Being Overweight Or Obese
You’re more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you’re overweight or obese with a body mass index of 30 or more.
Fat around your tummy particularly increases your risk. This is because it releases chemicals that can upset the body’s cardiovascular and metabolic systems.
Measuring your waist is a quick way of assessing your diabetes risk. This is a measure of abdominal obesity, which is a particularly high-risk form of obesity.
Women have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes if their waist measures 80cm or more.
Asian men with a waist size of 89cm or more have a higher risk, as do white or black men with a waist size of 94cm or more.
Exercising regularly and reducing your body weight by about 5% could reduce your risk of getting diabetes by more than 50%.
Read about measuring your waist size
Am I At Risk For Type 2 Diabetes
Many things can put you at risk for type 2 diabetes. For example, you may be at risk if you:
- Have prediabetes
- Are overweight or have obesity
- Have a parent or sibling with type 2 diabetes
- Are African American, Alaska Native, Native American, Asian American, Hispanic or Latino, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander
- Have high blood pressure or high LDL cholesterol
- Are physically active less than 3 times a week
Some risk factors only affect women. You’re also at risk for type 2 diabetes if you:
- Have had gestational diabetes
- Have given birth to a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds
- Have polycystic ovary syndrome
What is prediabetes?
If you have prediabetes, the glucose levels in your blood are higher than normal but not high enough to mean you have type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes increases your risk of developing type 2 diabetes and other serious health problems, like heart disease and stroke.
The good news about prediabetes is that healthy changes, like losing weight and getting enough physical activity, can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes. Find out more about prediabetes.
What Can I Do To Prevent Diabetes
Plenty. Studies show that 90% of cases of type 2 diabetes could be prevented — or significantly delayed — simply through a healthier diet and enough physical activity. The big proof of that came in a study of 3,234 people who were overweight and had higher blood glucose levels, putting them in the crosshairs of diabetes risk.
Those who followed a program of exercise and diet geared to losing excess weight — in this case, an average of 15 pounds — lowered their risk of diabetes by 58%. Those in the 60-and-older set cut their risk by 71%. And these were people who already had a high risk of diabetes. Keep your weight in the normal range and stay active, experts say, and you stand an excellent chance of never getting diabetes.
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What Else Do I Need To Know About Diabetes
Experts say that a healthy diet designed to prevent type 2 diabetes includes whole grains, fruits and vegetables, and avoids sugar and refined carbohydrates.
Studies suggest that alcohol may actually protect against diabetes. Combining data from 15 studies, researchers found that moderate alcohol consumption reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes by almost 30%. But excessive drinking increased the risk. Here, as always, the word is moderation, such as one drink daily.
Why Dont I Feel Like Having Sex Anymore
Libido is multifactorial, says Nangia. Besides the physical issues of, say, ED or ejaculatory dysfunction, he says libido is tied to depression, marital status, hormones, emotions, gender, and sexuality.
Sisson also points to the complexity of sexual desire, including your partners interest in sex. When a man complains about trouble having sex, Sisson says he always asks: Well, do you want to? And does your spouse want to? Your partners interest in sex cant be discounted, says Sisson. If youre having marital strife, youre having a fight, thats not conducive to a healthy sexual relationship, he adds. Talking about relationship problems with your spouse or a family counselor could help.
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Age Waist Circumference And Bmi Predict T2d Better In Females Than In Males
We continued to examine other anthropometric and biochemical parameters for their correlation and regression pattern with FPG and HbA1c, as well as their prediction strength for T2D. As shown in Fig. D,E,G,H,J,K, age, waist circumference, and BMI showed a stronger association with FPG and HbA1c in women than in men, as judged by Spearman association coefficient . In general, the stronger association in women remained true after adjustment for age, smoking, overweight, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia and T2D . Linear regression between these parameters with FPG and HbA1c showed a steeper slope and higher coefficient in women than in men . The ROC-AUC values were all higher in women than in men: 0.75±0.02 vs 0.69±0.03 by age, 0.70±0.02 vs 0.55±0.03 by waist circumstance, and 0.62±0.03 vs 0.49±0.03 by BMI , indicating that they could better predict T2D progression in women than in men. Consistently, binary regression to T2D showed higher coefficients in women than in men .
What Are The Risk Factors For Developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Men
There are a number of risk factors which increase your chance of developing type 2 diabetes and increase a persons risks. There are some risk factors that mean you are more likely to develop diabetes. These include:
- Have a family history of diabetes
- Being overweight or obese, particularly extra weight around the waist
- Being physically inactive
- Eating a poor diet
- High blood pressure
- Having signs associated with diabetes like skin tags and dark colouration around the neck and arm pits called acanthosis nigricans
- Being older the risk increases as we age
- Over 45 years of age and being overweight
- Over 45 years of age and being overweight
- Ethnic background, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, Pacific Islanders, Asian and South East Asian, African Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Hispanics/ Latinos
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Male Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms
Testosterone is a hormone required for the development and sexual function in men. An early symptom of type 2 diabetes is a decreased sex drive. A low sex drive means a man doesnt have the desire to want to engage in sexual intercourse.
Men may also notice a change in their sleep patterns, weight gain and decreased strength.
Erectile dysfunction occurs when a man cant achieve or maintain an erection. This condition is different from a man occasionally having an issue achieving or maintaining an erection because of relationship or intimacy problems.
Men can develop erectile dysfunction for many health reasons such as high blood pressure and nervous system conditions. They can also develop the inability to achieve and maintain an erection because of lifestyle habits such as stress and smoking.
Men who have type 2 diabetes can also experience something called retrograde ejaculation. It occurs when semen is released into a mans bladder instead of being expelled from the penis. One sign of this is a man noticing they are ejaculating less semen than usual.
Autonomic nervous system damage
Diabetes can cause a man to develop autonomic nervous system . ANS constricts or widens the blood vessels in a mans body. The condition can cause sexual problems such as erectile dysfunction.
Hyperosmolar Nonketotic diabetic coma
Causes Of Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin to function properly, or the body’s cells don’t react to insulin. This means glucose stays in the blood and isn’t used as fuel for energy.
Type 2 diabetes is often associated with obesity and tends to be diagnosed in older people. Due to increased obesity, type 2 diabetes is now being seen in young people and all ages. It’s far more common than type 1 diabetes.
Read about the causes and risk factors for type 2 diabetes
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You Might Have Nerve Pain
The longer you have diabetes, the higher your risk of nerve damage and pain, which the ADA defines as diabetic neuropathy.
Nerve damage can happen in your hands and feet, where its called peripheral neuropathy, or in the nerves that control organs in your body, where its known as autonomic neuropathy.
Symptoms may include:
- nephrologist, or kidney doctor
- neurologist, or a doctor specializing in disorders of the brain and nervous system
If you can, schedule regular checkups with the specialists your doctor recommends to make sure youre reducing your chances of complications.
Why Cant I Ejaculate
Nangia says that he sees young men, mostly with type 1 diabetes, with ejaculatory dysfunction. High blood glucose over time damages nerves so semen discharges back inside the bladder rather than out the penis. You may still experience orgasm, but a lack of ejaculation can cause infertility. Treatment includes medication, such as pseudoephedrine , and infertility procedures that can be used to collect semen for artificial insemination.
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When To Speak To Your Doctor
If you experience any of the above symptoms it is important to get tested for diabetes as soon as possible. Some people are at higher risk and need regular testing if you are 45 years or older or have other risk factors for diabetes. By diagnosing and treating the condition early, it means you can decrease the risk of developing any further health complications, for example nerve damage, blindness, and heart disease.
If you have already been diagnosed with diabetes and would like to know more about how best to manage the condition, you can explore our 12 week diabetes program. The first week is free to try and full of useful information to help you.
If you want to learn more about diabetes, we have dedicated information pages:
Monitoring Blood Glucose Levels
If you have type 2 diabetes, your GP or diabetes care team will need to take a reading of your blood glucose level about every two to six months.
This will show how stable your glucose levels have been in the recent past and how well your treatment plan is working.
The HbA1c test is used to measure blood glucose levels over the previous two to three months.
HbA1c is a form of haemoglobin, the chemical that carries oxygen in red blood cells, which also has glucose attached to it.
A high HbA1c level means that your blood glucose level has been consistently high over recent weeks, and your diabetes treatment plan may need to be changed.
Your diabetes care team can help you set a target HbA1c level to aim for. This will usually be less than 53 mmol/mol or individualised as agreed with your diabetes team.
Read more about the HbA1c test
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What Is A Diabetic Attack Like
There are two types of serious conditions someone with diabetes may experience due to improper blood sugar control or other factors. One is hypoglycemia, and the other is hyperglycemia.
Common symptoms of hypoglycemia include:
- Cold, clammy skin
- Increased hunger, followed by lack of appetite
- Weakness, fatigue
A person experiencing hyperglycemia needs to be treated immediately to help prevent the worsening of their condition.
To learn more about treating low or high blood sugar, speak to your healthcare provider.
Youre More Prone To Severe Hypoglycemia
Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, is a serious side effect of certain diabetes medications.
The risk of hypoglycemia increases with age, as shown in a 2012 study. This is because as you get older, your kidneys dont function as well at removing diabetes medications from the body.
The medications can work for longer than theyre supposed to, causing your blood sugar to drop too low. Taking many different types of medications, skipping meals, or having kidney disease or other conditions also increases your risk.
According to the American Diabetes Association , symptoms of hypoglycemia include:
- tingling of your mouth and lips
If you experience episodes of hypoglycemia, talk with your doctor about the dosage of your diabetes medication. You may need to take a lower dose.
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Frequent Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes In Men
Diabetes is a condition in which the body either produces too little insulin or none at all, or becomes resistant to insulin.
Insulin shuttles glucose from the blood to your vital tissues. If your body does not produce or use insulin properly, glucose does not reach your cells to be used for energy.
Chronically high blood sugar levels can damage nerves, blood vessels, and vital organs. Men and women experience many of the same symptoms, including:
- Frequent urination
- Darkening of skin in areas of body creases
- Breath odor that is fruity, sweet, or an acetone odor
Testosterone levels and the propagation of type 2 diabetes go hand in hand.
Research has shown that there is a link between low testosterone and the development of type 2 diabetes in men, with lower testosterone levels leading to a greater risk.
There is a higher prevalence of low testosterone levels in men with type 2 diabetes than in men without it. Furthermore, while men tend to have significantly higher levels of testosterone than women, men tend to lose testosterone at a greater rate, putting them at higher risk for type 2 diabetes.
To make matters worse, nerve damage and damage to the autonomic nervous system in general can lead to additional symptoms, such as:
- Erectile dysfunction , also known as impotence, is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection
- Retrograde ejaculation, decreased semen in ejaculation with some of the semen even leaking into the bladder
- Loss of muscle mass
Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It
Normally, the pancreas produces insulin to get absorbed into the cells and convert the blood glucose/ sugar into energy. Diabetes is defined as a disorder in the way the insulin is utilised and does not get absorbed to cause an increase in blood glucose while not being able to convert it to energy.
In type 2 diabetes, either there is low insulin production in the pancreas, or the cells have developed resistance to insulin- insulin resistance. In either of the cases, the insulin does not get absorbed by the cells. The rise in circulating blood glucose is the main indicator of diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes mostly affects people in their middle ages and so known to be an adult-onset disease. Even young children and teens, especially due to obesity at a young age, can have this condition. High blood sugar levels are eventually associated with disorders of the heart, immune system, nerves, kidneys, and other organs.
People with type 2 diabetes will have a long-term association with medications, insulin therapy, diet, and regular blood glucose monitoring.
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About Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes is usually a lifelong condition that causes a person’s blood glucose level to become too high.
The hormone insulin produced by the pancreas is responsible for controlling the amount of glucose in the blood
There are two main types of diabetes:
- type 1 where the pancreas doesn’t produce any insulin
- type 2 where the pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin or the body’s cells don’t react to insulin
This topic is about type 2 diabetes.
Read more about type 1 diabetes
Another type of diabetes, known as gestational diabetes, occurs in some pregnant women and tends to disappear after birth.
Primary And Secondary Prevention
The causes of type 2 diabetes are multifactorial. Causal components of this disease are intertwined and occasionally interdependent. One main component of causality is obesity, which is affected by dietary intake and physical activity.
Behavioral modifications such as changes to dietary intake and physical activity can retard diabetes and its sequelae in people with IGT. The Diabetes Prevention Program showed that lifestyle intervention can reduce complications of diabetes better than the administration of metformin,an oral antiglycemic agent. The DPP showed a 58% reduction in the incidence of diabetes in the group assigned to lifestyle intervention and a 31% reduction in the incidence of diabetes in the metformin group versus placebo. The effectiveness of lifestyle change was noted across ethnic groups.
Secondary prevention for people with diabetes includes regular interaction with primary and specialty health care providers and self-care practices such as blood glucose monitoring, foot self-care, and adherence to dietary and physical activity regimens. shows the prevalence of self-reported diabetes medical care and self-management among adults with diabetes in 2002. Generally,men and women do not differ in their diabetes care. Notable exceptions include lower rates for men than for women for annual eye exams ,self-monitoring of blood glucose , and foot self-exams .
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Erectile Dysfunction Is A Common Symptom Of Diabetes In Men
is the inability to have or maintain an erection.
Men with diabetes are at a greater risk in fact, 20 to 75% experience ED.
Its also been recognized by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases as an early marker of diabetes in younger men, particularly those 45 years and younger.
If you experience ED, especially at a younger age, diabetes may be the cause.
Of course, its not always the reason. ED can be the result of many other factors, such as high blood pressure, stress and kidney disease, as well as simply performance anxiety.
Why does this happen?: Small blood vessels and nerves to the genitals act automatically to increase blood flow and relax smooth muscle. If the blood vessels and nerves are damaged due to high blood sugar, it can cause erectile dysfunction.