Fasting Plasma Glucose Test
A fasting plasma glucose test requires fasting for eight hours before the test.
You will have your blood drawn for this test. Then the plasma is combined with other substances to determine the amount of glucose in the plasma. Blood glucose is measure in milligrams per deciliter .
This chart contains the FPG tests blood glucose ranges for prediabetes and diabetes, and describes what each diagnosis means:
|Blood Glucose Range|
|100 to 125 mg/dL||Prediabetes||Blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. This condition increases risk for developing Type 2 diabetes, heart disease and stroke.|
|126 mg/dL or more||Diabetes mellitus||Type 2 diabetes develops when your body doesnt make enough insulin or develops insulin resistance and can’t efficiently use the insulin it makes. It greatly increases your risk of heart disease and stroke.|
What Tests To Do For Diabetes
Generally the next level of test includes a fastingblood glucose test, and additional blood sugar measurements. A high blood sugarmeans you may be a diabetic.
Sometimes doctors recommend a urine test and a HBA1C test also. Glucose tolerance test is another common test to diagnose diabetes in many countries.
Indeed, a glucose tolerance test measures how well your body can breakdown sugar and deal with it.
You can also try and understand how you get diabetes so that you can protect yourself from diabetes complications. Moreover, you must clearly understand how to get tested for diabetes.
This will help you in many ways. Once you knowthis, you can go ahead with your diabetes tests.
If you need more information on diabetes tests, you may see your doctor. In fact, a doctor can help with the suitable diabetes tests as well as treatment.
Causes Of Diabetic Retinopathy
The buildup of excess sugar in your blood can lead to a number of health issues. In your eyes, too much glucose can damage the tiny vessels that supply blood to your retina. Over time, this damage may block your blood flow.
Chronic damage to retinal blood vessels affects your vision. When your blood flow is diminished, your eye attempts to fix the situation by growing new blood vessels. The process of growing new blood vessels is called neovascularization. These vessels arent as effective or as strong as the original ones. They may leak or rupture, which can negatively impact your vision.
Diabetic retinopathy is a concern for anyone who has diabetes. There are additional risk factors for developing diabetic retinopathy:
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Who Should Be Tested For Diabetes And How Is Diabetes Diagnosed
Diabetes is diagnosed using one of four simple blood tests in a doctors office or health clinic. The tests measure your blood-glucose level, which means the amount of sugar in your blood. Many people with diabetes do not have symptoms so it is important to get tested if you have risk factors for the disease.
Who Should Be Tested For DiabetesThe American Diabetes Association recommends blood tests for diabetes in any person with symptoms of the disease. In people without symptoms, testing should begin at age 45 and every three years thereafter or earlier in adults who are overweight or obesemeaning a body mass index 25 kg/m2and have any of the following other risk factors:
- Parent or sibling with diabetes
- Physical inactivity
- African American, Hispanic American, Native American, Asian American, or Pacific Islander
- Women who had gestational diabetes or who gave birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds
- HDL cholesterol level 35 mg/dL
- Triglyceride level 250 mg/dL
- Impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose on previous blood-glucose testing
- History of heart disease
In children and adolescents, testing for type 2 diabetes should be considered for those who have diabetes symptoms or who are overweight and have two of the following risk factors:
Testing in children should begin at age 10 or when the child enters puberty and should be repeated every 3 years.
Table. Tests Used to Diagnose Diabetes
Can You Be Born With Diabetes Is It Genetic
You arent born with diabetes, but Type 1 diabetes usually appears in childhood. Prediabetes and diabetes develop slowly over time years. Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy.Scientists do believe that genetics may play a role or contribute to the development of Type 1 diabetes. Something in the environment or a virus may trigger its development. If you have a family history of Type 1 diabetes, you are at higher risk of developing Type 1 diabetes. If you have a family history of prediabetes, Type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes, youre at increased risk of developing prediabetes, Type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes.
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Less Common T1d Tests
Because each case can be as unique as the individual, some doctors may employ the following tests to find markers of T1D to ensure the optimal treatment plan:
- C-PeptideWhile most tests check for antibodies, this test measures how much C-peptide is in a persons blood. Peptide levels typically mirror insulin levels in the body. Low levels of C-peptide and insulin can point to T1D.
- Insulin Autoantibodies This tests looks for the antibodies targeting insulin.
- Insulinoma-Associated-2 Autoantibodies This test looks for antibodies mounted against a specific enzyme in beta cells. Both the IA-2A and GADA tests are common T1D antibody tests.
- Zinc Transporter 8 This test looks at antibodies targeting an enzyme that is specific to beta cells.
- Islet Cell Cytoplasmic Autoantibodies Islet cells are clusters of cells in the pancreas that produce hormones, including insulin. This test identifies a type of islet cell antibodies present in up to 80 percent of people with T1D.
- Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Autoantibodies This test looks for antibodies built against a specific enzyme in the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells.
Am I At Risk Of Diabetes
You can ask your doctor about your risk for diabetes. You can also estimate your risk of getting type 2 diabetes by using the Australian Type 2 Diabetes Risk Assessment Tool . This is a simple way for you to check your risk.
You may be at increased risk of type 2 diabetes if you:
- are over 55
- are over 45 and are overweight or have high blood pressure
- have a family member with type 2 diabetes
- are from an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander background
- were born in Asia
- are not physically active
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How Type 2 Diabetes Is Diagnosed
Diagnosing type 2 diabetes requires a series of lab tests looking for markers of elevated glucose, or blood sugar. Such tests are necessary, as type 2 diabetes may or may not have noticeable symptoms, or symptoms may crossover with other conditions.
The diagnosis often is made during an annual physical or checkup. Your healthcare provider may order a hemoglobin A1C test, a fasting blood sugar test, or an oral glucose tolerance test as part of regular screening to check blood sugar levels and to help determine if you have diabetes.
What Are The Different Types Of Diabetes
The types of diabetes are:
- Type 1 diabetes: This type is an autoimmune disease, meaning your body attacks itself. In this case, the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas are destroyed. Up to 10% of people who have diabetes have Type 1. Its usually diagnosed in children and young adults . It was once better known as juvenile diabetes. People with Type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day. This is why it is also called insulin-dependent diabetes.
- Type 2 diabetes: With this type, your body either doesnt make enough insulin or your bodys cells dont respond normally to the insulin. This is the most common type of diabetes. Up to 95% of people with diabetes have Type 2. It usually occurs in middle-aged and older people. Other common names for Type 2 include adult-onset diabetes and insulin-resistant diabetes. Your parents or grandparents may have called it having a touch of sugar.
- Prediabetes: This type is the stage before Type 2 diabetes. Your blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be officially diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes.
- Gestational diabetes: This type develops in some women during their pregnancy. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after pregnancy. However, if you have gestational diabetes you’re at higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes later on in life.
Less common types of diabetes include:
Diabetes insipidus is a distinct rare condition that causes your kidneys to produce a large amount of urine.
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What Does It Mean If Test Results Show I Have Protein In My Urine
This means your kidneys are allowing protein to be filtered through and now appear in your urine. This condition is called proteinuria. The continued presence of protein in your urine is a sign of kidney damage.
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Theres much you can do to prevent the development of diabetes . However, if you or your child or adolescent develop symptoms of diabetes, see your healthcare provider. The earlier diabetes is diagnosed, the sooner steps can be taken to treat and control it. The better you are able to control your blood sugar level, the more likely you are to live a long, healthy life.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 03/28/2021.
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What Happens At A Diabetes Consultation
If you want diabetes diagnosis, you may seekan appointment with your doctor or a pharmacist. They can explain to you how toget tested for diabetes and help you with diabetes diagnosis.
When you arrive for your diabetes test, younormally see a medical professional in a private consultation.
They will collect detail about you includingyour age, height, weight and waist etc. Your doctor will ask you afew questions about your daily routine and your diet.
This helps them get an idea about your life style.
They may also take a reading of your blood pressure. Your doctor will want to know if you ever had a high blood sugar level or if any of your close relative has diabetes. These factors determine your risk level for diabetes and can help you to get tested for diabetes early.
Once they determine your risk level for diabetes,you may seek a doctors advice for reducing your risk level.
If they want to test your blood, they willcollect a blood sample by pricking your finger. They measure your bloodsugar level at that time.
Based on the results from these, they will decideif you need further tests to determine if you are diabetic.
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Signs Of Diabetes You Might Miss
Diabetes a chronic condition that affects how your body uses food for energy is a fact of life for more than 34 million people in the U.S., according to the latest data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . But did you know that in the early stages, the symptoms of diabetes could be easily missed?
The CDC also reports that more than one in three American adults have prediabetes and the vast majority of them dont even know they have it. Prediabetes can evolve into type 2 diabetes over time. This can increase your risk of serious health problems such as heart disease, vision loss, and kidney disease if left unmanaged.
Prediabetes means you have elevated glucose levels, but not at the level to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, says George Joe Trotter, Jr., R.N., a nurse clinician and certified diabetes care and education specialist with the Diabetes Management Program at Emory Healthcare in Atlanta.
Diabetes screening is done with a blood test called the hemoglobin A1C test. You can get it at your providers office or through a home test, and a diagnosis may be confirmed through additional testing. How do you know if you should be tested for diabetes? Some guidelines:
- If youre a woman whos ever had gestational diabetes , get tested every three years.
If you dont fit these categories but have symptoms that could signal diabetes, dont wait. Any one or more of the warning signs below should prompt you to schedule a screening.
Blood Tests Used To Diagnose Diabetes
We will explain below the different blood tests that could be used to diagnose your diabetes. Your doctor will ask you about any symptoms you have and will then decide which type of blood test to use.
Having blood tests doesn’t need to be worrying, theyre straightforward and shouldnt take very long. Depending on the test you have you may be required to fast beforehand. If you do need to fast, a healthcare professional will let you know in advance.
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What Are The Treatments For Diabetes
Diabetes is a serious disease that you cannot treat on your own. Your doctor will help you make a diabetes treatment plan that is right for you â and that you can understand. You may also need other health care professionals on your diabetes treatment team, including a foot doctor, nutritionist, eye doctor, and a diabetes specialist .
Treatment for diabetes requires keeping close watch over your blood sugar levels with a combination of medications, exercise, and diet. By paying close attention to what and when you eat, you can minimize or avoid the âseesaw effectâ of rapidly changing blood sugar levels, which can require quick changes in medication dosages, especially insulin. Find out how to choose the right diabetes treatment for you.
Fasting Blood Sugar Test
Fasting blood sugar tests involves having your blood drawn after youve fasted overnight, which usually means not eating for 8 to 12 hours:
- Results of less than 100 mg/dL are normal.
- Results between 100 and 125 mg/dL indicate prediabetes.
- Results equal to or greater than 126 mg/dL after two tests indicate diabetes.
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How Often Should I Check My Blood Sugar
The number of times that you check your blood sugar will depend on the type of diabetes that you have and the type of medicine you take to treat your diabetes. For example, people who take insulin may need to check more often than people who do not take insulin. Talk with your health care team about how often to check your blood sugar.
The common times for checking your blood sugar are when you first wake up , before a meal, 2 hours after a meal, and at bedtime. Talk with your health care team about what times are best for you to check your blood sugar.
What If You Dont Have A Doctor
You could have prediabetes for years without any clear symptoms. In fact, around 88 million American adults have prediabetes, but more than 84% of them dont even know it. With prediabetes, blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough yet to be diagnosed as diabetes. Having prediabetes increases the risk for type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.
People who have any prediabetes risk factors are urged to talk to their doctor about getting their blood sugar tested. If you dont have a doctor or are concerned about expense, there are free or low-cost options available as a first step:
- Free screeningsFree blood sugar testing is offered at some health fairs, community centers, and pharmacies.
- Medicare coveragePeople covered by Medicare can get up to two free screeningsexternal icon a year if they have certain risk factors for diabetes, such as high blood pressure or obesity.
- Low-cost health centers and labsFederally funded community health centersexternal icon provide low-cost blood sugar testing on a sliding scale based on income. Testing is also available at some walk-in labs for a small fee.
A word of caution: Free blood sugar screenings often arent accurate because people havent fasted 8 to 10 hours before the test. Make sure you know how to prepareexternal icon ahead of time.
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Non Fasting Blood Tests
An HbA1c test is the main blood test used to diagnose diabetes. It tests your average blood sugar levels for the last two to three months. You dont need to prepare for a HbA1c . Its a quick and simple test where a small amount of blood is taken from a vein in your arm. This is different to a finger-prick test, which is a snapshot of your blood sugar levels at that moment.
Youll normally get the test results in a few days. From these results, your healthcare professional will be able to see if you have diabetes. If you didnt have any of the symptoms of diabetes before you were tested, youll need to have the test again to confirm the result.
You have diabetes if your HbA1c level is 48mmol/mol or above..
You are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes if your HbA1c is between 42 and 48mmol/mol.
Random blood glucose test
If you have severe symptoms of diabetes, you may have a random blood test at any time of the day. This is a quick test, through a finger-prick or a vein in your arm.
If you have a finger-prick test, youll get the results straight away. If you have a blood test through a vein in your arm, youll get the results in a few days.
You or your loved one have diabetes if your blood glucose levels are 11.1mmol/l or more – regardless of how recently you ate.
But any diagnosis from a finger prick test will need to be confirmed by a blood test sent to a laboratory for results.