Study Design And Setting
This observational and cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2012 and December 2017. The participants were recruited from eight communities in the Shunqing District, Nanchong City, China. The communities involved were Xin Jian, Dongnan, Huafeng, Wufeng, Beicheng, Heping Road, Dongcheng, and Zhongcheng. The numbers of households in the eight communities were used as labels, and 1,000 labels were randomly selected from each community via a computer random number generator for questionnaire surveys. The unified quality control plan was formulated by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Nanchong and the Center for Comprehensive Management of Chronic Diseases of Nanchong Central Hospital.
When Should I Call My Doctor
If you havent been diagnosed with diabetes, you should see your healthcare provider if you have any symptoms of diabetes. If you already have been diagnosed with diabetes, you should contact your provider if your blood glucose levels are outside of your target range, if current symptoms worsen or if you develop any new symptoms.
Can Diabetes Be Cured Or Reversed
Although these seem like simple questions, the answers are not so simple. Depending on the type of your diabetes and its specific cause, it may or may not be possible to reverse your diabetes. Successfully reversing diabetes is more commonly called achieving remission.
Type 1 diabetes is an immune system disease with some genetic component. This type of diabetes cant be reversed with traditional treatments. You need lifelong insulin to survive. Providing insulin through an artificial pancreas is the most advanced way of keeping glucose within a tight range at all times most closely mimicking the body. The closest thing toward a cure for Type 1 is a pancreas transplant or a pancreas islet transplant. Transplant candidates must meet strict criteria to be eligible. Its not an option for everyone and it requires taking immunosuppressant medications for life and dealing with the side effects of these drugs.
Its possible to reverse prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes with a lot of effort and motivation. Youd have to reverse all your risk factors for disease. To do this means a combination of losing weight, exercising regularly and eating healthy . These efforts should also lower your cholesterol numbers and blood pressure to within their normal range. Bariatric surgery has been shown to achieve remission in some people with Type 2 diabetes. This is a significant surgery that has its own risks and complications.
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How Is Diabetes Diagnosed
Diabetes is diagnosed and managed by checking your glucose level in a blood test. There are three tests that can measure your blood glucose level: fasting glucose test, random glucose test and A1c test.
- Fasting plasma glucose test: This test is best done in the morning after an eight hour fast .
- Random plasma glucose test: This test can be done any time without the need to fast.
- A1c test: This test, also called HbA1C or glycated hemoglobin test, provides your average blood glucose level over the past two to three months. This test measures the amount of glucose attached to hemoglobin, the protein in your red blood cells that carries oxygen. You dont need to fast before this test.
- Oral glucose tolerance test: In this test, blood glucose level is first measured after an overnight fast. Then you drink a sugary drink. Your blood glucose level is then checked at hours one, two and three.
|Type of test|
Family History Of Diabetes
Family history information can serve as a useful tool for prognosis/diagnosis and public health. Family history of diabetes reflects both genetic as well as environmental factors and can lead to better prediction of incidence type 2 diabetes than only genetic factors and environmental factors alone . shows the characteristics and findings of the work in the literature studying the association between family history of diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
What Causes Type 2 Diabetes
You may have heard that unhealthy eating habits or being overweight means youll develop type 2 diabetes. While those factors increase your risk, the cause of type 2 diabetes is much more complex than that.
Type 2 diabetes has a strong genetic component, says Leann Olansky, MD, a board-certified endocrinologist at Cleveland Clinic in Ohio. But daily habits matter, too. If you choose a healthy lifestyle you may really be able to avoid diabetes or put it way off, Dr. Olansky says.
You can still be diagnosed with diabetes without the genetic component, says John P. Martin, MD, the codirector of the Diabetes Complete Care Program at Kaiser Permanente in Los Angeles. It’s not like not having the genetic tendency is going to protect you, he says. You can still get it if your diet and your weight management and your self-care isn’t where it needs to be.
What Types Of Healthcare Professionals Might Be Part Of My Diabetes Treatment Team
Most people with diabetes see their primary healthcare provider first. Your provider might refer you to an endocrinologist/pediatric endocrinologist, a physician who specializes in diabetes care. Other members of your healthcare team may include an ophthalmologist , nephrologist , cardiologist , podiatrist , neurologist , gastroenterologist , registered dietician, nurse practitioners/physician assistants, diabetes educator, pharmacist, personal trainer, social worker, mental health professional, transplant team and others.
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What Environmental Factors Affect Diabetes Risk
Having a virus at an early age may trigger type 1 diabetes in some individuals.
People are also more likely to have type 1 diabetes if they live in a cold climate. Doctors also diagnose people with type 1 diabetes in the winter more often than the summer.
Several studies suggest that air pollution might also put you at an increased risk of developing diabetes.
For type 1 diabetes, its unclear if there are any lifestyle related risk factors.
Type 2 diabetes is often lifestyle-related. Lifestyle factors that increase risk include:
- unhealthy diet
According to the American Academy of Family Physicians, obesity is the single greatest risk factor for type 2 diabetes.
People are also more likely to experience type 2 diabetes if they have the following conditions:
- acanthosis nigricans, a skin condition that makes the skin appear darker than usual
- hypertension greater than 130/80 mm Hg
Statistically Significant Associations Heterogeneity And Biases
One hundred and sixteen of 142 associations presented a statistically significant effect at P < 0.05 under the random-effects model, whereas 46 associations had a statistically significant effect at P < 106 . displays the distribution of the P-values in each category of associations. Only 33 of 142 associations had a 95% PI that excluded the null value and 26 of these also had a P < 106.
Manhattan plot for 142 associations between risk factors and T2DM.
The horizontal line corresponds to the significance threshold of P < 106.
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Managing Blood Pressure And Cholesterol
Keeping your blood pressure and cholesterol within the recommended range is very important to help prevent long-term problems, especially to your heart, blood vessels and kidneys.Regular diabetes checks of your eyes, feet , heart, blood pressure, kidneys and long-term blood glucose are an important part of diabetes management. Your doctor and diabetes educator will help you arrange these tests.
Risk Factors For Type 2 Diabetes
Your chances of developing type 2 diabetes depend on a combination of risk factors such as your genes and lifestyle. Although you cant change risk factors such as family history, age, or ethnicity, you can change lifestyle risk factors around eating, physical activity, and weight. These lifestyle changes can affect your chances of developing type 2 diabetes.
Read about risk factors for type 2 diabetes below and see which ones apply to you. Taking action on the factors you can change can help you delay or prevent type 2 diabetes.
You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you
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Are You Eligible For An Nhs Health Check
Whether you have any other risk factors or not, if youre over 40 your risk of type 2 diabetes and other conditions is higher. If you’re aged 40 to 74 and living in England you may be eligible for a free NHS Health Check.
It’s a great way to check your health and get personalised advice on keeping yourself healthy and active.
Find out more about the health check on the NHS website, or talk to your GP for more information.
Diabetes Risk Factors: Genetics Environmental And More
What is diabetes?
- Type 1 diabetesaffects the bodys ability to produce insulin. Doctors usually diagnose in childhood, although it can occur in adults also. The hormone insulin is vital to helping the body utilize blood sugar. Without enough insulin, the extra blood sugar can damage the body. According to the American Diabetes Association, 1.25 million U.S. children and adults have type 1 diabetes.
- Type 2 diabetesaffects the bodys ability to use insulin properly. Unlike people with type 1 diabetes, people with type 2 diabetes make insulin. However, either they dont make enough to keep up with rising blood sugar levels or their body isnt able to use the insulin effectively. Doctors associate type 2 diabetes with lifestyle-related factors like obesity.
- Gestational diabetesis a condition that causes women to have very high blood sugar levels during pregnancy. This condition is typically temporary.
Having risk factors does not mean that someone will get diabetes.
Doctors dont know the exact cause of type 1 diabetes.
Family history of type 1 diabetes is considered a risk factor. According to the American Diabetes Association:
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Lack Of Physical Activity
According to the American Diabetes Association, exercise allows your muscles to better use insulin and take in glucose regardless of how much insulin is available.
A quick walk with your pup, a bike ride, or any other kind of movement can help lower your blood sugar within 24 hours. Studies suggest that moving your body could reduce your risk for type 2 diabetes by 30 to 50 percent.
Calculating Type 2 Diabetes Risk
The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Disorders has a tool that people can use to calculate their risk of type 2 diabetes.
The test takes seven risk factors, including weight and height, into account to calculate a persons body mass index score.
BMI is a crucial aspect of diabetes risk. While BMI is not the most accurate measure of health, a high BMI can give an indicator of diabetes risk.
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Membership In A Historically Marginalized Group
Another risk factor thats out of your hands is your racial or ethnic background. People who are part of historically marginalized populations have the greatest likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes and it has barely anything to do with genetics.
A 2017 review found that type 2 diabetes is more prevalent in folks of African, Hispanic, and Asian descent.
But only 0.2 percent of our genes determine skin color and other physical traits. Instead, the increased risk for diabetes is believed to come from external challenges these populations face on the reg. Factors like income disparity, education level, and discrimination can all contribute to stress and impact your overall health.
Historically marginalized groups are also more likely to live in food deserts where there are no grocery stores to access fresh, nutritious foods. And living in a low income, high crime area can mean that people are less likely to be active outside.
Type 2 Diabetes Treatment
To get a diagnosis, a healthcare pro will use various tests that involve taking a sample of your blood to see how high your blood sugar is. It may take a few visits to gather enough data.
Depending on the individual and the severity of type 2 diabetes, treatment may require monitoring blood sugar levels and taking oral medication or injectable insulin. Taking anoral med may help your body lower blood glucose levels and use insulin more effectively.
Its also possible not to need medication at all, or to get off medication. Some folks can manage diabetes by staying active and eating a nutritious diet to help manage their blood sugar.
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Understand Your Risk And How To Prevent Type 2 Diabetes
Understanding the risk factors associated with type 2 is the first step to living a better life.
- Type 2 prevention
Eating healthily, moving more, and losing weight are the most effective things you can do to prevent type 2 diabetes.
Even if you’ve been told that you have prediabetes or that you have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes, you can still make changes that can delay or prevent the disease.
What Types Of Diabetes Require Insulin
People with Type 1 diabetes need insulin to live. If you have Type 1 diabetes, your body has attacked your pancreas, destroying the cells that make insulin. If you have Type 2 diabetes, your pancreas makes insulin, but it doesnt work as it should. In some people with Type 2 diabetes, insulin may be needed to help glucose move from your bloodstream to your bodys cells where its needed for energy. You may or may not need insulin if you have gestational diabetes. If you are pregnant or have Type 2 diabetes, your healthcare provider will check your blood glucose level, assess other risk factors and determine a treatment approach which may include a combination of lifestyle changes, oral medications and insulin. Each person is unique and so is your treatment plan.
What Does It Mean If Test Results Show I Have Protein In My Urine
This means your kidneys are allowing protein to be filtered through and now appear in your urine. This condition is called proteinuria. The continued presence of protein in your urine is a sign of kidney damage.
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Theres much you can do to prevent the development of diabetes . However, if you or your child or adolescent develop symptoms of diabetes, see your healthcare provider. The earlier diabetes is diagnosed, the sooner steps can be taken to treat and control it. The better you are able to control your blood sugar level, the more likely you are to live a long, healthy life.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 03/28/2021.
Assessment Of Epidemiological Credibility
We identified associations that had the strongest evidence and no signals of large heterogeneity or bias. We considered as convincing the associations that fulfilled all the following criteria: statistical significance per random-effects model at P < 106 based on > 1,000 cases without large between-study heterogeneity 95% PI excluding the null value and no evidence of small-study effects and excess significance bias. Associations with > 1,000 cases, P < 106 and largest study presenting a statistically significant effect were graded as highly suggestive. The associations supported by > 1,000 cases and a significant effect at P < 103 were considered as suggestive. The remaining nominally significant associations were considered as having weak evidence.
For associations with convincing and highly suggestive evidence, we performed a sensitivity analysis limited to prospective cohort studies and nested case-control studies, and we examined whether there was a change in the level of epidemiological credibility. Also, we compared the findings from the meta-analyses of observational studies with the findings from MR studies.
The statistical analysis and the power calculations were done with STATA version 12.0 and RStudio version 1.0.44.
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We Need A Strategy Now
Although people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes have different journeys, including whether or not they experience symptoms, there is one issue that unites all people living with the disease. Canada has no strategy to address one of the most significant health-care crisis of our time.
With no dedicated support or action to tackle the diabetes epidemic, it means that, every 24 hours:
- more than 20 Canadians die of diabetes-related complications
- 480 more Canadians are diagnosed with this devastating disease
- 14 Canadians have a lower limb amputation
- our health care system spends $75 million treating diabetes
Understanding Type 2 Diabetes
Symptoms, treatment, and complications from type 2 diabetes may vary from person to person. The following information will help you learn more about this disease and provide you with helpful tools, assessments and resources.
If left untreated or improperly managed, diabetes can lead to a variety of life-threatening complications.
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Tell Me First What Is Type 2 Diabetes
There are three kinds of diabetes: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Type 2 accounts for 90 to 95 percent of all people diagnosed with diabetes and affects about 34 million Americans. Like the other types of diabetes, type 2 causes your blood glucose to be too high.
Type 2 diabetes prevents your body from being able to properly use the hormone insulin, which your pancreas produces. Over time, this can cause your pancreas to stop making enough insulin.
Insulin helps glucose in your blood enter your cells for fuel. Without the right amount of insulin, sugar builds up in your blood, leading to high blood sugar and potentially a bunch of other health probs.
Type 2 diabetes doesnt happen overnight it takes years to develop, and symptoms may show up slowly or be barely noticeable.