Type 1 Diabetes Research
Through the JDRF Beyond Type 1 Alliance, Beyond Type 1 has partnered with JDRF the worlds biggest nonprofit funder of Type 1 diabetes research to educate our community on the important role research plays in the lives of everyone affected by T1D. It was diabetes research that led to the discovery of insulin in 1921. It was research that led to the creation of the first insulin pump in 1963, and research that led to the modern analog insulins used by many living with T1D today. Without research, we wouldnt have CGMs, hybrid closed loop systems, or treatment for the complications that arise from living with diabetes. And it is research that will some day lead to the cure for Type 1 diabetes.
A Better Use Of Rare Donations
Islet cells are created in the pancreas and produce the hormones that regulate blood sugar, such as insulin.
Transplantation of islet cells into the liver can help diabetics to produce their own insulin. But with this method, about 75 per cent of transplanted islet cells, donated from cadavers, are lost in the first 24 hours. This is due to the limited supply of oxygenated blood to the liver.
You have to process three pancreases to get one that will work, so transplanting into the liver is a very inefficient procedure, said Professor Coates.
So the quest around the world has been to come up with alternative sites where the cells might be more likely to survive, and thats what led us to start working here, looking at implanting into the skin.
Sourcing islet cells from the pancreas of deceased donors means there is a finite supply. This places a limit on the number transplants that can be performed and the number of patients who can successfully benefit.
However, by creating an oxygen rich environment outside of the liver to support the survival and functioning of islet cells, the supply of donated cells can be better utilised to provide more transplants to more patients.
The innovative treatment is also less invasive than the liver implantation method, as it can be done under local anaesthetic, is easy to monitor or remove and is significantly less expensive. It also provides the transplanted cells with their own blood supply, which reduces the risk to the patient.
New Research Breakthrough In Type 1 Diabetes
An article in The New York Times on December 3rd made headlines that are especially important for people living with Type 1 diabetes. It announced that Brian Shelton from Ohio had been cured of Type 1 diabetes. Curing Type 1 requires a renewable source of beta cells that can be produced in the laboratory. Once placed into the body, they need to restore insulin production and automatically regulate blood-glucose levels.
On June 29th, Brian received an infusion of cells, grown from stem cells which were just like the insulin-producing pancreas cells his body lacked. Now his body automatically controls its insulin production and blood sugar levels. He may be the first person to be cured of Type 1 diabetes with a new treatment that leads us all to hope that help may be coming for people with Type 1 diabetes.
This study has not yet been published in a peer-reviewed journal so the results of the trial are not yet known. The findings in this one man need to be replicated in many more people and other questions arise:
- will there be unexpected adverse effects,
- people will need to take immunosuppressants and what effects of this are,
- will the cells last for a lifetime or does the treatment have to be repeated.
Nevertheless, it is an amazing result.
The next step for Melton was to start a company to finance taking this procedure to the market and later when the stage of clinical trials was reached, pharmaceutical company, Vertex acquired Semma for $950 million.
Also Check: What Are The Beginning Symptoms Of Diabetes
A New Option For Type 1 Diabetes Treatment Shows Promising Pre
To date, each breakthrough promising a diabetes cure has encountered significant hurdles, making it not viable for the vast majority of people. Now, researchers in the US have improved upon one type of transplant-based treatment, potentially giving hope to the 9 million people around the world with this condition.
“The immune system is a tightly controlled defense mechanism that ensures the wellbeing of individuals in an environment full of infections,” explains one of the researchers, University of Missouri immunologist Haval Shirwan.
“Type 1 diabetes develops when the immune system misidentifies the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas as infections and destroys them.”
These insulin-producing cells are grouped into clusters called pancreatic islets, which end up being destroyed by the malfunctioning immune cells of the body.
Helpful treatments include an islet cell transplant, or a transplant of an entire pancreas, to provide more islets for insulin production. However, these aren’t without risks people who receive transplants also need to take immunosuppressive drugs for the life of the transplant, to ensure the rogue immune cells don’t destroy the new tissue as well.
We’ll need more research to find out for sure.
The research has been published in Science Advances.
Islet Autoantibody Seroconversion In Type
Here, by characterizing gut metagenomes of at-risk children in the TEDDY project, the authors associate onset of autoimmunity leading to Type-1 diabetes with certain sets of microorganisms in the gut microbiota, and identify metabolic capabilities encoded in the genomes of these microorganisms that provide functional insights to the association.
Recommended Reading: Three Risk Factors For Type 2 Diabetes
Political Issues: Ada/jdrf Vs Dr Faustman
Despite Faustmans passion and dedication to finding a cure, both the legitimacy of her work and the results have come under great scrutiny by the American Diabetes Association and the JDRF.
I am still not sure why they chose to issue it, but it was a political not a scientific response to our work, which neither group has funded, said Faustman.
Fortunately for the type 1 diabetes population, Dr. Faustman continues steadfastly on her work towards a cure despite lack of support from the larger diabetes organizations.
Finding A Cure For Type 1 Diabetes
The Sanford Project is an emerging translational research center focused on targeted diabetes research, cures and care.
Worldwide, about 70,000 children ages 14 years and younger are developing type 1 diabetes per year. Type 1 diabetes, also termed juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes, is an autoimmune disease and metabolic disorder. Its characterized by an immune-mediated destruction of insulin-secreting beta-cells of the pancreas, resulting in insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia.
Signs of type 1 diabetes
The primary clinical signs of type 1 diabetes are ketoacidosis which can lead to coma and death and chronic hyperglycemia. Chronic hyperglycemia is the primary cause of several macrovascular and microvascular diabetic complications.
Treatment for type 1 diabetes
Insulin-replacement therapy is the life-saving first-line treatment for people diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Insulin-replacement therapy is, however, not a cure and cannot prevent the disease from progressing and causing long-term complications. Thus, identifying disease-modifying therapies and cures remains a major unmet medical need and the focus of The Sanford Project.
How we work on curing type 1 diabetes
The Sanford Project team:
If we are successful, we will find safe and clinically relevant solutions and cures for patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.
Getting Started With The Bcg Vaccine
The BCG vaccine that is the focus of Faustmans diabetes research has existed for over 100 years, primarily known for its ability to protect humans from tuberculosis.
Initially, using BCG to treat T1D was done with the hope that it would stop the immune system from destroying precious insulin-producing beta-cells.
But back in the early 2000s, Faustman set her sights on utilizing BCG to boost levels of the hormone known as TNF. Its well established that people with autoimmune disease are deficient in TNF. By increasing TNF, Faustman aimed to eliminate the T-cells killing off beta cells and increase the amount of T-regulatory cells, which would then help the pancreas produce new beta cells.
At first, Faustman tried to find a pharmaceutical manufacturer to discuss producing a new source of TNF, but they found it to be too costly, lasting only minutes once administered in the human body, and potentially deadly if you received too much.
The BCG vaccine, on the other hand, is a simple drug used for vaccines around the world, so why are we trying to recreate this? Faustman asks.
When Will This Become Available To More People With Type 1 Diabetes
Similar to people who receive other organ transplants, those who receive VX-880 must continually take immunosuppressants to prevent the bodys immune system from rejecting the new beta cells. We use a standard regimen of immunosuppressants, also used in patients receiving kidney transplants, an established regimen weve found to be generally well-tolerated, Markmann said.
Currently, because of the risks of infection associated with immunosuppressants, only those with severe hypoglycemia unawareness have been eligible to be candidates for this initial research. This is because these candidates specifically have the most to gain from this type of therapy given the risks associated with hypoglycemia unawareness.
Unlike other interventions such as full pancreas transplants or beta cell islet transplants from human donors, VX-880 has the potential to be used on a much larger scale.
Right now in the US, there are only about 1,000 pancreas transplants available, so the supply is a significant problem, Markmann said. Additionally, islets tend to be variable in quality. One of the most important aspects of this work is that there can be an unlimited supply of beta cells for transplantation going forward.
However, on May 2, 2022, the FDA paused the trial after concluding that there was not enough evidence to support increasing the dosage of beta cells to the full planned amount.
You May Like: Plant Based Type 1 Diabetes
Curing Diabetes Type 1
There is currently no cure for type 1 diabetes. The Diabetes Research Institute is considered by many families to be the best hope for a cure, with researchers studying how to restore natural insulin production so that the body can stabilize blood sugar levels on its own.
Get more answers to your questions about type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes symptoms and treatments. .
What Happens In Type 1 Diabetes
To understand what a treatment would need to do to “cure” type 1 diabetes, we must first understand the changes that occur in the body that lead to this condition. Type 1 diabetes is caused by the destruction of beta cells, cells housed in a structure within the pancreas called islets that are responsible for producing insulin. This drastically reduces the production of insulin.
As many readers will know, insulin is a hormone that allows glucose produced from the carbohydrates we eat to enter the cells of our body that use glucose for nutrition. Healthy beta cells secrete enough insulin to admit the right amount of glucose into cells, but that process breaks down in people with type 1 diabetes because of insulin deficiency.
In people with type 1 diabetes, the immune system destroys the beta cells. The immune system is normally charged with protecting us from bacteria and viruses, but it is thought to destroy beta cells in type 1 diabetes because those cells have been misidentified as foreign invaders. Why the immune system misidentifies the beta cells is not yet known but is an active area of research. The theory is that some kind of environmental trigger may inappropriately initiate an immune response in certain genetically susceptible people.
You May Like: Does Sleeve Gastrectomy Cure Diabetes
The Functional Role Of Microenvironmental Cross
Researcher:Roy J. Carver Dept. of Biomedical EngineeringFraternal Order of Eagles Diabetes Research CenterPappajohn Biomedical InstituteUniversity of Iowa Technology InstituteIowa City, Iowa
Purpose:Diabetic wounds are the leading cause of non-traumatic amputation affecting patients with diabetes. Mesenchymal stromal cells transplanted into diabetic wounds have been shown to promote healing and resolution of wounds that otherwise would not heal, however the mechanisms at play are not fully understood. Dr. Ankrum seeks to understand a newly hypothesized mechanism of action that relies on monocytes and macrophages clearing donor MSCs through phagocytosis resulting in a shift in macrophage behavior. MSC are known to only live for a few days after transplantation, but recent evidence suggests that the clearance of MSCs by host macrophages induces a shift in macrophage phenotype that can last long after the MSCs are gone. The role of MSC clearing by monocytes and macrophages on reprogramming macrophages to a pro-regenerative phenotype will be examined using in vitro models that mimic many aspects of diabetes. The results of this study will contribute to tailored therapies for patients with type 1 diabetes.
The Main Contender For A Type 1 Diabetes Cure
While you may see a variety of news articles each year with researchers claiming theyve found a successful cure for type 1 diabetes, the majority fail in animal trial and are never heard from again because they dont pass the early stages of long-term efficacy and safety.
The majority of it is really lined with hope, explainsKristina Figueroa, MSPH, who is an expert in type 1 diabetes clinical research and public health, and a passionate patient advocate.
Like most of us, Figueroa says that after her own type 1 diabetes diagnosis at age 6 in 1996, her healthcare team told her a cure was just around the corner. Due to the half dozen cures of type 1 diabetes in mice each year, it can seem that way.
Weve made huge advances, adds Figueroa, but were still nowhere close.
The researched treatment efforts closest to a successful cure come down to one, maybe two, that have the potential to progress through each critical trial phase.
And hopefully, one day becoming available to all patients with type 1 diabetes.
Read Also: Type 2 Diabetes Occurs When
How Do You Bring Blood Sugar Down Organically
Exploring in Progress Some topics that social psychologists have been actively exploring in recent years have been ongoing since the Luwen era.
At the same time, the western climate also makes this method less fun, because it is not as hot and dry as in a country in winter, almost no one is so lazy that research they would rather go wandering outside than heating.
They may be only one thousandth 1 of a centimeter in diameter. They can be inserted into a single cell of the retina, a knee joint, or the visual cortex of a cat or monkey after facial anesthesia.
Milgram was extremely surprised by these criticisms. He asked some previous subjects to talk about their experience of this experience, and reported that 80 of them said they were very happy to have participated in this experience.
Cure For Type 1 Diabetes Research Some cure research people even conduct reaction time experiments. An example of the last type of experiment Herbert Clark and others discovered that when a simple pattern is shown to the subject, such for type 1 diabetes research for diabetes as a star above the plus sign, then a correct statement is written next to it.
Racial eugenics originally went hand in hand with Darwin cure for type 1 diabetes research s cure 1 diabetes research survival of the fittest principle, but what is puzzling is that those who are most enthusiastic about this kind of eugenics actually think Darwin s doctrine is illegal.
Government Of Canada Approves $30m Joint Funding For Type 1 Diabetes Research
As one of the Co-chairs of the All-Party JDRF Caucus I am pleased of the work we have done to support JDRFs request for renewed research funding. I look forward to seeing how Canadas $15 million commitment over the next five years helps support those who live with condition today while driving the work that will create a brighter future with hope for the eventual eradication of the condition.Carol Hughes, MP for AlgomaManitoulinKapuskasing
Canada is home to outstanding diabetes researchers. CIHR is very proud to partner with JDRF Canada to support excellent new research that will provide insights into how we can improve care and ultimately prevent and cure type 1 diabetes.Dr. Norman Rosenblum, Scientific Director, CIHR Institute of Nutrition, Metabolism and Diabetes
Read Also: What Is The Correct Reading For Diabetes
Targeting Tead1 To Suppress Nash Progression In Diabetes
Researcher:Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University Augusta, GA
Purpose:Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis often occurs in patients with metabolic diseases and is highly associated with diabetes. How NASH interplays with diabetes is not clear. There is a need to identify new players and develop novel treatment regimens for NASH in diabetes. Dr. Chens lab has found TEAD1 expression goes up in mouse and human NASH livers, and liver cells without TEAD1 are protected from saturate fat-induced cell death, a common type of liver damage in diabetes. Therefore, Dr. Chen wants to examine whether TEAD1 expression is further elevated in diabetic mouse and human NASH livers, and whether increased TEAD1 expression in diabetic liver will make NASH occur more often and severe. Most of all, this study will test when liver TEAD1 is absent or inhibited by a drug, whether there will be less NASH incidence. This study will provide new therapeutic targets and options to treat or delay NASH progression in diabetes.
Diabetes: Will It Ever Be Cured
While the end to diabetes is still in the distant future, strides in genetic research are showing promise.
Immunology and beta cell function have long been two core areas of research in the hunt for a cure for diabetes. But in recent years, scientists have made discoveries that could lead to genetic therapies that allow the bodys own cells to combat and even rid itself of the disease. Researchers are learning to turn gut cells into insulin-producing cells, replenish beta cells once thought decimated beyond hope, and use viral vectors to deliver genes into beta cells that may protect them from attack by the immune system.
Don’t Miss: Are Protein Shakes Good For Diabetics