Risk Factors For Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Children
The following factors may increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus .
- Being overweight or obese could increase insulin resistance. Fat around the abdominal area is known to be a strong risk factor for type 2 diabetes.
- Physical inactivity makes cells less responsive to insulin. Thus, glucose builds up in blood since it cannot enter the cells for energy production.
- Positive family history with an affected parent or sibling may increase the risk of diabetes mellitus type 2.
- Presence of certaingenes in some ethnic groups may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes.
- Maternal diabetes during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes in children.
Although children of any age can be affected by diabetes type 2, teens are mostly affected by it. Type2 diabetes mellitus rarely manifests before puberty. Adolescent girls have a higher risk of diabetes than boys .
The Most Common Causes Of Diabetes In Teenage Girls
Signs of Diabetes in Teenage Girls
The number of individuals who are affected by diabetes mellitus is on a rise especially in the case of teenage girls. Caused due to high blood sugar levels, this ailment is on the rise since 1990s. The two main varieties of this ailment are Type 1 and Type 2 both of which occur in teenage girls. Both these ailments have different symptoms that occur due to the lack of insulin production. They normally range from changes in appetite to life threatening complications.
Why does type 1 diabetes occur?
Teenage girls suffering from type 1 diabetes have a genetic predisposition which makes the occurrence of this ailment more common. In spite of several researches, it is still unknown as to why certain individuals have this genetic predisposition where the immune system damages the insulin thereby leading to this ailment. As per research, there has to be a trigger that signals the beginning of this pancreas damaging process. It can be an environmental factor the cause of which is still far from being understood. The trigger is different in case of different teenage girls.
Once the process starts, the body stops producing insulin and thus our body gets more susceptible to infections that begin to attack the pancreas.
Signs and symptoms of Type 1 diabetes in Teenage Girls:
Common Signs and Symptoms include:
Frequent urination tendency
Type 2 Diabetes Complications
Without treatment, type 2 diabetes appears to progress faster in young people than in adults.
Younger people also seem to have a higher risk of complications, such as kidney and eye disease, earlier in life.
Type 2 diabetes in children often occurs with obesity, which may contribute to these higher risks. Obesity affects the bodys ability to use insulin, leading to abnormal blood sugar levels.
Because of this, early detection of type 2 diabetes and attention to managing overweight and obesity in younger people are crucial.
This may include encouraging children to follow a healthful diet and get plenty of exercise.
The National Institute for Health Care and Excellence recommend testing children for diabetes if they:
- have a strong family history of type 2 diabetes
- have obesity
- are of Black or Asian family origin
- show evidence of insulin resistance, such as acanthosis nigricans
The outcomes for children with type 1 or type 2 diabetes improve greatly with early detection.
It is not currently possible to prevent type 1 diabetes, but type 2 diabetes is largely preventable.
The following steps can help prevent type 2 diabetes in childhood:
- Maintain a moderate weight: Overweight increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, as it increases the chance of
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Identifying Diabetes In Young Children
The authors of the article in “Pediatrics and Child Health” recommend that if a child presents with unusual symptoms or doesn’t seem to be responding to the treatment, they should be tested by urinalysis to rule out the presence of sugar or ketones in the urine. If your child has symptoms that don’t respond to treatment, ask your doctor for the urinalysis to rule out diabetes, even if diabetes doesn’t seem to be a likely diagnosis.
Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes
There are two types of diabetes- type 1 and type 2. In type 1 diabetes, the body doesnt produce insulin at all. In type 2 diabetes, the body becomes resistant to insulin or creates it in insufficient quantities. The exact reason why type 1 diabetes occurs is still a topic of debate. Research has proved that genetic expression, inflammation levels and in some cases, even viral infections have a considerable role to play in this type of diabetes.
It is believed that the bodys immune system turns against itself and destroys islets of Langerhans, the pancreatic cells which produce insulin. When there is no insulin in the blood, the level of glucose increases leading to severe complications if left untreated. Since most of the patients who have type 1 diabetes are children, they might not understand the signs of the disease. As parents or guardians, it is crucial to arms oneself with knowledge of symptoms of diabetes in children. In type 1 diabetes, the symptoms appear quickly, and the onset of the disease is sudden.
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Could Your Child Have Diabetes
When Chloe Powell started begging for one more drink of water every night, her father, Charles, thought his then 7-year-old was using a common bedtime stall tactic.
“I was irritated that she wouldn’t go to sleep,” admits Dr. Powell, who’s a family physician in Dallas. With all she was drinking, he wasn’t surprised when she began wetting the bed. But when Chloe couldn’t make it through a conversation without having to use the bathroom, he became concerned. “I figured she had a urinary-tract infection, and she’d take some antibiotics and feel better,” says Dr. Powell.
He wasn’t at all prepared for what his daughter’s urine test showed: a dangerously high level of sugar that was a clear indicator of type 1 diabetes. In an instant, Chloe, now 10, went from being a kid who never thought twice about the foods she ate or the energy she burned to one who’d face a lifetime of carbohydrate counting, finger pricks, and insulin injections.
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Type 1 Diabetes In Children
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder that causes the body’s immune system to mistakenly destroy healthy cells in the pancreas that produce the hormone insulin. Insulin ensures that sugar in the bloodstream gets into the body’s cells where it’s needed for energy without insulin, sugar builds up in the blood, which can be deadly.
It’s important to begin insulin therapy as soon as possible because high blood-sugar levels can cause permanent vision and nerve problems as well as damage to blood vessels, increasing the risk of heart attack, stroke, and kidney disease.
Since the 1980s, the number of kids being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes has gradually crept up at a rate of about 3 to 5 percent per year. That may not sound like much, but it’s startling when you consider that twice as many kids are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes today than were diagnosed 20 to 25 years ago.
Although the condition can develop at any age, “we’re seeing it at younger ages than ever before and more toddlers and preschoolers are being diagnosed,” says Parents advisor Lori Laffel, M.D., chief of the pediatric, adolescent, and young adult section at Harvard Medical School’s Joslin Diabetes Center. Experts believe that environmental factors like children’s reduced exposure to germs may be partly to blame .
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Unexpected And Unintentional Weight Loss
Rapid and unintentional weight loss is one of the more obvious signs of diabetes. This could be anywhere from 5-10 kg in a matter of weeks or months.
This symptom is much more typical of those with type 1 diabetes, where sugar metabolism can shutdown very quickly.
Why does this happen?: Without new energy coming into the cells, the body is tricked into thinking you are in starvation. In order to provide energy, the body responds by breaking down protein in the muscle, which leads to muscle deterioration and the unexpected weight loss.
Warning Signs Of Type 1 Diabetes In Children
Type 1 diabetes is also known as Juvenile Diabetes. It affects children and adolescents more often but can develop in adults even in rare circumstances. Diabetes is a condition when the body becomes resistant to insulin or doesnt produce it to metabolize sugar in the blood. It is insulin that delivers the glucose molecules to the cells for the release of energy.
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What Causes Hyperglycemia
Hyperglycemia happens when theres not enough insulin in the body, so glucose builds up in the blood. Glucose is a type of sugar that comes from food. Its the main source of energy for cells, and it travels in the bloodstream. Insulin is needed to unlock the cells so sugar can get inside them.
Hyperglycemia can happen in kids with type 1 or type 2 diabetes if they:
- miss a dose of insulin or other diabetes medicine, or dont take enough of it
- eat too many carbohydrates without adjusting their insulin
- dont get enough exercise
- are sick , or are under stress
- take some types of medicines that can raise blood sugar
- use insulin that expired or was stored improperly, or have trouble with their pump
Sign : Frequent Urination
What goes in must come out, so it stands to reason that a child who is drinking more will also visit the washroom more. If your kid is taking an unusual number of bathroom breaks, there may be an underlying and serious reason behind it. A younger child who was previously toilet trained at night may start to wet the bed again.
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I Think I Have A Brain Tumour What Should I Do
Brain tumours are rare, however, if you’re worried and a symptom persists or if your child has more than one symptom of a brain tumour then:
- If your child’s symptoms are limited to changes in vision and/or headaches, get their eyes tested by an optician before seeing your GP.
- Go to A& EIf the symptoms are sudden or severe, you should go to your emergency department or call 999.
Should I speak to a doctor during the coronavirus pandemic?
We understand you may feel worried about seeking help from your GP during the coronavirus pandemic but please don’t delay speaking to a healthcare professional.
The NHS and your GP are still here for you and have made changes that make it easier to safely speak to a healthcare professional and get medical help if you need it.
It’s more important than ever for you to prepare for your appointments by understanding what might happen during the appointment and what questions you want to ask.
What Can Happen If Blood Sugars Are High
In the short term, high blood sugars can turn into diabetic ketoacidosis . This is an emergency condition that needs treatment right away. DKA can happen to kids with type 1 diabetes and, less often, kids with type 2 diabetes. Kids with type 2 diabetes also can get another type of emergency called hyperosmotic hyperglycemic state . Both conditions need treatment in the hospital and are very serious.
Untreated hyperglycemia can lead to serious health problems later in life. If it happens a lot, it can harm blood vessels, the heart, kidneys, eyes, and nerves.
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Is There Any Way To Treat Diabetes In Toddlers
If the diagnosis comes back positive for diabetes, treatment can begin immediately.
Your child may be assigned a diabetes treatment teamâincluding a doctor, dietitian, and diabetes educatorâwho will work closely with you to help keep your toddlerâs blood sugar level as normal as possible.
Although there is no cure for diabetes, with treatment and consistent care your little one can go on to have a normal life. Treatment depends on whether your toddler has type 1 or type 2 diabetes, but the treatment plan may include:
Blood sugar monitoring. You will need to check your toddlerâs blood sugar levels frequently, at least 4 times a day for type 1. Testing helps you make sure your little oneâs blood sugar levels are within the target range. Your healthcare provider will tell you what this range should be, as this will change as your child grows.
Taking insulin. If your toddler has type 1 diabetes, then life-long treatment with insulin will be necessary. Some cases of type 2 diabetes also require insulin. Insulin is often given as an injection but is sometimes administered through a pump. Your toddlerâs healthcare provider will show you how to give injections or use the pump, and when your child grows old enough the provider will be able to show her how to do it for herself.
Diabetes Treatment In Children
If your child has diabetes, it’s critical that her blood-sugar levels stay in a safe range. This will be determined by a doctor, but it will be slightly higher than the normal blood-sugar level range of 70mg/dL to 120mg/dL. Levels that drop too low or spike too high can lead to seizures, coma, and even death. Whenever your child eats or is physically active, you’ll need to take a droplet of blood pricked from her finger and check her sugar level using a handheld blood-glucose meter.
To cut down on finger sticks, some families have switched to continuous glucose monitoring systems, devices that constantly check a child’s sugar levels through a sensor inserted into her skin for up to six days at a time. But these readings aren’t as accurate as metered ones, so kids must still endure a few finger pokes each day.
Blood-glucose monitors determine how much insulin your child’s body needs, but they don’t actually dispense insulin. For that, most newly diagnosed children with diabetes need their parents to inject insulin into their stomach, upper arm, outer thigh, or buttocks. Eventually, many people with diabetes switch to an insulin pump, a pager-size device that straps to the waistband or adheres directly to skin and delivers a steady supply of insulin via a small tube inserted into the skin.
“No child likes to be pricked and poked multiple times a day,” says Buchwald, of Weston, Florida.
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Causes Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Children
The exact cause of diabetes mellitus type 2 is yet to be discovered. However, genetics and lifestyle factors, such as decreased physical inactivity and increased energy consumption leading to being overweight or obese, may increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes .
Children with type 2 diabetes mellitus have insulin resistance, so their body cant use insulin to metabolize glucose. This may cause the accumulation of sugar in the bloodstream and result in signs and symptoms of high blood sugar levels. Children with T2DM are more likely to suffer from conditions like hypertension, hyperlipidemia, polycystic ovary disease, and fatty liver as compared to their peers without diabetes.
What Are The Symptoms Of Diabetes In Children
Symptoms of diabetes can be subtle but knowing what to look for makes it easier for you to identify them.
These symptoms include:
- Wounds that are slow to heal
If not diagnosed promptly, these symptoms may progress to:
- Dehydration despite drinking
- Changes in mood
Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes share many of the same symptoms. Since symptoms of juvenile diabetes come on quickly, its important to pay attention when your youngster doesnt feel well and look for patterns, says Dr. Godil.
If your child is experiencing any of these symptoms, it doesnt automatically mean they have diabetes. Start by visiting their pediatrician to discuss symptoms. Depending on the situation, your child may need to see a pediatric endocrinologist for additional testing to rule out the possibility of diabetes.
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Warning Signs Of Diabetes In Toddlers
14 August, 2017
Diabetes is a serious disease that can lead to other serious conditions such as heart disease and kidney failure. According to the Colorado Department of Public Health, about 13,000 new cases of diabetes are diagnosed in children every year. Parents and physician should be aware of the symptoms of diabetes in children so that they can be diagnosed early and begin receiving necessary treatment.
In England Diabetes Occurs In 1 In Every 450 Children
In England diabetes occurs in 1 in every 450 children. 97% of children with diabetes have type 1 diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes in children is still uncommon.
Nearly 30% of newly diagnosed children have had at least one related medical visit before diagnosis. Doctors and parents are missing the early signs.
Doctors may fail to ask about frequent urination and excessive drinking Adolescents may ignore the symptoms.
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Can Type 1 Diabetes Can Be Diagnosed With A Single Finger Stick Blood Glucose Test
Type 1 diabetes can be diagnosed with a single finger- stick blood glucose test if the proper technique is followed. Scrupulously clean hands washed and thoroughly dried. The diagnostic criteria for diabetes in adults and children is a random sample blood glucose concentration over 11.1 mmol/L. If the symptoms are suggestive of diabetes then this must be ruled out. Children and young people should NOT wait for fasting blood glucose tests. The finger sticks capillary test will be confirmed with a lab test of the blood glucose once the child arrives at the hospital.
A child or young people with a high blood glucose level should be referred promptly on the same day to secondary care.