Occurrence In The United States
A 2017 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report estimated that in the United States, as of 2015, 30.3 million persons of all ages, or 9.4% of the population, had diabetes and 84.1 million adults had prediabetes.
Prediabetes, as defined by the American Diabetes Association, is that state in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. It is presumed that most persons with prediabetes will subsequently progress to diabetes. In 2015, according to the CDC report, prediabetes was present in 23.1 million persons aged 65 years or older .
A study by Andes et al using a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicated that in the United States, prediabetes exists in approximately 1 out of 5 adolescents and 1 out of 4 young adults.
As estimated for 2015, diabetes occurred in 4.6 million adults aged 18-44 years , 14.3 million aged 45-64 years , and 12.0 million aged 65 years or older . Of those adults with diabetes, however, 7.2 million did not know or did not report that they had the disease.
In 2014, the CDC reported that about 40% of US adults will develop diabetes, primarily type 2, in their lifetime, and more than 50% of ethnic minorities will be affected. This is substantially higher than previous estimates. The central reason for the increase is obesity.
We Need A Strategy Now
Although people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes have different journeys, including whether or not they experience symptoms, there is one issue that unites all people living with the disease. Canada has no strategy to address one of the most significant health-care crisis of our time.
With no dedicated support or action to tackle the diabetes epidemic, it means that, every 24 hours:
- more than 20 Canadians die of diabetes-related complications
- 480 more Canadians are diagnosed with this devastating disease
- 14 Canadians have a lower limb amputation
- our health care system spends $75 million treating diabetes
What Are The Early Signs Of Kidney Disease In Patients With Diabetes
The earliest sign of diabetic kidney disease is an increased excretion of albumin in the urine. This is present long before the usual tests done in your doctor’s office show evidence of kidney disease, so it is important for you to have this test on a yearly basis. Weight gain and ankle swelling may occur. You will use the bathroom more at night. Your blood pressure may get too high. As a person with diabetes, you should have your blood, urine and blood pressure checked at least once a year. This will lead to better control of your disease and early treatment of high blood pressure and kidney disease. Maintaining control of your diabetes can lower your risk of developing severe kidney disease.
You May Like: Does Diabetes Affect Your Stomach
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is an important marker of insulin resistance. It is the most common liver abnormality seen in children and is present in approximately 50% of children with T2DM . A 20-year follow-up study of adolescents with NAFLD reported that 6% died or required a liver transplant with a standardized morality ratio of 13.6 . This would suggest that the combination of T2DM and NAFLD developing early in life is likely to lead to substantial morbidity and mortality.
Living With Type 2 Diabetes
Having type 2 diabetes can bring up lots of questions about your lifestyle, but were here with the answers. From nutritional advice and recipes to help you know what to eat when you have type 2 diabetes, tips about diabetes and alcohol and keeping active and staying fit were here to support you.
Type 2 diabetes is also associated with other health conditions, such as thyroid disease and dental problems. Its important to be aware of these, so make sure to read our information about diabetes related conditions.
Read Also: Type 2 Diabetes Dry Mouth
Signs Of Adult Diabetes:
Our human physique is designed in such a method that it sends warning alerts before any disease crops up. The same happens with diabetes. Warning indicators diabetes provides are fully attributable to elevated blood glucose levels.
A few of these alerts are listed beneath:
Polydypsia An individual with signs of grownup diabetes suffers with excessive thirst and consumes extreme quantities of water. The reason being blood will get concentrated because of the presence of glucose. This instantly sends alerts to the brain on account of which cells release their inner water content into the blood. Consequently, cells get dehydrated and wish water so as to replenish the lost moisture levels.
Polyphagia Additionally, referred to as excessive starvation, this is yet one more warning signal associated to diabetes. In sort 2 diabetes, insulin is under-utilized. In consequence, the hormone stays in the blood, thereby sending a sign to the brain about want of glucose. In regular conditions, pancreas releases insulin solely when an individual is hungry.
Polyuria This is without doubt one of the most attribute warning signs diabetes offers where an individual suffers with the urge to urinate frequently. Kidney or the renal system is the primary excretory organ of our physique that removes something thats present in excess. Presence of glucose constantly stimulates the renal organs to launch it from the system. This is the reason why diabetics expertise polyuria.
Can Type 2 Diabetes Be Prevented
You can take steps to help prevent or delay type 2 diabetes by losing weight if you are overweight, eating fewer calories, and being more physically active. If you have a condition which raises your risk for type 2 diabetes, managing that condition may lower your risk of getting type 2 diabetes.
NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Read Also: Can Diet And Exercise Cure Type 2 Diabetes
Whats The Difference Between Type 1 And Lada
Type 1 diabetes is a fast-progressing, strong autoimmune condition which results in a near complete loss of insulin production between 12-18 months on average. Patients with type 1 diabetes often test positive for multiple antibodies to beta cell proteins.
Type 1.5 diabetes is a slow-progressing, weaker autoimmune condition which results in a decline in insulin production that may take years to develop. Patients with type 1.5 diabetes often test positive for a single antibody to beta cell proteins.
As we mentioned above, identifying these conditions through the onset of their symptoms can be difficult. However, both adult-onset type 1 diabetes and LADA/type 1.5 diabetes can be effectively identified with two decisive tests: the C-peptide test, and a diabetes antibody panel.
What Are The Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes
Many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms at all. If you do have them, the symptoms develop slowly over several years. They might be so mild that you do not notice them. The symptoms can include:
- Increased thirst and urination
- Numbness or tingling in the feet or hands
- Sores that do not heal
- Unexplained weight loss
Managing Type 2 Diabetes
Many people with type 2 diabetes can manage their blood glucose levels with diet and exercise alone. Others may need diabetes pills or insulin injections, along with medicines to manage other conditions like high blood pressure and high cholesterol. Over time, a person with diabetes may need both lifestyle changes and medication.
Once youve been told you have diabetes, a health care team will work with you to create a diabetes management plan. Your plan will be based on your lifestyle, preferences, health goals, and other health conditions you have.
As part of your plan, your doctor may prescribe one or more medications. Other health care professionals may also be involved. For example, a diabetes educator may help you understand diabetes and provide support as you make lifestyle changes to manage your diabetes. A dietitian may help with meal planning. An exercise coach may help you become more physically active.
Assessment Of Diabetes Mellitus
On the baseline and subsequent biennial questionnaires, we asked the participants if andwhen they had ever been diagnosed with diabetes . At baseline, 2095 women reported a previous diagnosis of diabetes.During follow-up , an additional 5305 women reported a diagnosis. We excludedwomen who had diabetes before age 30 years because they were most likely to have type 1diabetes .
Self-reported diabetes was validated by a supplementary questionnaire regarding symptoms,diagnostic tests, and treatment of diabetes and confirmed by medical record review in a sample . We obtained medical records in a random sample of 84 participantswho reported a diagnosis of diabetes. Of the 84 women, 71 provided permission for medicalrecord review medical records could be obtained for 62. An endocrinologist who was blinded tothe information reported on the supplementary questionnaire reviewed the available recordsusing the National Diabetes Data Group Criteria . The diagnosis oftype 2 diabetes was confirmed by medical record review in 61 of the 62 women .
Recommended Reading: How To Control Diabetes Without Insulin
Diagnosis And Management Of Adult
Correctly identifying diabetes etiology and type is difficult, and misclassification may occur in up to 40% of adults presenting with type 1 diabetes . Reasons underlying misclassification are multiple and include 1) lack of awareness that the onset of type 1 diabetes is not limited to children 2) the overwhelming majority of people developing diabetes as older adults have type 2 diabetes, contributing to a confirmation bias 3) typical clinical criteria, such as BMI and metabolic syndrome, can be poor discriminators, especially as rates of obesity in the overall population increase 4) clinical characteristics of adult-onset type 1 diabetes can masquerade as type 2 diabetes, given their slow metabolic progression and risk of metabolic syndrome , so that the distinction between types of diabetes may be blurred and 5) lack of awareness of and accessibility to biomarkers that may serve as tools to distinguish type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
Checking Your Blood Sugar Levels
Checking your blood sugar levels is an important part of managing your diabetes, so well take you through how to check them and what your readings mean.
Recommended Reading: How Can Diabetes Be Managed
Are Some People More Likely To Develop Type 2 Diabetes Than Others
A person who has a highly inflammatory diet and carries excess adiposity around their central organs is more likely to get type 2 diabetes, says Dr. Christofides. Excess weight and obesity are risk factors for type 2 diabetes, but how your body stores and manages weight can also be an early indicator of risk.
Research has shown that people who carry too much fat around their middle are more prone to health risks such as type 2 diabetes. Certain communities also show a greater propensity for developing type 2 diabetes, including people who are Black, Latinx, Asian, and Indigenous.
What Are Key Differences Between Type 1 Diabetes And Type 2 Diabetes
When comparing type 1 vs type 2 diabetes, there are a few major differences:
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. You cant reverse type 1 diabetes, you can only manage it. Type 2 diabetes can be reversed with effective intervention and lifestyle changes.
In type 1 diabetes, your pancreas is unable to produce insulin, whereas in type 2 diabetes, your insulin production is limited, and the response of your body to that insulin is decreased.
A person with type 1 diabetes could die without their insulin medication. A person with type 2 diabetes should avoid treatment with insulin, unless their pancreas is completely failing.
Also Check: Is Sorghum Good For Diabetics
Adult Onset Type 1 Diabetes Risk Factors
Currently, the exact risk factors of type 1 diabetes, adult-onset or not, are unclear.
Its known that type 1 diabetes autoimmunity begins with molecular mimicry, a tactic used by various bacteria and viruses to evade detection by disguising themselves as mammalian proteins.
This causes a form of biological friendly fire, in which your body mistakenly characterizes proteins on the surface of insulin-producing beta cells as foreign pathogens, and attacks them.
Recent research has connected the risk of developing type 1 diabetes to introduction of cows milk protein at a young age, contracting certain enteroviruses, and possibly mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis , but these exact connections require further investigation.
What You Can Do When You Find You Suffer From Adult Type 2 Diabetes
Read Also: Sliding Scale For Insulin Injection
Can Type 2 Diabetes Be Reversed
Yes! The good news is that several studies have shown that type 2 diabetes can be reversed. You are considered in remission from type 2 diabetes when you have had normal blood sugar levels for a year without medication.
One of the most important components in reversing type 2 diabetes is early detection. Dr. Bergquist explains, The pancreas produces insulin. The longer you have diabetes, the more damage your insulin resistance causes to your pancreas, and the less likely your pancreas is to recover. Hence, the possibility for remission decreases the longer you have diabetes. But theres a wide window during which you can be successful.
Distinguishing Which Type Of Diabetes You Have
To fully determine which type of diabetes you have, we strongly recommend taking a c-peptide test, which determines the ability of your beta cells to produce insulin.
If your c-peptide value is medium or high, this indicates that your ability to manufacture and secrete insulin is enough to control your blood glucose well.
If your c-peptide value is low, this indicates that your beta cells are compromised in their ability to secrete insulin, resulting in either insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes, type 1 diabetes, or type 1 diabetes.
The final test that we recommend is a diabetes antibody panel, which identifies whether you test positive for any of several autoantibodies. If you test positive for one or more antibodies, this suggests that you have autoimmune type 1 or type 1.5 diabetes.
You May Like: Can You Get Rid Of Diabetes Type 1
Prognosis In Intensive Therapy
In the UKPDS, more than 5000 patients with type 2 diabetes were followed up for up to 15 years. Those in the intensely treated group had a significantly lower rate of progression of microvascular complications than did patients receiving standard care. Rates of macrovascular disease were not altered except in the metformin-monotherapy arm in obese individuals, in which the risk of myocardial infarction was significantly decreased.
In the 10-year follow-up to the UKPDS, patients in the previously intensively treated group demonstrated a continued reduction in microvascular and all-cause mortality, as well as in cardiovascular events, despite early loss of differences in glycated hemoglobin levels between the intensive-therapy and conventional-therapy groups. The total follow-up was 20 years, half while in the study and half after the study ended.
Other, shorter studies, such as Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation and the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial , showed no improvement in cardiovascular disease and death with tight control .
A British study indicated that the HbA1c level achieved 3 months after the initial diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus predicts subsequent mortality. In other words, according to the report, aggressive lowering of glucose after diagnosis bodes well for long-term survival.
What Is Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Glucose is your main source of energy. It comes from the foods you eat. A hormone called insulin helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. If you have diabetes, your body doesn’t make enough insulin or doesn’t use insulin well. The glucose then stays in your blood and not enough goes into your cells.
Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause health problems. But you can take steps to manage your diabetes and try to prevent these health problems.
Also Check: Insulin How Much Does It Cost
How Has Type 2 Diabetes Changed Over Time
Type 2 diabetes used to be called adult-onset diabetes or non-insulin dependent diabetes because it was diagnosed mainly in adults who did not require insulin to manage their condition. However, because more children are starting to be diagnosed with T2D, and insulin is used more frequently to help manage type 2 diabetes, referring to the condition as adult-onset or non-insulin dependent is no longer accurate or used.
Type 2 Diabetes Complications
Over time, high blood sugar can damage and cause problems with your:
- Heart and blood vessels. Youâre up to five times more likely to get heart disease or have a stroke. Youâre also at high risk of blocked blood vessels and chest pain .
- Kidneys. If your kidneys are damaged or you have kidney failure, you could need dialysis or a kidney replacement.
- Eyes. High blood sugar can damage the tiny blood vessels in the backs of your eyes . If this isnât treated, it can cause blindness.
- Nerves. This can lead to trouble with digestion, the feeling in your feet, and your sexual response.
- Skin. Your blood doesnât circulate as well, so wounds heal slower and can become infected.
- Pregnancy. Women with diabetes are more likely to have a miscarriage, a stillbirth, or a baby with a birth defect.
- Sleep. You might develop sleep apnea, a condition in which your breathing stops and starts while you sleep.
- Hearing. Youâre more likely to have hearing problems, but itâs not clear why.
- Brain. High blood sugar can damage your brain and might put you at higher risk of Alzheimerâs disease.
- Depression. People with the disease are twice as likely to get depressed as people who donât have it.
The best way to avoid these complications is to manage your type 2 diabetes well.
- Take your diabetes medications or insulin on time.
- Eat right, and don’t skip meals.
- See your doctor regularly to check for early signs of trouble.
Don’t Miss: What To Give A Diabetic When Blood Sugar Is Low