Causes And Risk Factors Of Type 1 Diabetes
It’s unknown exactly what causes type 1 diabetes, but experts think it could be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. For instance, MedlinePlus states that the risk of type 1 diabetes in increased if you have certain variants of genes in the human leukocyte antigen complex. These genes are involved in making proteins that play a critical role in immune response.
Coxsackieviruses have been studied as possible triggers for type 1 diabetes, and prolonged viral infection may increase a childs risk for developing the disease, according to a June 2019 study in Nature Medicine.
Other possible risk factors for type 1 diabetes include:
- Being male. The risk of being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes is approximately 1.5 times higher for males than for females, says Thomas.
- Having autoantibodies that are associated with higher risk
- Being of European descent , per the CDC. Most white people with the disease have gene variants HLA-DR3 or HLA-DR4, according to the ADA.
- Having a close family relative who has type 1 diabetes.
In fact, the odds that a man with type 1 diabetes has a child who develops it are 1 in 17. For a woman who bears a child before age 25, that risk is 1 in 25, but it drops to 1 in 100 if the child is born after she is 25.
Yet 80 percent of people with type 1 diabetes have no family history of the disease, according to the JDRF.
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Causes Of Type 2 Diabetes
People with type 2 diabetes have insulin resistance. The body still produces insulin, but its unable to use it effectively.
Researchers arent sure why some people become insulin resistant and others dont, but several lifestyle factors may contribute, including being inactive and carrying excess weight.
Other genetic and environmental factors may also play a role. When you develop type 2 diabetes, your pancreas will try to compensate by producing more insulin. Because your body is unable to effectively use insulin, glucose will accumulate in your bloodstream.
Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions , 34.2 million people in the United States were living with diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes in 2018. Thats a little over 1 in 10 people. Ninety to 95 percent of people with diabetes have type 2.
The percentage of people with diabetes increases with age.
About 10.5 percent of the general population has diabetes. Among those 65 years old and older, the rate reaches 26.8 percent. Only 25 out of every 10,000 Americans under 20 years old had been diagnosed with diabetes in 2018.
Men and women get diabetes at roughly the same rate. However, prevalence rates are higher among certain races and ethnicities.
Prevalence rates are higher for Hispanic Americans of Mexican or Puerto Rican descent than they are for those of Central and South American or Cuban descent.
Can A Type 2 Diabetic Become A Type 1
It is not possible for type 2 diabetes to turn into type 1 diabetes. However, a person who originally receives a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes may still get a separate diagnosis of type 1 at a later date. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type, so a doctor might initially suspect that an adult with diabetes has type 2.
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Best Fruits For A Diabetes
Your healthcare team can help you decide the right balance, taking into account any medication or insulin youre on. But the recommended amount of carbs for most people with diabetes in general is 45 to 65 percent of total daily calories, according to the University of California in San Franciscos Diabetes Teaching Center.
Keeping all that in mind, any healthy diet is likely to draw from the following, per federal guidelines: vegetables fruits whole grains fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products lean meats poultry fish beans eggs and nuts and seeds. Keep your intake of saturated fats, cholesterol, salt, and added sugars to a minimum. Avoid trans fats.
Association Of Birth Weight And Type 2 Diabetes In Rochester Minnesota
There is renewed interest in the relationship between birth weight and type 2 diabetes. Previous case-control studies of elderly European residents showed a linear association between low birth weight and type 2 diabetes. More recent cohort studies in Pima Indians have shown a U-shaped curve between birth weight and diabetes, where both low and high birth weight were shown to increase the risk for developing type 2 diabetes. In addition, a few studies found an association between high birth weight and type 2 diabetes in Caucasian populations. Using the resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project , we examined the association of birth weight and type 2 diabetes in individuals who were born and developed type 2 diabetes while residing in Rochester, Minnesota.
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Diabetes And Your Child
For a parent whose child is diagnosed with a life-long condition, the job of parenting becomes even tougher.
Although being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes will involve coming to terms with the diagnosis, getting used to treatment and making changes to everyday life, your child can still lead a normal and healthy life.
The Diabetes UK website has information and advice about your child and diabetes.
What Are The Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes are serious and usually happen quickly, over a few days to weeks. Symptoms can include
- increased thirst and urination
- trouble breathing
- trouble paying attention or feeling confused
DKA is serious and dangerous. If you or your child have symptoms of DKA, contact your health care professional right away, or go to the nearest hospital emergency room.
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Favorite Type 1 Diabetes Apps
Many glucose monitoring devices have their own apps for receiving and analyzing your diabetes data but Glooko allows you to sync that data with their platform to help you understand how food, activity, and medication affect your glucose levels. The list of compatible devices is a long one, and you can also sync it with popular activity apps such as Runkeeper, Strava, Apple Health, and Fitbit. View your glucose trends, use a barcode scanner to add foods to your log, set medication reminders, and more. It has 4.7 stars in the Apple Store and also 4.0 stars in GooglePlay.
Many people use this popular apps free fitness log and interactive food diary in order to keep track of how many calories they are taking in and burning off each day. But if you upgrade to the premium monthly plan of $9.99, you can also track your carb intake and search for low-carb recipes. When you choose an activity or food, the nutrients attached are automatically added to your daily tracker. Download it in the Apple Store or .
Additional reporting by Joseph Bennington-Castro.
Duration Of Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong illness that requires careful, daily management of blood sugar levels. The constant need to be thinking about diabetes can grow tiresome and frustrating for many young people, says Thomas. While their journey will be different from the experience of those who dont have type 1 diabetes, they can still live a fulfilling, successful life, and they may find that their unique experience gives them the ability to tap into an inner power they didnt realize they had.”
Dutta strikes a similarly optimistic tone. Do we have a cure? No. We have advances in the clinic, but not yet an approved therapy that cures type 1 diabetes. But, he adds, continuing advances in glucose monitoring and insulin delivery are making it easier for people to manage life with the disease.
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What Medicines Do I Need To Treat My Type 1 Diabetes
If you have type 1 diabetes, you must take insulin because your body no longer makes this hormone. Different types of insulin start to work at different speeds, and the effects of each last a different length of time. You may need to use more than one type. You can take insulin a number of ways. Common options include a needle and syringe, insulin pen, or insulin pump.
Some people who have trouble reaching their blood glucose targets with insulin alone also might need to take another type of diabetes medicine that works with insulin, such as pramlintide. Pramlintide, given by injection, helps keep blood glucose levels from going too high after eating. Few people with type 1 diabetes take pramlintide, however. The NIH has recently funded a large research study to test use of pramlintide along with insulin and glucagon in people with type 1 diabetes. Another diabetes medicine, metformin, may help decrease the amount of insulin you need to take, but more studies are needed to confirm this. Reseachers are also studying other diabetes pills that people with type 1 diabetes might take along with insulin.
Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, can occur if you take insulin but dont match your dose with your food or physical activity. Severe hypoglycemia can be dangerous and needs to be treated right away. Learn more about hypoglycemia and how to prevent or treat it.
The Initial Causes Can You Be Born With Type 1 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a common condition in many people. This type is caused by a lack of insulin and is a result of an unhealthy lifestyle. The bodys inability to process glucose from the blood can damage many parts of the body, including the eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Fortunately, there are some things you can do to avoid diabetes. Here are five tips to help you lower your risk: Eat more vegetables and fruits, get regular exercise, and avoid smoking.
High levels of triglycerides in the blood are another factor that can cause diabetes. These triglycerides are caused by a buildup of cholesterol in the blood. A high triglyceride level causes the body to misrepresent insulin as a molecule, which causes glucose to build up in the blood. A simple blood glucose test can confirm your diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. By following these tips, you can begin living a healthy life and avoid the complications of diabetes.
A person with type 2 diabetes must consume less sugar. Glucose causes thirst and dehydration because the body releases energy stores into the bloodstream instead of using insulin. If untreated, diabetes can lead to weight loss and diabetic ketoacidosis, a dangerous condition whereby the cells are deprived of energy. To prevent the condition, you must make sure that your diet is low in glycemic load and that you exercise regularly.
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Genetic Testing For Neonatal Diabetes
Genetic testing for neonatal diabetes is offered free of charge for all people diagnosed with diabetes before 9 months of age. Confirming the diagnosis by molecular genetic testing is essential before considering any change to treatment.
More information about neonatal diabetes can be found at Diabetes Genes.
So if you or your child were diagnosed with diabetes before 6 months old, ask your diabetes team for a test for neonatal diabetes. Your team can take a blood sample and send it to the Peninsula Medical School based at the Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital for analysis. The test is free. Or you can visit Diabetes Genes, as the site will also tell your doctor how to take your blood and send it to the team at Exeter.
What Leads To Diabetes
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes have different causes, but there are two factors that are important in both. You inherit a predisposition to the disease, then something in your environment triggers it.
Thats right: genes alone are not enough. One proof of this is identical twins. Identical twins have identical genes. Yet when one twin has type 1 diabetes, the other gets the disease, at most, only half the time. When one twin has type 2 diabetes, the other’s risk is three in four at most.
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Fact: The Healthier Your Blood Sugar Levels Are The Easier Getting Pregnant Will Be But Women With Type 1 Diabetes Can Have Difficulty Getting Pregnant Just Like Anyone Else
Its easy to assume that because your body struggles to produce insulin, it will struggle to become pregnant, too.
The truth is that whether or not you have type 1 diabetes, you may have difficulty getting pregnant because some women simply do. Consistently high blood sugars and a high A1C are the most likely way type 1 diabetes would make getting pregnant more challenging.
Research has found that women with T1D have slightly decreased fertility rates especially in those with existing complications like retinopathy or neuropathy. Women with type 1 are more likely to have irregular menstrual cycles and delayed ovulation but again, these are associated with consistently high blood sugar levels.
But for women without complications and reasonable blood sugar management, overall fertility rates have improved significantly over the past couple of decades thanks to better insulin and management options.
Fortunately, theres something you can do about this: work with your healthcare team to improve your overall blood sugar management and bring your A1C down to a healthier level.
When To Contact A Medical Professional
If you are pregnant and getting regular prenatal care, routine testing will show if you develop gestational diabetes.
If you are pregnant and have diabetes that is not under control, call your provider right away.
If you are pregnant and are not receiving prenatal care, call a provider for an appointment.
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Type 1 Diabetes In Children
Type 1 diabetes was once known as juvenile diabetes. That is because its frequently diagnosed in children and young adults. By comparison, type 2 diabetes is typically diagnosed in older adults. However, both types can be diagnosed at almost any age.
According to a
The ketogenic diet has shown some benefits for people with type 2 diabetes.
The high fat, low carb diet may help manage blood sugar levels, according to 2018 research . It can even lead to weight loss, a goal for many people with type 2.
For type 1 diabetes, however, the keto diet hasnt been well-studied. To date, the general dietary recommendation for this type of diabetes is a low carb diet. However, researchers are looking at the possible benefits and safety of a diet that restricts carbs even more for people with type 1 diabetes.
One small study found that people with type 1 diabetes who followed the keto diet for more than 2 years showed better A1C results and glycemic control. However, these individuals also had higher blood lipids and more low blood sugar episodes. Long-term safety is unknown.
If youre interested in trying the keto diet and you have type 1 diabetes, start by talking with your doctor. They may refer you to a registered dietitian or nutritionist to help you find a plan that is right for you.
Type 1 Diabetes Resources We Love
As mentioned, type 1 diabetes is a lifelong disease that requires active management throughout the day, every day. This reality can be daunting for someone who has just received a diagnosis. Dutta advises that you find out as much as you can, and dont be afraid to speak up or seek help. Learn about the disease. Knowledge is power, he says.
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Why Do Some People Get Type 1 Diabetes
No one knows for sure why some people get type 1 diabetes. Doctors and scientists think a persons genes make them more likely to get it. But just having the genes for diabetes probably isn’t enough. Its likely that something else needs to happen. Scientists are studying if other things like some viral infections, a persons birth weight, or their diet might make someone who already has the genes for type 1 diabetes more likely to get it.
Type 1 diabetes cant be prevented, and can happen in people of any age.
Signs Of Type 1 Diabetes In Kids
Of course, as a parent, you hope your child does not develop type 1 diabetes. However, it is important for you to be aware of the symptoms of the disease in children, so that you can recognize them early and get your child tested.
- Frequent urination and thirst: Having high blood sugar eliminates fluids from the body, which will lead to increased thirst and the need to take more bathroom breaks throughout the day.
- Fatigue: If your child is constantly tired, it may be a sign that their body is having trouble turning sugar in the bloodstream into energy.
- Changes in vision: High blood sugar levels can lead to blurred vision or other eyesight problems.
- Fruity smelling breath: If your childs breath smells fruity, it could be a result of excess sugar in the blood.
- Extreme hunger and unexplained weight loss: When your childs muscles and organs arent receiving enough energy, it can trigger extreme hunger. And sudden weight lossespecially if they are eating moreshould not be ignored.
- Unusual behavior: If your child seems more moody or restless than normaland its in conjunction with the symptoms aboveit could be cause for concern.
The signs of type 1 diabetes may differ slightly for kids of different ages. If you have a toddler or teen, learn more about the symptoms they might experience.
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