Other Forms Of Diabetes
In 1% to 5% of people who have diabetes, other conditions might be the cause. These include diseases of the pancreas, certain surgeries and medications, and infections. In these cases, your doctor might want to keep an eye on your blood sugar levels.
American Diabetes Association: “Frequently Asked Questions about Pre-Diabetes,” “Type 2 Diabetes,” “The Dangerous Toll of Diabetes,” tion: “Gestational Diabetes,” “About Insulin and Other Drugs.”
National Library of Medicine: “Diabetes.”
National Diabetes Education Project: “About Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes.”
National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse : “National Diabetes Statistics, 2011.”
Merck Manual Consumer Version: âDiabetes Mellitus .â
CDC: âAbout Diabetes,â âPrediabetes: Your Chance to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes.â
World Journal of Diabetes: âType 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents.â
Conditions Which Can Lead To Diabetes
Some conditions, including genetic syndromes and surgery, can lead to high blood glucose levels and therefore diabetes.
Such types of diabetes account for around 1 to 2% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes.
Examples of such conditions include:
- Glucagonoma a condition in which the body produces too much of the hormone glucagon
- Chronic pancreatitis a condition which causes inflammation of the pancreas
- Cystic fibrosis a genetic condition that causes mucus to build up in the lungs and digestive system
- Pancreatectomy surgical removal of the pancreas
Complications Of Untreated Type 1 Diabetes
- kidney damage
- increased likelihood of infections such as thrush and also more serious infections
- damage to the eyes
- poor blood circulation in the legs and feet, potentially leading to lower limb amputation
- damage to the nerves of the feet
- much higher risk of heart disease and stroke
- sexual impotence.
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What Are The Risk Factors For Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes
Risk factors for type 1 diabetes include:
- Family history: People with a parent or sibling with type 1 diabetes have a higher risk of developing it themselves.
- Age: Type 1 diabetes can appear at any age, but its most common among children and adolescents.
- Geography: The prevalence of type 1 diabetes increases the farther away you are from the equator.
- Genetics: The presence of certain genes points to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes.
Youre at risk of developing type 2 diabetes if you:
- have prediabetes, or slightly elevated blood sugar levels
- are carrying excess weight or have obesity
- are Black, Hispanic, American Indian, or Alaska Native
- have an immediate family member with type 2 diabetes
Other Types Of Diabetes
Other forms of insulin-resistant diabetes also can be seen in gestational diabetes, polycystic ovary disease, acanthosis nigricans, and maturity-onset diabetes of the young or MODY. Insulin resistant diabetes can also be unmasked by medications like prednisone. In rare cases, a type similar to Type1 diabetes but without antibodies may be seen following trauma to the pancreas, following pancreatic surgery, or after exposure to toxins like Agent Orange. This type is insulin-dependent because no insulin can be produced once the pancreas is removed or severely damaged.
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Diabetes Sick Day Rules
If you need to take insulin to control your diabetes, you should have received instructions about looking after yourself when you’re ill known as your “sick day rules”.
Contact your diabetes care team or GP for advice if you haven’t received these.
The advice you’re given will be specific to you, but some general measures that your sick day rules may include could be to:
- keep taking your insulin it’s very important not to stop treatment when you’re ill your treatment plan may state whether you need to temporarily increase your dose
- test your blood glucose level more often than usual most people are advised to check the level at least four times a day
- keep yourself well hydrated make sure you drink plenty of sugar-free drinks
- keep eating eat solid food if you feel well enough to, or liquid carbohydrates such as milk, soup and yoghurt if this is easier
- check your ketone levels if your blood glucose level is high
Seek advice from your diabetes care team or GP if your blood glucose or ketone level remains high after taking insulin, if:
- you’re not sure whether to make any changes to your treatment
- you develop symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis
- you have any other concerns
Read more about sick day rules
Who Developed This New Classification
A group of researchers in Sweden and Finland recently published the results of a study regarding the classification of diabetes. They have suggested that there are five types of diabetes instead of only two . The study group was led by Dr. Leif Groop, of the Lund University Diabetes Centre in Malmö, Sweden.
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Maybe It’s A Different Type
If you or someone you know is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes but isnt responding well to the typical treatments for type 2 diabetes, it may be worth a visit to an endocrinologist to determine what type of diabetes is happening. Generally, this requires antibody tests and possibly the measurement of a C-peptide level.
How Does Diabetes Affect Your Heart Eyes Feet Nerves And Kidneys
Blood vessels are located throughout our bodys tissues and organs. They surround our bodys cells, providing a transfer of oxygen, nutrients and other substances, using blood as the exchange vehicle. In simple terms, diabetes doesnt allow glucose to get into cells and it damages blood vessels in/near these organs and those that nourish nerves. If organs, nerves and tissues cant get the essentials they need to properly function, they can begin to fail.Proper function means that your hearts blood vessels, including arteries, are not damaged . In your kidneys, this means that waste products can be filtered out of your blood. In your eyes, this means that the blood vessels in your retina remain intact. In your feet and nerves, this means that nerves are nourished and that theres blood flow to your feet. Diabetes causes damage that prevents proper function.
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Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes Onset In Adults
When an adult is diagnosed with diabetes, they are often mistakenly told that they have type 2 diabetes. This is because there may be a lack of understanding by some doctors that type 1 diabetes can start at any age, and in people of every race, shape and size. People with type 1 diabetes who have elevated blood glucose and classic risk factors for type 2 diabetes, such as being overweight or physically inactive, are often misdiagnosed. It can also be tricky because some adults with new-onset type 1 diabetes are not sick at first. Their doctor finds an elevated blood sugar level at a routine visit and starts them on diet, exercise and an oral medication.
How Does Diabetes Affect The Body
There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2.
Both types of diabetes are chronic diseases that affect the way your body regulates blood sugar, or glucose. Glucose is the fuel that feeds your bodys cells, but to enter your cells it needs a key. Insulin is that key.
People with type 1 diabetes dont produce insulin. You can think of it as not having a key.
People with type 2 diabetes dont respond to insulin as well as they should and later in the disease often dont make enough insulin. You can think of it as having a broken key.
People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes may also have numbness and tingling in their hands or feet. Good glucose management significantly reduces the risk of developing numbness and tingling in someone with type 1 diabetes, according to the American Diabetes Association .
Although many of the symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are similar, they present in very different ways.
Many people with type 2 diabetes wont have symptoms for many years, and their symptoms often develop slowly over the course of time. Some people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms at all and dont discover they have the condition until complications arise.
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes may have similar names, but theyre different diseases with unique causes.
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How Often Do I Need To See My Primary Diabetes Healthcare Professional
In general, if you are being treated with insulin shots, you should see your doctor at least every three to four months. If you are treated with pills or are managing diabetes through diet, you should be seen at least every four to six months. More frequent visits may be needed if your blood sugar is not controlled or if complications of diabetes are worsening.
Why Was This Classification Developed
Dr. Groop and his team analyzed data from a number of diabetes patient registries to do their research. The number of patients involved in the analysis was more than 13,000. For all of the patients, the researchers isolated measurements of a number of variables, including insulin resistance, insulin secretion, blood sugar levels, age and onset of illness.
The results of their data analysis suggested that there should be five classifications of diabetes two mild types and three severe types.
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Do I Have Type 2 Diabetes Or Type 1 Diabetes
When I meet a patient with diabetes who uses insulin, it is not uncommon for them to ask me whether they have type 2 or type 1 diabetes. Other doctors sometimes refer their patients to me specifically to determine if that person has type 2 or type 1 diabetes.
So: Whats the difference between type 2 and type 1 diabetes and why does it matter?
Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes. The underlying problem in type 2 diabetes is that the body is resistant to the effects of insulin. This means that the pancreas has to work in overdrive to make enough insulin to keep blood sugars normal. After years of working in overdrive, the pancreas gets tired, and is no longer able to make enough insulin to keep blood sugars normal. Blood sugars then start to climb into the prediabetes range, and ultimately into the diabetes range.
Type 2 diabetes has a strong genetic predisposition, often with a strong family history of diabetes. About 90% of people with type 2 diabetes have overweight or obesity. Insulin resistance gets worse with weight gain and better with weight loss, so type 2 diabetes can improve with weight loss in people who carry excess weight.
Type 1 diabetes is most commonly diagnosed in childhood or early adulthood, but it can come on in later adult years as well. A few times each year, I diagnose a person in their 50s or 60s with type 1 diabetes .
Can Type 1 Or Type 2 Be Cured Or Prevented
Unfortunately, theres currently no permanent cure for either type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
But theres evidence that some people with type 2 can put their diabetes into remission by losing weight. Following a very low-calorie diet under medical supervision, or having surgery are some ways you can put your type 2 diabetes into remission.
Were also funding some vital research projects to help transform treatment and care. And to help find a cure for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
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Risk Factors For Diabetes
There is no way to predict whether you will get type 1 diabetes. Since type 2 diabetes often occurs before any symptoms are displayed, it is important to understand whether you are at high risk for the condition. If you know diabetes is a risk, you can discuss a plan of action with your healthcare professional to stay alert for warning signs.
People at high risk for type 2 diabetes include:
- Individuals with close family members with the condition.
- Members of certain ethnic groups, including Aboriginal, Asian, South Asian, Hispanic and African groups.
- Those who are overweight.
- Individuals with diabetes-related health issues, including heart disease, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol.
- Women who had gestational diabetes or who delivered a baby over nine pounds.
You can check your risk for diabetes by getting screened by a healthcare provider, or by doing the Canadian Diabetes Risk questionnaire. Just remember that having risk factors doesnt mean you will get diabetes. It just indicates that your risk of getting the disease is greater than that of the general public. Find more on diabetes risk factors and ways to reduce them here.
Can Diabetes Cause Headaches Or Dizziness
Yes, its possible to develop headaches or dizziness if your blood glucose level is too low usually below 70 mg/dL. This condition is called hypoglycemia. You can read about the other symptoms hypoglycemia causes in this article.Hypoglycemia is common in people with Type 1 diabetes and can happen in some people with Type 2 diabetes who take insulin or medications such as sulfonylureas.
When To Call Your Doctor
If you’re older than 45 or have other risks for diabetes, it’s important to get tested. When you spot the condition early, you can avoid nerve damage, heart trouble, and other complications.
As a general rule, call your doctor if you:
- Feel sick to your stomach, weak, and very thirsty
- Are peeing a lot
- Have a bad belly ache
- Are breathing more deeply and faster than normal
- Have sweet breath that smells like nail polish remover
Cleveland Clinic: “Diabetes: Frequently Asked Questions” and “What Is Diabetes?”Ã Ã¢â¬ÅDiabetes: Preventing Complications,Ã¢â¬ï¿½ Ã¢â¬ÅHyperglycemia .Ã¢â¬ï¿½
University of Michigan Health System: “Type 1 Diabetes.”
National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse: “Am I at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes? Taking Steps to Lower Your Risk of Getting Diabetes.”
Baylor Scott & White Healthcare: “Urinary Frequency” and “Diabetes and Diabetic Neuropathy Hard-to-Heal Wounds.”
Sutter Health: “Question & Answer: Is Sudden Weight Loss a Sign of Diabetes? If So, Why?”
Neithercott, T. Diabetes Forecast, August 2013.
University of Rochester Medical Center: “Diabetic Skin Troubles.”
Joslin Diabetes Center: “Diseases of the Eye” and “Diabetic Neuropathy: What You Need to Know.”
The Nemours Foundation: “When Blood Sugar Is Too High.”
Virginia Mason Medical Center: “Complications.”
Carolinas Health System: “Diabetes: Yeast Infections and Diabetes: What You Should Know.”
Geisinger Health: Ã¢â¬Å3 reasons diabetic wounds are slow to heal.Ã¢â¬ï¿½
What Oral Medications Are Approved To Treat Diabetes
Over 40 medications have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of diabetes. Its beyond the scope of this article to review all of these drugs. Instead, well briefly review the main drug classes available, how they work and present the names of a few drugs in each class. Your healthcare team will decide if medication is right for you. If so, theyll decide which specific drug are best to treat your diabetes.
Diabetes medication drug classes include:
Many oral diabetes medications may be used in combination or with insulin to achieve the best blood glucose control. Some of the above medications are available as a combination of two medicines in a single pill. Others are available as injectable medications, for example, the GLP-1 agonist semaglutide and lixisenatide .
Always take your medicine exactly as your healthcare prescribes it. Discuss your specific questions and concerns with them.
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Diabetes: 12 Warning Signs That Appear On Your Skin
Diabetes can affect many parts of your body, including your skin. When diabetes affects the skin, its often a sign that your blood sugar levels are too high. This could mean that:
You have undiagnosed diabetes, or pre-diabetes
Your treatment for diabetes needs to be adjusted
If you notice any of the following warning signs on your skin, its time to talk with your doctor.
What Are The Symptoms Of Diabetes
Symptoms of diabetes include:
- In women: Dry and itchy skin, and frequent yeast infections or urinary tract infections.
- In men: Decreased sex drive, erectile dysfunction, decreased muscle strength.
Type 1 diabetes symptoms: Symptoms can develop quickly over a few weeks or months. Symptoms begin when youre young as a child, teen or young adult. Additional symptoms include nausea, vomiting or stomach pains and yeast infections or urinary tract infections.
Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes symptoms: You may not have any symptoms at all or may not notice them since they develop slowly over several years. Symptoms usually begin to develop when youre an adult, but prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes is on the rise in all age groups.
Gestational diabetes: You typically will not notice symptoms. Your obstetrician will test you for gestational diabetes between 24 and 28 weeks of your pregnancy.
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What Is Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome
Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome develops more slowly than diabetic ketoacidosis. It occurs in patients with Type 2 diabetes, especially the elderly and usually occurs when patients are ill or stressed.If you have HHNS, you blood glucose level is typically greater than 600 mg/dL. Symptoms include frequent urination, drowsiness, lack of energy and dehydration. HHNS is not associated with ketones in the blood. It can cause coma or death. Youll need to be treated in the hospital.