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What Is Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs

#NetraSuraksha – India Against Diabetes Diabetic Retinopathy Explainer 3

Diabetes mellitus is a common disorder in which the body fails to produce enough or appropriately respond to insulin. Diabetes is a disease of the endocrine system, which is responsible for producing hormones to regulate the bodys metabolism, among other things.

Insulin is responsible for turning food into energy. When a dog eats a meal, the nutrients enter its bloodstream as glucose, also known as blood sugar. All the cells in the body use glucose as fuel.

Insulin acts on receptors on the cells, allowing glucose to leave the bloodstream and enter the cells where it can be used as energy or stored. When there is a lack of insulin, cells cannot get enough glucose and become starved for energy. At the same time, the bloodstream contains high blood glucose levels, which can damage nerves and blood vessels.

Treating diabetes mellitus involves providing insulin to increase the amount of glucose entering the cells and reducing glucose in the bloodstream.

There are three types of diabetes in dogs:

Type I is known as insulin-dependent diabetes and is similar to Type I diabetes in humans. This is the most common type to occur in dogs. In Type I diabetes, insulin-secreting cells in the pancreas are destroyed, causing an absolute lack of insulin. These dogs need a lifetime of insulin supplementation to live normally.

Other issues related to the excess sugar include:

  • Bladder infection

  • Loss of muscle mass

  • Liver damage

  • Alaskan Malamute

How Does Trulicity Work

Like other GLP-1 receptors agonists, Trulicity works by stimulating the bodys natural production of insulin It also inhibits the release of glucagon and slows digestion. Trulicity also aids weight loss.

Again, this is similar to other GLP-1 receptor agonists. Trulicity is prescribed primarily to people who need to lower their blood glucose levels the weight loss is an added benefit.

Prevention Of Diabetes In Dogs

While diabetes is not technically preventable in dogs, there are some things pet parents can do. All dogs should be seen their vet every year for a general physical exam and routine blood work. Senior dogs, typically over the age of 6, should be taken to the vet every six months. This exam and blood work can detect changes well before they show up as clinical signs. Therefore, dogs can receive treatment or have lifestyle changes before they are sick, leading to a better quality of life and a longer lifespan.

In addition to consistent veterinary checks, pet parents can provide a high-quality diet and regular exercise to stay lean and active.

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Too Much Insulin Or Not Enough

High morning blood sugar levels before breakfast can be a puzzle. If you haven’t eaten, why did your blood sugar level go up? There are two common reasons for high before-breakfast blood sugar levels. One relates to hormones that are released in the early part of sleep . The other is from taking too little insulin in the evening. To see which one is the cause, set your alarm to self-monitor around 2 or 3 a.m. for several nights and discuss the results with your health care provider.

Before Using Ozempic Tell Your Health Care Provider If You Have Any Other Medical Conditions Including If You:

Type 2 diabetes: New biopolymer injection may offer weeks of glucose ...
  • have or have had problems with your pancreas or kidneys.
  • have a history of diabetic retinopathy.
  • are pregnant or breastfeeding or plan to become pregnant or breastfeed. It is not known if Ozempic® will harm your unborn baby or passes into your breast milk. You should stop using Ozempic® 2 months before you plan to become pregnant.

Tell your health care provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, herbal supplements, and other medicines to treat diabetes, including insulin or sulfonylureas.

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Typical Dosing For Wegovy

The typical starting dose is 0.25 mg injected under your skin once a week for 4 weeks . You will use a higher dose every 4 weeks until you reach a maintenence dose of 2.4 mg once a week. The standard dosing schedule might look like:

  • Month 1: 0.25 mg once a week
  • Month 2: 0.5 mg once a week
  • Month 3: 1 mg once a week
  • Month 4: 1.7 mg once a week
  • Month 5 and beyond: 2.4 mg once a week

Current Diabetes Medications Arent Good Enough

A healthy diet and exercise are the first lines of treatment for diabetes. But this has limited effectiveness in reducing blood glucose, particularly as the disease progresses. So it ultimately becomes necessary to use drugs to control blood glucose.

There are a range of drugs available to maintain blood glucose levels. The most common first-choice drug is metformin, which is prescribed to more than 120 million people worldwide. While metformin is generally safe and effective, it frequently causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhoea and flatulence.

All diabetes medications, without exception, have either limited effectiveness or unpleasant side effects. Many can also potentially cause very low blood sugar , which can cause shakiness, anxiety, sweating, chills, lightheadedness, confusion and, in severe cases, coma or even death.

Insulin is used to treat type 2 diabetes typically later in disease progression, after other anti-hyperglycemic medications become less effective at managing blood glucose levels.

So, we can see there is an urgent need to develop new approaches to treat patients with this disease.

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What Is Insulin Made Of

Insulin is made in different ways. You and your healthcare team will discuss which insulin you can take.

  • Human insulin this is synthetic and made in a laboratory to be like insulin made in the body.
  • Analogue insulin the insulin molecule is like a string of beads. Scientists have managed to alter the position of some of these beads to create genetically engineered insulin known as analogues.
  • Animal insulin This isnt used much anymore, but some people find that insulin from animals works best for them. It is usually from a cow or pig.

Who Should Not Use Saxenda

Type 1 diabetes breakthrough announced

Do not use Saxenda® if:

  • you or any of your family have ever had MTC or if you have MEN 2.
  • you are allergic to liraglutide or any of the ingredients in Saxenda®.
  • you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. Saxenda® may harm your unborn baby.

Before taking Saxenda®, tell your health care provider about all of your medical conditions, including if you:

  • are taking certain medicines called GLP-1 receptor agonists.
  • have severe problems with your stomach, such as slowed emptying of your stomach or problems with digesting food.
  • have or have had problems with your pancreas, kidneys or liver.
  • have or have had depression or suicidal thoughts, or mental health issues.
  • are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. It is not known if Saxenda® passes into your breast milk. You and your health care provider should decide if you will use Saxenda® or breastfeed.

Tell your health care provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription, over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Saxenda® slows stomach emptying and can affect medicines that need to pass through the stomach quickly. Saxenda® may affect the way some medicines work and some other medicines may affect the way Saxenda® works. Tell your health care provider if you take diabetes medicines, especially insulin and sulfonylurea medicines.

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The New Biopolymer Injection Has The Potential To Replace Daily Or Weekly Insulin Shots With A Once

Scientists, including one of Indian origin, have developed a technology that may provide weeks of glucose control for diabetes with a single injection, which would be a dramatic improvement over current therapies. In primates, the treatment has been shown to last for weeks, rather than days, researchers at Duke University in the US said.

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Many current treatments for type 2 diabetes use a signalling molecule called glucagon-like peptide-1 to cause the pancreas to release insulin to control blood sugar. However, this peptide has a short half-life and is cleared from the body quickly. Researchers, including Ashutosh Chilkoti, from Duke University, have created a technology that fuses GLP1 to a heat-sensitive elastin-like polypeptide in a solution that can be injected into the skin through a standard needle. Once injected, the solution reacts with body heat to form a biodegradable gel-like depot that slowly releases the drug as it dissolves.

In further tests, the team found that the optimised formulation improved glucose control in rhesus monkeys for more than 14 days after a single injection, while also releasing the drug at a constant rate for the duration of the trial. What is exciting about this work was our ability to demonstrate that the drug could last over two weeks in non-human primates, said Kelli Luginbuhl, a PhD student in the Chilkoti lab and co-author of the study.

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Most Common Side Effects

The most common side effects with BYDUREON BCise may include a bump at the injection site and/or nausea. Nausea is most common when you first start using BYDUREON BCise, but decreases over time in most people as their body gets used to the medicine. Other side effects that occur less often include headache, diarrhea, vomiting, injection-site itching and redness, dizziness, and constipation. Serious injection-site reactions have happened in some people who use BYDUREON. These are not all the possible side effects of BYDUREON BCise. See the below for more information and talk to your healthcare provider if you have any side effects that bother you or do not go away.

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Insulin For Diabetic Dogs

Insulin is the main treatment in dogs with diabetes. Insulin moves glucose from the bloodstream into the cells where it can be used or stored. All insulin is absorbed subcutaneously which requires an injection under the skin. Most dogs require twice daily insulin injections. While giving injections may sound daunting, the amount of insulin is typically not large, and needles are tiny. Most dogs tolerate insulin injections very well.

Vets or vet techs will demonstrate how to give an insulin injection or can approve video demos. The injection must not be given in the same location every day or scar tissue may form. If this occurs, the insulin wont be absorbed properly.

How Do I Take Trulicity

Potential Diabetes Drug Could Limit Injections to Once a Month

Trulicity is taken in the form of injection These injections are taken once per week. Your doctor or healthcare professional will show you how to inject Trulicity.

Dont inject Trulicity unless you know how.

Trulicity is usually packaged as pre-filled syringes.

Each syringe is to be used only once, for one injection. Do not re-use a Trulicity syringe over more than one week. Throw the syringe away after use, even if there is some left over.

Trulicity should be injected on the same day of each week. If you can, try to inject it at roughly the same time of day, too. If you realise that youve missed an injectio, think how long there is until your next one. If theres less than three days until your next injectio, leave it. If theres more than three days, inject as soon as you realise.

You should never inject Trulicity twice within a three-day period.

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Types Of Insulin For Dogs

Insulin is available in two strength levels: U-100 and U-40. This relates to how many units of insulin are in one milliliter. U-100 insulin is more concentrated, with 100 units per mL. U-40 insulin has 40 units per mL.

The insulin syringes must correspond to the type of insulin. If a U-100 needle is used with U-40 insulin, the dog will not receive the correct amount of insulin, possibly resulting in serious complications.

Vets often prescribe the brand Vetsulin. Other types that may be prescribed include:

  • NPH

Exenatide Once Monthly Showed Positive Results In Phase 2 Study

and Alkermes, Inc. today announced positive results from a phase 2 study evaluating the effects of a once-monthly injectable suspension formulation of exenatide on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.

The 121-patient, phase 2 study assessed the efficacy, safety and tolerability of three different doses of exenatide once monthly. It also assessed exenatide once weekly , another investigational type 2 diabetes therapy. After 20 weeks of treatment , patients randomized to the exenatide once monthly treatment arms experienced average reductions in A1C ranging between 1.3 and 1.5 percentage points from baseline. In the once-weekly BYDUREON treatment arm, the reduction was 1.5 percentage points. A1C is a measure of average blood sugar over three months.

“As innovators in the treatment of type 2 diabetes we brought the first GLP-1 product, BYETTA, to patients. We are now developing once-weekly and once-monthly formulations of exenatide to expand patient choices for improving glycemic control,” said Christian Weyer , M.D., senior vice president, research and development, Amylin Pharmaceuticals . “Based on the encouraging results of this study, we plan to proceed with regulatory interactions to outline the next steps for this important program.”

Study Design

About Diabetes

About BYETTA® injection

Important Safety Information for BYETTA® injection

About Amylin, Lilly and

P-LLY

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Side Effects Of Trulicity

Common side effects of Trulicity include stomach pain, indigestion, diarrhoea and loss of appetite. If you experience hives, difficulty breathing, or swelling, you may be allergic to Trulicity. You should seek emergency medical help immediately. If you feel any severe pain in your upper stomach, vomiting, or quickened heart rate, this could be a sign of pancreatitis Speak to your doctor about this as soon as possible.

Other signs of serious aversion to Trulicity include swelling or a lump on your neck, low blood sugar the symptoms of which are explained here or signs of a kidney problem, such as painful urination and swelling in your feet or ankles. If you experience any of these, speak to your doctor as soon as possible.

Rest assured that serious aversions to Trulicity are rare. They are listed here only on the off-chance that they affect you. Theres no need to worry about them unduly.

Insulin Sensitivity And Your Dose

Can you stop taking insulin once you start it? – Dr. Leela Mohan P V R | Doctors’ Circle

You may hear your healthcare professional talk about insulin sensitivity. This is how well your body is using insulin to get your blood sugar levels down. People with high sensitivity need less insulin than those with low sensitivity.

Your healthcare professional can test you for insulin sensitivity, and this will help them decide what dose of insulin you will need, and if insulin of you need it at all.

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Why Steroid Shots Aren’t The Best Treatment

Long-acting steroid shots are designed to slowly release the prescribed steroid dosage in your body. They treat allergy symptoms by decreasing inflammation throughout the body. The downside: The steroid affects other areas of the body, not just the nose, and may cause significant short- and long-term side effects.

Biopolymer Injection Lasted Three Times Longer Than Others

Using results from previous work on GLP1 for glucose control, the team tried different molecular designs of the new delivery solution.

They eventually found a design of the biopolymer that could control glucose levels in mice for up to 10 days with a single injection. This was a great improvement on previous attempts, after which the controlled release had only lasted for 2 or 3 days.

In tests on rhesus monkeys, the team found that the optimized formulation resulted in glucose control lasting for more than 14 days from a single injection. Also, the drug was released at a constant rate, without peaks and troughs, during the whole period.

Senior author Ashutosh Chilkoti, a professor of biomedical engineering at Duke, says that they managed to triple the duration of this short-acting drug for type 2 diabetes, outperforming other competing designs.

At present, patients using dulaglutide the longest-lasting controlled release treatment for type 2 diabetes have to inject themselves once per week. Patients on standard insulin treatments must inject themselves at least twice each day.

The team now plans to test the biopolymer on other animals and investigate how the immune system reacts to repeated injections. They also want to find out how well it performs for the controlled release of drugs in other areas, such as pain management.

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Fda Approves Diabetes Drug That Also Helps With Weight Loss

TRENTON, N.J. U.S. regulators on Tuesday approved a new diabetes drug that reduces blood sugar levels and also helps people lose significant weight. Danish drugmaker Novo Nordisk said the Food and Drug Administration approved its once-a-week shot for people with Type 2 diabetes. The drug, Ozempic, also known as semaglutide, works by stimulating the body’s own insulin production and reducing appetite.

In one big company-funded study, Ozempic, on average, reduced long-term blood sugar levels at least 2 ½ times as much as a popular daily diabetes pill, Merck & Co.’s Januvia. It also helped study participants lose two to three times as much weight as those in the comparison group.

Over 56 weeks, patients who got a lower dose of Ozempic lost an average of 9.5 pounds while those who got a higher dose lost 13.5 pounds . The patients who took Januvia lost an average of 4 pounds .

The 1,200 study participants were also taking one or two standard diabetes medicines.

Novo Nordisk, a leader in diabetes care, has also been testing the drug separately for weight loss alone.

Many Type 2 diabetes patients are overweight or obese, and losing significant weight usually helps them reduce their blood sugar and better control their diabetes. Over time, too high sugar in the blood can damage multiple organs and weaken circulation.

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