acute glycemic excursions have also been shown to elicit increased level of oxidative stress, which has been linked to endothelial dysfunction , production of thrombotic factors, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and lipid peroxidation .
Receiving A Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis
Whether or not you have prediabetes, you should see your doctor right away if you think you may be experiencing symptoms of diabetes. Your doctor can get a lot of information from blood work. Diagnostic testing may include the following:
- Hemoglobin A1C test.This test measures average blood glucose levels for the previous 2 or 3 months. You dont need to fast for this test, and your doctor can diagnose you based on the results. Its also called a glycosylated hemoglobin test.
- Fasting plasma glucose test. This test measures how much glucose is in your plasma. You may need to fast for 8 hours before taking it.
- Oral glucose tolerance test. During this test, your blood is drawn three times: before, 1 hour after, and 2 hours after you drink a dose of glucose. The test results show how well your body deals with glucose before and after the drink.
If you have diabetes, your doctor will provide you with information about how to manage the disease, including:
- how to monitor blood glucose levels on your own
- dietary recommendations
- physical activity recommendations
- information about any medications that you need
You may need to see an endocrinologist who specializes in the treatment of diabetes. Youll probably need to visit your doctor more often at first to make sure your treatment plan is working.
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