How Is Diabetes Diagnosed
Diabetes is diagnosed and managed by checking your glucose level in a blood test. There are three tests that can measure your blood glucose level: fasting glucose test, random glucose test and A1c test.
- Fasting plasma glucose test: This test is best done in the morning after an eight hour fast .
- Random plasma glucose test: This test can be done any time without the need to fast.
- A1c test: This test, also called HbA1C or glycated hemoglobin test, provides your average blood glucose level over the past two to three months. This test measures the amount of glucose attached to hemoglobin, the protein in your red blood cells that carries oxygen. You dont need to fast before this test.
- Oral glucose tolerance test: In this test, blood glucose level is first measured after an overnight fast. Then you drink a sugary drink. Your blood glucose level is then checked at hours one, two and three.
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Monitoring Blood Glucose Levels
Blood glucose levels can be measured easily at home or anywhere.
A fingerstick glucose test is most often used to monitor blood glucose. Most blood glucose monitoring devices use a drop of blood obtained by pricking the tip of the finger with a small lancet. The lancet holds a tiny needle that can be jabbed into the finger or placed in a spring-loaded device that easily and quickly pierces the skin. Most people find that the pricking causes only minimal discomfort. Then, a drop of blood is placed on a reagent strip. The strip contains chemicals that undergo changes depending on the glucose level. The glucose meter reads the changes in the test strip and reports the result on a digital display. Some devices allow the blood sample to be obtained from other sites, such as the palm, forearm, upper arm, thigh, or calf. Home glucose meters are smaller than a deck of cards.
Continuous glucose monitoring systems use a small glucose sensor placed under the skin. The sensor measures blood glucose levels every few minutes. There are two types of CGMs, with different purposes:
Professional CGMs collect continuous blood glucose information over a period of time . Health care providers use this information to make treatment recommendations. Professional CGMs do not provide data to the person with diabetes.
Monitoring And Managing Your Dogs Diabetes
Although some cases may be more challenging, canine diabetes can be usually managed successfully without complications. From giving injections to monitoring glucose levels daily, you will play the primary role in your dogs care, and your commitment to keeping up with his daily shots and monitoring is extremely important.
Your veterinarian will work with you to determine the best management plan for your dog. At the start of treatment this may involve frequent visits to the clinic for testing and medication adjustments, but hopefully the right combination of medication, dosage, diet, and home monitoring will soon be arrived at that will enable you to keep your dogs blood sugar consistently regulated and help him live a full, happy life.
Your dogs diabetes management plan provided by your veterinarian will probably include information about:
- insulin medication for your dog and how to give the injections
- a daily glucose-monitoring system that will work best for your dog
- any warning signs to watch out for
If your pet is diagnosed with diabetes, dont panic. With good veterinary support, you should be able to provide the right care for your pet and ensure you both many more happy years together.
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People With Difficulty Maintaining Blood Glucose Levels
The term brittle diabetes has been used to refer to people who have dramatic recurrent swings in blood glucose levels, often for no apparent reason. However, this term is no longer used. People with type 1 diabetes may have more frequent swings in blood glucose levels because insulin production is completely absent. Infection, delayed movement of food through the stomach, and other hormonal disorders may also contribute to blood glucose swings. In all people who have difficulty controlling blood glucose, doctors look for other disorders that might be causing the problem and also give people additional education on how to monitor diabetes and take their drugs.
I Care Of Older Adults With Diabetes
Diabetes is an important health condition for the aging population at least 15% of patients over the age of 65 years have diabetes. The number of older persons with diabetes can be expected to grow rapidly over the coming decades. Unfortunately, there are no long-term studies demonstrating the benefits of tight glycemic control in persons over 65 years of age. In approaching the elderly patient, a thoughtful individualized approach, consistent with the heterogeneity of the aging process, should be used. However, patients who can be expected to live long enough to reap the benefits of long-term glycemic control and who are active, cognitively intact, and willing to undertake the responsibility of self-management should be encouraged to do so.
Cardiovascular risk reduction continues to be important as in younger patients there is strong evidence from clinical trials of the value of treating hypertension in the elderly. There is less evidence for lipid-lowering and aspirin therapy, although diabetes patients have such an elevated risk for CVD that aggressive management of lipids and aspirin use when not contraindicated are probably reasonable interventions.
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Can Diabetes Cause Headaches Or Dizziness
Yes, its possible to develop headaches or dizziness if your blood glucose level is too low usually below 70 mg/dL. This condition is called hypoglycemia. You can read about the other symptoms hypoglycemia causes in this article.Hypoglycemia is common in people with Type 1 diabetes and can happen in some people with Type 2 diabetes who take insulin or medications such as sulfonylureas.
Preventing And Treating Diabetes
Do you have risk factors for diabetes? Does your family have a history of diabetes? Or do you have prediabetes? Then check out these healthy living tips. They may prevent diabetes and/or heart disease and stroke. Lifestyle changes such as losing weight, eating healthy and engaging in regular, moderate physical activity may reduce the progression of prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes and control Type 1 diabetes. They can also minimize other risk factors such as high blood pressure, blood cholesterol and even heart attacks and strokes.
In many instances, lifestyle changes must be accompanied by medications to control blood glucose levels, high blood pressure and cholesterol. This complementary regimen may also prevent heart attack and stroke.
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Nutrition And Meal Timing For Diabetes
Eating a balanced diet is vital for people who have diabetes, so work with your doctor or dietitian to set up a menu plan. If you have type 1 diabetes, the timing of your insulin dosage is determined by activity and diet. When you eat and how much you eat are just as important as what you eat. Usually, doctors recommend three small meals and three to four snacks every day to maintain the proper balance between sugar and insulin in the blood.
A healthy balance of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in your diet will help keep your blood glucose on target. How much of each will depend on many factors, including your weight and your personal preferences. Watching your carbohydrates — knowing how much you need and how many you are eating — is key to blood sugar control. If you are overweight, either a low-carbohydrate, low-fat/low calorie, or Mediterranean diet may help you get your weight to goal. No more than 7% of your diet should come from saturated fat, and you should try to avoid trans fats altogether.
Try to fill half your plate with nonstarchy vegetables such as:
- Whole oats oatmeal
In general, less-processed food is better. It has a lower glycemic index, which means it may have less of an effect on your blood sugar. For example, oatmeal from whole oats has a lower glycemic index than instant oatmeal.
When To Call A Professional
If you have diabetes, see your doctor regularly.
People with high blood sugar levels have a higher risk of dehydration. Contact your doctor immediately if you develop vomiting or diarrhea and are not able to drink enough fluids.
Monitor your blood sugar as advised by your health care team. Report any significant deviations in blood sugar levels.
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Can Diabetes Cause Hair Loss
Yes, its possible for diabetes to cause hair loss. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to persistently high blood glucose levels. This, in turn, leads to blood vessel damage and restricted flow, and oxygen and nutrients cant get to the cells that need it including hair follicles. Stress can cause hormone level changes that affect hair growth. If you have Type 1 diabetes, your immune system attacks itself and can also cause a hair loss condition called alopecia areata.
Ii Nephropathy Screening And Treatment
Diabetic nephropathy occurs in 2040% of patients with diabetes and is the single leading cause of end-stage renal disease . Persistent albuminuria in the range of 30299 mg/24 h has been shown to be the earliest stage of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes and a marker for development of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes. Microalbuminuria is also a well-established marker of increased CVD risk .
Patients with microalbuminuria who progress to macroalbuminuria are likely to progress to ESRD over a period of years . Over the past several years, a number of interventions have been demonstrated to reduce the risk and slow the progression of renal disease.
Intensive diabetes management with the goal of achieving near normoglycemia has been shown in large prospective randomized studies to delay the onset of microalbuminuria and the progression of microalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes . The UKPDS provided strong evidence that control of blood pressure can reduce the development of nephropathy . In addition, large prospective randomized studies in patients with type 1 diabetes have demonstrated that achievement of lower levels of systolic blood pressure achieved with treatment using ACE inhibitors provides a selective benefit over other antihypertensive drug classes in delaying the progression from microalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria and can slow the decline in glomerular filtration rate in patients with macroalbuminuria .
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Does Gestational Diabetes Disappear On Its Own
Gestational diabetes should go away after you deliver, but it does significantly increase your risk of getting diabetes later.
Children can get both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Managing blood sugar is especially important in young people because diabetes can damage important organs such as the heart and kidneys.
Why Is My Blood Glucose Level High How Does This Happen
The process of digestion includes breaking down the food you eat into various different nutrient sources. When you eat carbohydrates , your body breaks this down into sugar . When glucose is in your bloodstream, it needs help a “key” to get into its final destination where it’s used, which is inside your body’s cells . This help or “key” is insulin.
Insulin is a hormone made by your pancreas, an organ located behind your stomach. Your pancreas releases insulin into your bloodstream. Insulin acts as the key that unlocks the cell wall door, which allows glucose to enter your bodys cells. Glucose provides the fuel or energy tissues and organs need to properly function.
If you have diabetes:
- Your pancreas doesnt make any insulin or enough insulin.
- Your pancreas makes insulin but your bodys cells dont respond to it and cant use it as it normally should.
If glucose cant get into your bodys cells, it stays in your bloodstream and your blood glucose level rises.
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Bonus 1 Is The 30 Day Food & Drink Plan
The first free bonus is your 30-day diabetes-reversing meal and drink plan.
Simply follow the plan to the letter to reverse your type 2 diabetes without even thinking about anything else.
We know some people prefer to skip right to the food and drink plan.
And you can take this plan with you anywhere. While you travel, to work, on vacation or just to use at home. Itll always be there for you.
What Can Make A Dog At Risk For Diabetes
- Age. While diabetes can occur at any age, it mostly occurs in middle-aged to senior dogs. Most dogs who develop it are age 5 or older when diagnosed.
- Sex. Unspayed female dogs are twice as likely as male dogs to have diabetes.
- Chronic or repeatedpancreatitis. Chronic or repeated pancreatitis can eventually cause extensive damage to that organ, resulting in diabetes.
- Obesity. Obesity contributes to insulin resistance and is a risk factor for pancreatitis, which can lead to diabetes.
- Steroid medications. These can cause diabetes when used long-term.
- Cushings disease. With Cushings disease, the body overproduces steroids internally, so this condition also can cause diabetes.
- Other health conditions. Some autoimmune disorders and viral diseases are also thought to possibly trigger diabetes.
- Genetics. Diabetes can occur in any breed or mixed-breed, and it seems genetics can play a role in either increased or reduced risk. A 2003 study found that overall, mixed-breeds are no less prone to diabetes than are purebreds. Among purebreds, breeds vary in susceptibility, some with very low risk and others with higher risk. Some that may be at higher risk include miniature Poodles, Bichons Frises, Pugs, Dachshunds, Miniature Schnauzers, Puli, Samoyeds, Keeshonds, Australian Terriers, Fox Terriers, Cairn Terriers, and Beagles.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Diabetes
Symptoms of diabetes include:
- In women: Dry and itchy skin, and frequent yeast infections or urinary tract infections.
- In men: Decreased sex drive, erectile dysfunction, decreased muscle strength.
Type 1 diabetes symptoms: Symptoms can develop quickly over a few weeks or months. Symptoms begin when youre young as a child, teen or young adult. Additional symptoms include nausea, vomiting or stomach pains and yeast infections or urinary tract infections.
Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes symptoms: You may not have any symptoms at all or may not notice them since they develop slowly over several years. Symptoms usually begin to develop when youre an adult, but prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes is on the rise in all age groups.
Gestational diabetes: You typically will not notice symptoms. Your obstetrician will test you for gestational diabetes between 24 and 28 weeks of your pregnancy.
Signalment And Clinical Signs
DM usually affects middle-aged dogs, especially Samoyeds, poodles, schnauzers, and bichon frises.10,11 Common clinical signs include polyuria/polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, persistent or recurrent urinary tract infections, decreased muscle mass, cataracts, and, rarely, peripheral neuropathy. If the disease is not treated, signs can progress to inappetence, lethargy, and vomiting. Because pancreatitis is often associated with DM , clinical signs of abdominal pain may also be present.
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Take Insulin As Prescribed
People who have type 1 diabetes must take insulin as part of their treatment. Because their bodies can’t make insulin anymore, they need to get the right amount to keep their blood sugar levels in a healthy range.
The only way to get insulin into the body now is by injection with a needle or with an insulin pump. If someone tried to take insulin as a pill, the acids and digestive juices in the stomach and intestines would break down the medicine, and it wouldn’t work.
Different kinds of insulin are used for different purposes. The types of insulin you use and the number of shots you take each day will depend on what’s best for you and your daily schedule.
As you grow and change, the amount of insulin you will need to take can change. Getting insulin injections today is nearly painless, thanks to smaller needles. Insulin pumps cut down on the number of injections needed.
Your diabetes health care team will teach you how and when to give yourself insulin shots.
Strategies For Successful Guideline Implementation
In recent years, numerous health care organizations, ranging from large health care systems such as the U.S. Veterans Administration to small private practices, have implemented strategies to improve diabetes care. Successful programs have published results showing improvement in important outcomes such as A1C measurements as well as process measures such as provision of eye exams. Features of successful programs reported in the literature include:
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Detection And Diagnosis Of Gdm
Risk assessment for GDM should be undertaken at the first prenatal visit. Women with clinical characteristics consistent with a high risk for GDM should undergo glucose testing as soon as possible . An FPG 126 mg/dl or a casual plasma glucose 200 mg/dl meets the threshold for the diagnosis of diabetes, if confirmed on a subsequent day. High-risk women not found to have GDM at the initial screening and average-risk women should be tested between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. Testing should follow one of two approaches:
One-step approach: perform a diagnostic OGTT
Two-step approach: perform an initial screening by measuring the plasma or serum glucose concentration 1 h after a 50-g oral glucose load and perform a diagnostic OGTT on that subset of women exceeding the glucose threshold value on the GCT. When the two-step approach is used, a glucose threshold value 140 mg/dl identifies 80% of women with GDM, and the yield is further increased to 90% by using a cutoff of 130 mg/dl.
Diagnostic criteria for the 100-g OGTT is as follows: 95 mg/dl fasting, 180 mg/dl at 1 h, 155 mg/dl at 2 h, and 140 mg/dl at 3 h. Two or more of the plasma glucose values must be met or exceeded for a positive diagnosis. The test should be done in the morning after an overnight fast of 814 h. The diagnosis can be made using a 75-g glucose load, but that test is not as well validated for detection of at-risk infants or mothers as the 100-g OGTT.