Development Of Type 2 Diabetes
The development of type 2 diabetes is thought to be a progression from normal blood sugars to pre-diabetes to a diagnosis of overt diabetes. These stages are defined by blood sugar levels.
The timeline to developing an elevated blood sugar depends on many environmental factors and also on how strong the gene traits are for diabetes. Ultimately, pre-diabetes and diabetes occur when the pancreas cannot make enough insulin to overcome the insulin resistance. Historically pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes has been diagnosed when individuals are older however, because of a wide-spread epidemic of obesity which causes insulin resistance, the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is occurring more frequently at younger and younger ages.
People born with the genetic traits for diabetes are considered to be pre-disposed. Genetically predisposed people may have normal blood sugar levels, but many will have other markers of insulin resistance such, as elevated triglycerides and hypertension. When environmental factors are introduced, such as weight gain, lack of physical activity, or pregnancy, they are likely to develop diabetes.
Some individuals with other types of diabetes may be misdiagnosed as having type 2 diabetes. Up to 10% of individuals who are initially diagnosed with type 2 diabetes may actually have an adult onset of type 1 diabetes also known as LADA or Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adults.
Disability Tax Credit Guide For Diabetes
Over the last few decades, diabetes has been on the rise in Canada and is now one of the most common chronic diseases in the country, affecting close to 2.5 million Canadians.
With the numbers of those who have diabetes growing, many Canadians face hefty bills attached to the disease, costing thousands of dollars each year, which they must pay out of pocket.
If you are reading this article, you or a family member may have diabetes and you are probably looking for information about the Disability Tax Credit and how it can help Canadians suffering from diabetes.
We wrote this article to help diabetic Canadians better understand the Disability Tax Credit, whether theyre a Type 1 or Type 2 diabetic so that they can use the DTC and apply for it with confidence.
Among breaking down what the DTC is, if youre eligible, and more, we will also be explaining the following:
- Does diabetes qualify for the Disability Tax Credit?
- How much money can you receive if found eligible for Disability Tax Credit?
- Am I automatically eligible for the Disability Tax Credit if I use an insulin pump?
- The difference between type 1 and type 2 when applying for the Disability Tax Credit
- Is life-sustaining therapy a marker for the Disability Tax Credit?
- Common reasons those with diabetes are denied for the Disability Tax Credit
What Problems Can Happen With Type 2 Diabetes
Sometimes, kids and teens with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, or obesity might develop thick, dark, velvet-like skin around the neck, armpits, groin, between fingers and toes, or on elbows and knees a cosmetic skin condition called acanthosis nigricans. This skin darkening can lighten over time with improvement in insulin resistance.
Polycystic ovary syndrome in girls is also often associated with insulin resistance. This hormone problem can make the ovaries become enlarged and develop cysts . Girls with PCOS might have irregular periods, might stop having periods, and may have excess facial and body hair growth. It also can cause fertility problems.
People with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes are also more likely to develop hypertension or abnormal levels of blood fats . When these problems cluster together, it’s called metabolic syndrome. People with metabolic syndrome are at risk for heart disease, stroke, and other health problems.
Diabetes also can cause heart disease and stroke, as well as other long-term complications, including eye problems, kidney disease, nerve damage, and gum disease. While these problems don’t usually show up in kids or teens who’ve had type 2 diabetes for only a few years, they can affect them in adulthood, particularly if their diabetes isn’t well controlled.
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Lack Of Insulin Production
This is primarily the cause of type 1 diabetes. It occurs when insulin-producing cells are damaged or destroyed and stop producing insulin. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar into cells throughout the body. The resulting insulin deficiency leaves too much sugar in the blood and not enough in the cells for energy.
Type 2 Diabetes Causes
Type 2 diabetes has several causes: genetics and lifestyle are the most important ones. A combination of these factors can cause insulin resistance, when your body doesnt use insulin as well as it should. Insulin resistance is the most common cause of type 2 diabetes.
Genetics Play a Role in Type 2 DiabetesLifestyle Is Very Important, Too
Genes do play a role in type 2 diabetes, but lifestyle choices are also important. You can, for example, have a genetic mutation that may make you susceptible to type 2, but if you take good care of your body, you may not develop diabetes.
Say that two people have the same genetic mutation. One of them eats well, watches their cholesterol, and stays physically fit, and the other is overweight and inactive. The person who is overweight and inactive is much more likely to develop type 2 diabetes because certain lifestyle choices greatly influence how well your body uses insulin.
- Lack of exercise: Physical activity has many benefitsone of them being that it can help you avoid type 2 diabetes, if youre susceptible.
- Unhealthy meal planning choices: A meal plan filled with high-fat foods and lacking in fiber increases the likelihood of type 2.
- Overweight/Obesity: Lack of exercise and unhealthy meal planning choices can lead to obesity, or make it worse. Being overweight makes it more likely that youll become insulin resistant and can also lead to many other health conditions.
Insulin Resistancenot Type 2 Risk Factors
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What Are Other Benefits & Programs Available To Those Who Have Diabetes
If you live with diabetes, many other government programs can assist you with the added expenses brought on by diabetes.
Here are some of the other programs available to assist those living with diabetes:
- Canadian Pension Plan Disability Benefit is available to Canadians under 65 who have become unable to work because of a disability.
- Diabetes Education Centres provide diabetes education to people who are newly diagnosed and those who have had diabetes for many years.
- Canadian Diabetes Prevention Program provides those with prediabetes or are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes with personalized programs, health coaches, education and more.
- Canadian Diabetes Educator Certification Board develops and administers a certification program for Certified Diabetes Educators in Canada who have extensive knowledge in diabetes care/management and education processes.
These are just a few essential support programs there are many other programs available to help you and your loved ones with the added expenses brought on by diabetes.
The Insulin Resistance Syndrome
Individuals with type 2 diabetes are more likely to be diagnosed with other medical problems such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia. Insulin resistance is thought to worsen and possibly directly cause these problems. The optimal medical care of type 2 diabetes includes not only controlling the blood glucose but also treating high blood pressure, high cholesterol or triglycerides, reducing excess weight and staying physically fit.
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What Are Symptoms Of Prediabetes
Heres the tricky part: many people have no symptoms of prediabetes. This explains why it often goes undiagnosed for many years. Some people may notice areas of darkened skin in the armpits or on the back and sides of their neck. This is called acanthosis nigricans, a skin condition that can occur in people who are obese and/or who have type 2 diabetes.
Because you cant rely on having symptoms, its important to talk with your health care provider about getting screened for prediabetes or diabetes. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force issued new guidelines in August 2021 for screening, recommending that adults aged 35 to 70 years of age who have overweight or obesity get screened for prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, and that clinicians should consider screening at an earlier age in persons from groups with disproportionately high incidence and prevalence . Also, people with a family history of diabetes, a history of gestational diabetes, or a history of polycystic ovary syndrome may need screening at a younger age.
Diagnosing Type 1 Diabetes
To diagnose type 1 diabetes youll need to get blood tests done, one of which is called an A1C screening. A1C screenings measure your blood sugar levels from the past two to three months and can be used to diagnose type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. Life Line Screening also offers an A1C screening from the privacy of you own home through our home tests. You can learn more here.
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Prognosis Of Type 2 Diabetes
Dont lose hope, though. You dont have to be a statistic. Receiving a prompt diagnosis can help you get your health on track and reduce your risk for complications.
Indeed, if you take care to manage your blood sugar by following a healthy diet, exercising regularly, taking your prescribed medication, and losing weight, you may find your quality of life to be better with diabetes than it was before your diagnosis.
Living With Type 2 Diabetes
Having type 2 diabetes can bring up lots of questions about your lifestyle, but were here with the answers. From nutritional advice and recipes to help you know what to eat when you have type 2 diabetes, tips about diabetes and alcohol and keeping active and staying fit were here to support you.
Weve also got more information for different age groups, such as young people and older people, as well as practical school advice for parents of children with diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is also associated with other health conditions, such as thyroid disease and dental problems. Its important to be aware of these, so make sure to read our information about diabetes related conditions.
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You Can Prevent Type 2 Diabetes
Before developing type 2 diabetes, most people have prediabetes, where blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough yet to be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes. People who have prediabetes are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
If you have prediabetes, losing a small amount of weight if youre overweight and getting regular physical activity can lower your risk for developing type 2 diabetes. A lifestyle change program offered through the CDC-led National Diabetes Prevention Program can help you make those changesand make them stick. Through the program, you can lower your risk of developing type 2 diabetes by as much as 58% .
Take the 1-minute test to see if you may be at risk of prediabetes.
Tips For Preventing Type 2 Diabetes
While you cant always prevent type 2 diabetes, there are a few lifestyle tweaks can help delay, or even prevent, the onset. This is true even if you have increased risk factors like prediabetes.
- Diet. The best kind of diet to prevent type 2 diabetes is a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, healthy carbs, healthy fats, and very little refined sugar.
- Exercise. According to the
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Overweight Obesity And Physical Inactivity
You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. The location of body fat also makes a difference. Extra belly fat is linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart and blood vessel disease. To see if your weight puts you at risk for type 2 diabetes, check out these Body Mass Index charts.
Ensuring A Long Life With Diabetes
Death is an unpleasant subject and no one wants to die of any disease. Hence, taking a certain precaution is a must as this can increase the life expectancy to a great extent. The following paragraphs deal with the subject as to how can you increase the life expectancy even if you suffer from a chronic condition like diabetes.
Hence, ensure a long life with diabetes by taking the following simple steps:
- The first and foremost thing which is of prime importance in diabetes is to maintain healthy and recommended levels of blood glucose.In this regard, the following should be kept in mind:
The most important consideration, while you try to manage type 1 diabetes in your child is to regularly monitor the level of blood sugar or blood glucose. The following prescribed range of blood glucose should be kept in mind:
- For a diabetic patient, the fasting blood sugar is under 126mg/dl or even higher.
- As per the American Diabetes Association, the normal blood sugar for a diabetic should be around 80-130mg/dl before the meals and around 200mg/dl a couple of hours after meals.
The recommended levels for type 2 diabetes include:
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Just How Do You Get Type 2 Diabetes
While type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the bodys immune system attacks the beta cells that produce insulin in the pancreas, type 2 diabetes is a dangerous metabolic condition caused by elevated blood glucose levels.
Although your body will respond to high blood glucose levels by producing more insulin, failure to institute recommended lifestyle and dietary changes substantially increases the odds that you will develop type 2 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetics are inefficient at responding to and even releasing insulin after a meal that includes sugars, carbohydrates or fats.
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to assist with the conversion of sugars into fat and energy. If you have diabetes, your blood cells have lost the ability to respond properly to insulin. The unfortunate result is insulin resistance and abnormally high blood sugar levels.
The Role Of Insulin In The Cause Of Type 2 Diabetes
To understand why insulin is important, it helps to know more about how your body uses food for energy. Your body is made up of millions of cells. To make energy, these cells need food in a very simple form. When you eat or drink, much of the food is broken down into a simple sugar called glucose. It moves through your bloodstream to these cells, where it provides the energy your body needs for daily activities.
Insulin and other hormones control the amount of glucose in your bloodstream. Your pancreas is always releasing small amounts of insulin. When the amount of glucose in your blood rises to a certain level, the pancreas will release more insulin to push more glucose into the cells. This causes the glucose levels in the blood to drop.
To keep blood glucose levels from getting too low , your body signals you to eat and releases some glucose from the stores kept in the liver. It also tells the body to release less insulin.
People with diabetes either don’t make insulin or their body’s cells can no longer use their insulin. This leads to high blood sugars. By definition, diabetes is:
- A blood glucose level of greater than or equal to 126 milligrams per deciliter of blood after an 8-hour fast
- A non-fasting glucose level greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL, along with symptoms of diabetes
- A glucose level greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL on a 2-hour glucose tolerance test
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Monitoring Your Own Blood Glucose
If you have type 2 diabetes, as well as having your blood glucose level checked by a healthcare professional every two to six months, you may be advised to monitor your own blood glucose levels at home.
Even if you have a healthy diet and are taking tablets or using insulin therapy, exercise, illness and stress can affect your blood glucose levels.
Other factors that may affect your blood glucose levels include drinking alcohol, taking other medicines and, for women, hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle.
A blood glucose meter is a small device that measures the concentration of glucose in your blood. It can be useful for detecting high blood glucose or low blood glucose .
If blood glucose monitoring is recommended, you should be trained in how to use a blood glucose meter and what you should do if the reading is too high or too low.
Blood glucose meters aren’t currently available for free on the NHS but, in some cases, blood monitoring strips may be. Ask a member of your diabetes care team if you’re unsure.
Read about diabetic eye screening.
Possible Driving Factors Behind Health Disparities
Annals of EpidemiologyPopulation Research and Policy ReviewJournal of General Internal Medicine PLoS MedicineJournal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Taking the ADAs 60-Second Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test can help you determine whether youre at a higher risk for diabetes based on a number of factors, including your race or ethnicity.
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Foods And Beverages To Limit
If youve been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, or even if youre trying to avoid diabetes and manage your weight, there are certain foods and beverages that you should limit if possible. These include:
- foods heavy in saturated or trans fats
- refined baked goods
- high-sugar, highly processed snacks
- sugary drinks
While no one food, enjoyed every so often, should knock you off your healthy path, its a good idea to talk with your doctor about dietary restrictions based on your blood sugar levels. Some people may need to monitor their glucose more carefully than others after eating these foods.