Can Prediabetes Be Prevented Or Avoided
Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes can be delayed and even prevented. Usually this is done by losing weight if you are overweight, eating a healthy diet, and exercising regularly. The longer you have prediabetes or diabetes, the more health problems you may experience. So even just delaying the onset of the disease can help your health.
Questions To Ask Your Doctor
- If I have prediabetes, will I get diabetes?
- What is the best step I can take to avoid getting diabetes?
- My father has diabetes. Should I be screened for prediabetes on a regular basis?
- I have diabetes. Should I have my children screened for prediabetes?
- I had gestational diabetes. Should I be screened for prediabetes regularly?
- Are there any foods I should eat that will help me to avoid prediabetes?
- Should I speak with a dietitian about changing what I eat?
You Have The Power To Change Things
For some people with prediabetes, early treatment as well as moderate lifestyle changes can actually return blood sugar levels to a normal range, effectively preventing or delaying type 2 diabetes. Ask your doctor plenty of questions and listen to the answers you get. Increase your daily physical activity. Start eating healthy. And your life can be yours again.
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Sglt2 Inhibitors And Glp
In 2018, new guidelines also recommended prescribing additional drugs for people with:
- atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
- chronic kidney disease
These are sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors or glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists.
For those with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and a high risk of heart failure, the guidelines advise doctors to prescribe an SGLT2 inhibitor.
GLP-1 receptor agonists work by increasing the amount of insulin the body produces and decreasing the amount of glucose that enters the bloodstream. It is an injectable medication. People may use it with metformin or alone. Side effects include gastrointestinal problems, such as nausea and a loss of appetite.
SLGT2 inhibitors are a new type of drug for lowering blood sugar levels. They work separately from insulin, and may be useful for people who are not ready to start using insulin. People can take it by mouth. Side effects include a higher risk of urinary and genital infections and ketoacidosis.
effective diabetes management , helping to regulate meal scheduling, physical activity, and when to take medication, including insulin.
While self-monitoring blood glucose machines vary, they will generally include a meter and test strip for generating readings. It will also involve using a lancing device to prick the skin for obtaining a small quantity of blood.
Children And Prediabetes Testing
Doctors diagnose prediabetes based on the same blood sugar levels, no matter the personâs age. The American Diabetes Association says children 10 and older should be tested if theyâre overweight or obese and have:
- A family member with type 2 diabetes
- A mother who had gestational diabetes while pregnant with the child
- Native American, Black, Hispanic, Asian American, or Pacific Islander heritage
- Signs of insulin resistance or conditions linked to it, such as a low birth weight, high blood pressure, or polycystic ovary syndrome
If a child who has a high chance of getting prediabetes has normal test results, the American Diabetes Association advises testing them again at least every 3 years.
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Youre Suddenly Losing Weight
Fluctuating weight is also a shocking symptom of diabetes in women thats often ignored.
Low levels of insulin affect sugar absorption and energy generation. So your body finds new ways to replace glucose. The easiest way is to burn excess fat and use it to generate energy, causing sudden weight loss.
If youve lost up to 5% or more of your body weight within a short period, it could be a sign of too high blood sugar levels.
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Neda Laiteerapong Md Ms
Neda Laiteerapong is a practicing general internist and researcher in the Department of Medicine at the University of Chicago. Dr. Laiteerapongs work focuses on improving the understanding of how the quality of life in older adults with diabetes is affected by geriatric syndromes, hypoglycemia and macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes.
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How To Use The Record
First read the shaded bar across the page. This tells you:
- the name of the test or check-up
- how often to get the test or check-up
- what your personal goal is
Then, write down the date and results for each test or check-up you get. Take this card with you on your health carevisits. Show it to your health care team. Talk about your goals and how you are doing.
|A1C At least twice each year||My goal: ______|
Dry Mouth And Itchy Skin
During diabetes, your body becomes incapable of reabsorbing glucose while it passes through the kidneys and makes it bring all back. This condition gives rise to the increased urge to pee. While your body uses fluids to make urine, other body parts lack moisture and lead to dehydration. Due to this, a person having diabetes experience a dry mouth, which gives rise to itchy skin.
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Tests And Diagnosis For Prediabetes
Your doctor will do at least one of these tests:
Fasting plasma glucose test. You wonât eat for 8 hours, and then a technician will take your blood to test the sugar levels. The results are:
- Normal if your blood sugar is less than 100 milligrams per deciliter
- Prediabetes if your blood sugar is 100 to 125 mg/dL
- Diabetes if your blood sugar is 126 mg/dL or higher
Oral glucose tolerance test. First, you’ll have a fasting plasma glucose test. Then, you’ll drink something sugary. Two hours after that, a technician will take and test more blood. The results are:
- Normal if your blood sugar is less than 140 mg/dL after the second test
- Prediabetes if your blood sugar is 140 to 199 mg/dL after the second test
- Diabetes if your blood sugar is 200 mg/dL or higher after the second test
Hemoglobin A1c test. This blood test shows your average blood sugar levels for the past 2 to 3 months. Doctors give it to people who have diabetes to see if their blood sugar levels are under control. They can also use it to diagnose prediabetes or diabetes. The results are:
- Normal if itâs 5.6% or less
- Prediabetes if itâs 5.7 to 6.4%
- Diabetes if itâs 6.5% or above
You may need to take the test again to confirm the results.
How Can We Change This
It is important to understand that delaying treatment changes in diabetes management means that the body is exposed to higher blood sugar levels. Diabetes itself does not cause complications, but uncontrolled diabetes does. Achieving your A1C target can help you live a longer and healthier life. It is okay to ask your diabetes team about your A1C level and to ask about adding another medication to help you achieve your goal.
It is YOUR diabetes, and YOU are in charge. Knowing your A1C target and what you can do to achieve it is part of the discussion you should have with your healthcare team. Remember: more medication does not mean you have poorly controlled diabetes, it means that you are working hard to take care of your diabetes.
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Watch Carbs With The Glycemic Index
The glycemic index is a tool you can use to determine how a particular food could affect your blood sugar.
Foods that are high on the GI will raise your blood sugar faster. Foods ranked lower on the scale have less effect on your blood sugar spike. Foods with high fiber are low on the GI. Foods that are processed, refined, and void of fiber and nutrients register high on the GI.
Refined carbohydrates rank high on the GI. These are grain products that digest quickly in your stomach. Examples are white bread, russet potatoes, and white rice, along with soda and juice. Limit these foods whenever possible if you have prediabetes.
Foods that rank medium on the GI are fine to eat. Examples include whole-wheat bread and brown rice. Still, they arent as good as foods that rank low on the GI.
Foods that are low on the GI are best for your blood sugar. Incorporate the following items in your diet:
Food and nutrition labels dont reveal the GI of a given item. Instead make note of the fiber content listed on the label to help determine a foods GI ranking.
Eating mixed meals is a great way to lower a foods given GI. For example, if you plan to eat white rice, add vegetables and chicken to slow down the digestion of the grain and minimize spikes.
How Much Is Too Much
Insulin helps people living with diabetes live an active lifestyle. However, it can lead to serious side effects, especially if a person administers too much.
Excessive insulin can cause hypoglycemia, or extremely low blood sugar, and lead to nausea, sweating, and shaking.
It is essential that people measure insulin carefully, adjust their medications based on their needs, and eat a consistent diet that helps to balance blood sugar levels as much as possible.
In addition to insulin, other types of medication are available that can help people manage their condition.
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Drinking Plenty Of Water
Water is an important part of any healthy diet. Drink enough water each day to keep you from becoming dehydrated. If you have prediabetes, water is a healthier alternative than sugary sodas, juices, and energy drinks.
The amount of water you should drink every day depends on your body size, activity level, and the climate you live in.
You can determine if youre drinking enough water by monitoring the volume of urine when you go. Also make note of the color. Your urine should be pale yellow.
Exercise is a part of any healthy lifestyle. Its especially important for those with prediabetes.
A lack of physical activity has been linked to increased insulin resistance, according to the . Exercise causes muscles to use glucose for energy, and makes the cells work more effectively with insulin.
The NIDDK recommends exercising 5 days a week for at least 30 minutes. Exercise doesnt have to be strenuous or overly complicated. Walking, dancing, riding a bicycle, taking an exercise class, or finding another activity you enjoy are all examples of physical activity.
Frequent Utis Or Yeast Infections
As mentioned above, having too high of blood glucose can cause your urine to have glucose in it when normally glucose is not found in urine. The presence of glucose in the urinary tract and genital area may lead to infections, such as urinary tract infections or yeast infections.
Researchers also theorize that both poor circulation and immune response, common in people with diabetes , may also play a role in the increased risk of yeast and urinary tract infections.
These infections are more common in women but can occur in men as well. If you are a woman and find yourself with recurrent UTIs or yeast infections, or are a man who has been diagnosed with one, ask your healthcare provider if diabetes might be to blame.
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What Causes Insulin Resistance
Researchers dont understand exactly what causes cells to become insulin resistant. But its possible that carrying excess weight and being physically inactive contribute:
- Belly fat can increase inflammation in the body, which may lead to insulin resistance.
- Exercise causes changes in your body that help keep blood sugar levels in balance. Lack of activity makes it difficult to maintain that balance.
Prediabetes Causes And Risk Factors
Youâre more likely to get prediabetes if you:
- Are older, especially over age 45
- Have a waist larger than 40 inches around if youâre a man and 35 inches around if youâre a woman.
- Eat a lot of red and processed meat, drink sugary beverages, and donât eat much fruit, veggies, nuts, whole grains, or olive oil
- Are Black, Native American, Latino, or Pacific Islander
- Are overweight or obese, especially if you have extra pounds around your middle
- Have a sleep problem, like sleep apnea, or work changing shifts or night shifts
Get tested for prediabetes if those things apply to you and if you:
- Have had an unusual blood sugar reading
- Show signs of insulin resistance, which means your body makes insulin but doesn’t respond to it the way it should. These include darkened areas of skin, trouble concentrating, and more fatigue or hunger than usual.
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Youve Had Many Infections In A Short Period
You might also become increasingly prone to infections as high blood sugar weakens the immune system. Spikes in sugar lead to hyperglycemia which makes your organs susceptible to bacterial and viral infections.
If youve noticed frequent infections within a short time, this may be a symptom of diabetes.
Eat A Healthy And Balanced Diet
Theres no one special diet for all people at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Everyone is individual, so there isnt a one size fits all way of eating for everyone. But, the food and drink we have in our overall diet is linked to our risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
For example, if your overall diet is made up of food and drinks that are in high fat, have a high GI and low fibre content, this is linked to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. But the good news is that by changing some of your food and drink choices, you can reduce your risk of type 2 diabetes.
But what is a healthy and balanced diet anyway? All of these ways of eating have been linked with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes:
- the Nordic diet
- moderately cutting down on carbohydrates.
This is because they are made up of healthy foods like fruits, vegetables, wholegrains and lean proteins and its the overall balance of our diet that is important in keeping us healthy.
So, to reduce your risk, aim to eat more of the foods linked with a decreased risk. Research has shown us that the following foods and drinks can be associated with a decreased risk
- total fruit and veg intake
- yogurt and cheese
- unsweetened tea and coffee
Additionally, there are some foods we recommend reducing your intake of, as these have been associated with an increased risk. These foods include:
- sugar sweetened drinks
- refined carbohydrates
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Whats The Outlook For People With Prediabetes
Prediabetes increases your risk of having diabetes, heart disease and stroke. But you can take steps to lower your risk.
Talk to your healthcare provider about how you can stay healthy, including:
- Getting regular blood sugar tests and other screening tests you may need.
- Working toward a healthy weight.
- Getting regular exercise.
- Taking medications you may need.
Why Does Blood Sugar Control Matter
Controlling blood sugar levels is important to prevent or delay diabetes complications, including eye disease, kidney disease, nerve disease and heart disease. Early control of glucose matters. A very large study of people newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes showed clearly that achieving an A1C of less than or equal to 7.0% reduced the risk of complications such as eye diseaseand kidney disease within the first 10 years. In a long-term follow up of the study, those who had a lower A1C also had a lower risk of heart disease 20 years after entering the study. Working hard to achieve glucose targetsearly in diabetes can help people live a longer, healthier life.
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Lifestyle Risk Factors For Type 2 Diabetes
For the most common type of diabetes, type 2 diabetes, there are a number of risk factors over which you can have some control. These include:
- being overweight or obese, especially around the waist
- low levels of physical activity, including more than two hours of television watching per day
- unhealthy eating habits, such as regularly choosing high-fat, high-sugar, high-salt or low-fibre foods
- cigarette smoking.
People at risk need to have a laboratory blood glucose test performed by their doctor to check if they have diabetes. It is important not to wait for symptoms to develop, as these may not appear until the blood glucose is quite high.
What Is Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a condition that is characterised by chronically elevated blood sugar levels. However, the main cause as well as the driver for this condition is something called Insulin Resistance. When you eat certain foods, particularly refined carbohydrates, that food is converted to sugar inside your body. Your bodys way of dealing with this sugar is to produce a hormone called insulin. Insulin moves the sugar inside your cells so that it can be used for energy. Sounds great, right?
Well, yes and no. When working efficiently, this is a fantastic system that helps your body to function well. But when you have type 2 diabetes, prediabetes or significant abdominal obesity, that system does not work so well.
Eating too many refined carbohydrates elevates your insulin levels for long periods of time and your cells start to become resistant to the effects of insulin. Think of this a bit like alcohol. When you start to drink, a single glass of wine can make you feel drunk. Once your body becomes accustomed to drinking, you need more and more alcohol to achieve the same effect. This is what happens in diabetes. You need more and more insulin to do the same thing. The problem is that too much insulin is toxic to the body.
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