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When Was Type 2 Diabetes Discovered

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What Should A Type 2 Diabetes Meal Plan Include

From Type 2 To Diabetes-Free: How Did She Do It???

Ask your healthcare provider or a nutritionist to recommend a meal plan thats right for you. In general, a Type 2 diabetes meal plans should include:

  • Lean proteins: Proteins low in saturated fats include chicken, eggs and seafood. Plant-based proteins include tofu, nuts and beans.
  • Minimally processed carbohydrates: Refined carbs like white bread, pasta and potatoes can cause your blood sugar to increase quickly. Choose carbs that cause a more gradual blood sugar increase such as whole grains like oatmeal, brown rice and whole-grain pasta.
  • No added salt: Too much sodium, or salt, can increase your blood pressure. Lower your sodium by avoiding processed foods like those that come in cans or packages. Choose salt-free spices and use healthy oils instead of salad dressing.
  • No added sugars: Avoid sugary foods and drinks, such as pies, cakes and soda. Choose water or unsweetened tea to drink.
  • Non-starchy vegetables: These vegetables are lower in carbohydrates, so they dont cause blood sugar spikes. Examples include broccoli, carrots and cauliflower.

Islet Pathology In Diabetes

Early autopsy studies of individuals who died at onset of type 1 diabetes have helped inform us of the pathological changes occurring in the pancreas. In type 1 diabetes, a progressive and immune-mediated deterioration of β-cells occurs within pancreatic islets, eventually leading to an almost complete absence of insulin secretion. In type 2 diabetes, β-cell number is reduced owing to increased β-cell apoptosis. Read more.


When In History Did Those With Diabetes Switch From Following Low Carbohydrate To A More Liberal Intake Of Carbohydrates

Up until the 1970s a lower carbohydrate high fat diet was promoted to manage diabetes. In 1980 the first set of Dietary Guidelines for Americans was published. These guidelines encouraged Americans to follow an eating plan that was lower in fat to reduce the risk of chronic health conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. For many individuals, following a lower-fat diet resulted in greater carbohydrate intake. In the last 15 years many individuals have started to go back to a lower carbohydrate diet to control blood glucose levels and to help with weight loss. For more information see the following article: Are Carbohydrates an Essential Nutrient? An update to: Can a Low Carb Diet Help?

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Inactivity Overweight Obesity Diabetes And Dementia

Since the 1950s, dramatic urbanisation and automation have taken place. Cars, abundance of food and drink and sedentary have exploded globally. This led to an avalanche increase in the incidence of overweight and obesity. At the same time, living conditions improved, which meant that people became both heavier and older. Thus, diabetes and cancer became more common. In addition, dementia has also become a folk disease.

The most dramatic increase is undoubtedly the one observed for diabetes and obesity. Diabetes has become a global pandemic. Increase in overweight and obesity has affected all age groups in all communities. Today, almost 1.5 billion adults are overweight and, as mentioned above, about 400 million people have type 2 diabetes.

History Of Diabetes Mellitus

Protein behind Type 2 Diabetes Discovered By Scientists for the First ...

Abstract Clinical features similar to diabetes mellitus were described 3000 years ago by the ancient Egyptians. The term “diabetes” was first coined by Araetus of Cappodocia . Later, the word mellitus was added by Thomas Willis in 1675 after rediscovering the sweetness of urine and blood of patients . It was only in 1776 that Dobson firstly confirmed the presence of excess sugar in urine and blood as a cause of their sweetness. In modern time, the history of diabetes coincided with the emergence of experimental medicine. An important milestone in the history of diabetes is the establishment of the role of the liver in glycogenesis, and the concept that diabetes is due to excess glucose production Claude Bernard in 1857. The role of the pancreas in pathogenesis of diabetes was discovered by Mering and Minkowski 1889. Later, this discovery constituted the basis of insulin isolation and clinical use by Banting and Best in 1921. Trials to prepare an orally administrated hypoglycemic agent ended successfully by first marketing of tolbutamide and carbutamide in 1955. This report will also discuss the history of dietary management and acute and chronic complications of diabetes.Continue reading > >

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Who Is More Likely To Develop Type 2 Diabetes

You can develop type 2 diabetes at any age, even during childhood. However, type 2 diabetes occurs most often in middle-aged and older people. You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are age 45 or older, have a family history of diabetes, or are overweight or obese. Diabetes is more common in people who are African American, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian, Asian American, or Pacific Islander.

Physical inactivity and certain health problems such as high blood pressure affect your chances of developing type 2 diabetes. You are also more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you have prediabetes or had gestational diabetes when you were pregnant. Learn more about risk factors for type 2 diabetes.

Our Strategies To Prevent And Cure Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes means the body does not use insulin properly. Over time it can no longer make enough insulin to keep blood sugars at normal levels. Adults diagnosed with diabetes in the United States has more than tripled over the past 20 years. The cost of diabetes to our health care system is hundreds of billions of dollars each year.

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What Is 3c Diabetes Has A New Form Of Diabetes Been Discovered

It’s type 3C diabetes I.e.Pancreatogenic diabetes is classified by the American Diabetes Association and by the World Health Organization as type 3c diabetes mellitus and refers to diabetes due to impairment in pancreatic endocrine function related to pancreatic exocrine damage due to acute, relapsing and chronic pancreatitis , cystic fibrosis, hemochromatosis, pancreatic cancer, and pancreatectomy, and as well rare causes such as neonatal diabetes due to pancreatic agenesis . Prevalence data on T3cDM are scarce because of insufficient research in this area and challenges with accurate diabetes classification in clinical practice.Continue reading > >

The Story Of The First Insulin Injection

Reversing Type 2 diabetes starts with ignoring the guidelines | Sarah Hallberg | TEDxPurdueU

On December 2, 1921, Leonard Thomson, 14, arrived at the emergency of Toronto General Hospital. He weighed just 65 pounds and his life hung by a thread. His diabetes had been diagnosed two years earlier.

In hospital, although Thomson was put on a strict diet of 450 calories a day, his blood glucose easily reached 28 mmol / L, and he was always in a state of acidosis. The doctors gave him only weeks to live.

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A New Target To Improve Insulin Sensitivity

The hormone insulin normally acts like a key, traveling through the blood and opening the cellular lock to enable the entry of glucose into muscle and fat cells. However, in people with type 2 diabetes, the lock on the cellular door has, in effect, been changed, meaning insulin isnt as effective. This phenomenon is called insulin resistance. Scientists have long sought to understand what causes insulin resistance and develop therapies to enable insulin to work correctly again. This year, Dr. Summers determined an essential role for a molecule called ceramides as a driver of insulin resistance in mice. He also presented a new therapeutic strategy for lowering ceramides and reversing insulin resistance. His findings were published in one of the most prestigious scientific journals, Science.

Soon, Dr. Summers and his team will attempt to validate these findings in humans, with the ultimate goal of developing a new medication to help improve outcomes in people with diabetes.

Chaurasia, B., Tippetts, T. S., Mayoral Monibas, R., Liu, J., Li, Y., Wang, L., Wilkerson, J. L., Sweeney, C. R., Pereira, R. F., Sumida, D. H., Maschek, J. A., Cox, J. E., Kaddai, V., Lancaster, G. I., Siddique, M. M., Poss, A., Pearson, M., Satapati, S., Zhou, H., Summers, S.A. . Targeting a ceramide double bond improves insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Science , 365, 386392.

Insulin Gets An Upgrade

Concerns about the immunogenicity of animal-derived insulin led to a search for alternative methods of insulin production. The first successful generation of fully synthetic human insulin was reported in 1979 and the product was approved by the FDA just 3 years later, providing a less immunogenic form of insulin for the millions of people around the world who need it. Read more.

Milestone 7 1982

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Harold On History: An Historical Perspective On Diabetes And Cardiovascular Disease


Diabetes can be considered a cardiovascular disease and is a major risk factor and determinant for the development of vascular disease and stroke. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among patients with type 2 diabetes. Adults with diabetes, compared with those without, are two- to four-times more likely to have cardiovascular disease. A major health epidemic, nearly 30 million children and adults, or 10 percent of Americans, have diabetes. It is estimated that the number of Americans with diabetes will triple by 2050, in part driven by the obesity epidemic.

Diabetes has been recognized since antiquity, but the pathogenesis has only been understood experimentally since 1900. The first known reference to diabetes was by the Egyptian physician Hesy-ra, who described excessive urination, which is included in the Ebers Papyrus. This Egyptian medical papyrus is a 110-page scroll that dates to 1550 BCE and was found in the Thebes necropolis near modern day Luxor in the Nile River Valley. The papyrus was purchased by the German Egyptologist Georg Ebers , who published a facsimile in English and Latin in 1875. The original is preserved in the library of the University of Leipzig in Germany. The Ebers Papyrus contains numerous herbal medical remedies including a recommendation to eliminate urine which is too plentiful by consuming wheat grains, fruit and sweet beer.

to learn more about the Diabetes Collaborative Registry.

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January 1922 Insulin Was First Used To Treat A Person With Diabetes

Research Confirms Type 2 Diabetes Can Be Reversed With Weight Loss

In January 1922, Leonard Thompson, a 14-year-old boy dying from type 1 diabetes, became the first person to receive an injection of insulin. Within 24 hours, Leonards dangerously high blood sugar levels dropped, but he developed an abscess at the site of the injection and still had high levels of ketones.

Collip worked day and night on purifying the extract even further, and Leonard was given a second injection on 23 January 1922. This time it was a complete success and Leonards blood sugar levels become near-normal, with no obvious side effects. For the first time in history, type 1 diabetes was not a death sentence.

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Determining The Genetic Risk For Gestational Diabetes

Research has identified more than 100 genetic variants linked to risk for developing type 2 diabetes in humans. However, the extent to which these same genetic variants might affect a womans probability for getting gestational diabetes has not been investigated.

Pathway to Stop Diabetes® Accelerator awardee Marie-France Hivert, MD, of Harvard University set out to answer this critical question. Dr. Hivert found that indeed genetic determinants of type 2 diabetes outside of pregnancy are also strong risk factors for gestational diabetes. This study was published in the journal Diabetes.

The implications? Because of this finding, doctors in the clinic may soon be able to identify women at risk for getting gestational diabetes and take proactive steps to prevent it. Powe, C. E., Nodzenski, M., Talbot, O., Allard, C., Briggs, C., Leya, M. V., Hivert, M.-F. . Genetic Determinants of Glycemic Traits and the Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes, 67, 27032709.

What Are The Symptoms Of Diabetes

Symptoms of diabetes include

  • numbness or tingling in the feet or hands
  • sores that do not heal
  • unexplained weight loss

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowlyover the course of several yearsand can be so mild that you might not even notice them. Many people have no symptoms. Some people do not find out they have the disease until they have diabetes-related health problems, such as blurred vision or heart disease.

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Genetic Causes Of Monogenic Diabetes Outside The

Mutations in CEL, encoding carboxy-ester lipase, cause young-onset diabetes coupled with exocrine pancreas dysfunction , which is characterized by low fecal elastase levels . It is notable that the disease-causing mutations are caused by alterations in the variable number of tandem repeats region rather than in the protein-coding sequence . This variety of monogenic diabetes is unusual as it does not appear to directly involve defects in the -cell rather it involves the acinar cells of the pancreas and may involve defects in mitogen-activating protein kinase signaling . This atypical monogenetic diabetes may prove to be a paradigm for other types of diabetes as multiple recent studies have suggested a role for the exocrine pancreas in mediating genetic association signals for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes .

The Road To Autoimmune Diabetes

Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

There would in fact have been little justification for listing juvenile diabetes as an autoimmune disorder in 1963. In 1957, Witebsky et al., with Koch’s postulates in mind, had suggested these criteria for autoimmunity: 1) the direct demonstration of free, circulating antibodies that are active at body temperature or of cell-bound antibodies by indirect means 2) the recognition of the specific antigen against which this antibody is directed 3) the production of antibodies against the same antigen in experimental animals 4) the appearance of pathological changes in the corresponding tissues of an actively sensitized experimental animal that are basically similar to those in the human disease. By 1963, none of these had been described in diabetes. Recognition of these features and of their clinical significance took a further 10 years to accomplish, and many strands of observation fused together in the new paradigm. In approximate chronological sequence these were

In due course, these developments, outlined in the remainder of this review, prefaced the reintroduction of the terms type 1 and type 2 diabetes in 1976.

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January 1923 Insulin Belongs To The World

On 23 January 1923, Banting, Collip and Best were awarded U.S. patents on insulin and the method used to make it. They all sold these patents to the University of Toronto for $1 each. Banting famously said, Insulin does not belong to me, it belongs to the world. He wanted everyone who needed it to have access to it.

Findings From Dcct Glycaemic Control Prevents Diabetes Complications

The publication of the results of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial marked a change in the treatment of diabetes. This trial demonstrated that intensive therapy â aimed at achieving glycaemic control as close to the non-diabetic range as safely possible â substantially reduced the complications of diabetes. From this point on, intensive therapy became the new standard therapy for patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. Read more.

Milestone 14 1995

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Will I Need Medication Or Insulin For Type 2 Diabetes

Some people take medication to manage diabetes, along with diet and exercise. Your healthcare provider may recommend oral diabetes medications. These are pills or liquids that you take by mouth. For example, a medicine called metformin helps control the amount of glucose your liver produces.

You can also take insulin to help your body use sugar more efficiently. Insulin comes in the following forms:

  • Injectable insulin is a shot you give yourself. Most people inject insulin into a fleshy part of their body such as their belly. Injectable insulin is available in a vial or an insulin pen.
  • Inhaled insulin is inhaled through your mouth. It is only available in a rapid-acting form.
  • Insulin pumps deliver insulin continuously, similar to how a healthy pancreas would. Pumps release insulin into your body through a tiny cannula . Pumps connect to a computerized device that lets you control the dose and frequency of insulin.

How Is Type 2 Diabetes Managed

Newly Discovered Third Type of Diabetes Wrongly Diagnosed as Type 2 ...

Theres no cure for Type 2 diabetes. But you can manage the condition by maintaining a healthy lifestyle and taking medication if needed. Work with your healthcare provider to manage your:

  • Blood sugar: A blood glucose meter or continuous glucose monitoring can help you meet your blood sugar target. Your healthcare provider may also recommend regular A1c tests, oral medications , insulin therapy or injectable non-insulin diabetes medications.
  • Blood pressure: Lower your blood pressure by not smoking, exercising regularly and eating a healthy diet. Your healthcare provider may recommend blood pressure medication such as beta blockers or ACE inhibitors.
  • Cholesterol: Follow a meal plan low in saturated fats, trans fat, salt and sugar. Your healthcare provider may recommend statins, which are a type of drug to lower cholesterol.

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The Health Risks Of Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes is a lifelong condition. High blood glucose levels over a long period of time can cause:

  • blindness
  • reduced blood supply to the limbs, leading to amputation
  • nerve damage
  • erectile dysfunction and
  • stroke.

Although there is no cure for diabetes, the condition can be managed by medication and/or insulin, and by making healthy lifestyle choices.

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