Odor Detection Of Urine Using Electronic Nose
Mouse urine of 200 Î¼l was sealed in 15 mL vial with a threaded neck, insured the vials’ tightness, and heated for 30 min in 60Â°C water bath, and stood at room temperature for 15 min for balancing. Five replicates were set up for each sample. Detection was carried out using electronic nose . The detection lasted for 150sâ300s, and the sensor was cleaned automatically .
Several indicators with great correlation in the results detected by electronic nose were converted into synthetic indicator. In principal component analysis , when the contribution rate of the two principal components exceeded 85%, it was considered that the two principal components represented the features of the original experimental data otherwise, it was considered that there were interfering components. The data collected in 199sâ200s were selected for PCA, Least absolute deviation analysis based on the built-in software coming with the equipment.
Early Signs Of Diabetes
The early signs of diabetes may not be obvious. For some people, the early signs of diabetes are subtle, while other people may experience no symptoms at all.
The onset of symptoms in those with type 1 diabetes is usually more sudden and occurs in childhood. The onset of symptoms in those with type 2 diabetes is more gradual and usually occurs in adulthood.
No matter the type, the following symptoms may be an early sign of diabetes:
- More frequent urination
- Numbness and tingling in the hands or feet
Type 2 Diabetes: Measuring Sugar Levels In Blood And Urine Yourself
Many people with diabetes measure their blood sugar levels themselves. For those who inject insulin several times a day, checking their sugar levels with a blood glucose meter is an important part of their daily treatment.
If someone has diabetes, their blood sugar levels are checked regularly. In type 2 diabetes, once every few months is sometimes enough. But not if insulin injections are part of their treatment.This is because the amount of insulin that is injected at mealtimes depends on the measured blood sugar level, among other things. Sugar levels in blood or urine can be measured in various ways. It’s also possible to measure the level of sugar in tissues of the body.
You can learn how to measure your blood sugar yourself in special patient education classes. These are a part of diabetes disease management programs too.
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Recognising The Symptoms Of Polyuria
The most common sign of polyuria is producing abnormally large volumes of urine at regular intervals throughout the day and at night.
If you are concerned about the amount you urinate and think you may have polyuria, you should make a note each day of how much you drink how often you urinate and how much urine you produce every time you go to the toilet.
Why Is The Color Of My Urine Telling Me
- Orange urine
When an excess amount of B vitamins is removed from the blood, and excreted through urine, the resultant urine is a light orange in color. Medications, such as Rifampin and Phenazopyridine can change the color of urine, and make it turn orange. Liver or bile duct problems can also cause orange urine.
- Dark brown, or amber urine
When blood gets in the urine, its termed, hematuria. This can be a sign of many different medical problems, and should be evaluated by your provider. Dark brown urine can indicate rhabdomyolysis, Gilberts Syndrome, or jaundice from liver problems.
- Black or dark brown urine
If a person notices black or very dark colored urine, this is called, melanuria. This can be caused by a condition called, acute intermittent porphyria, or from a skin cancer called melanoma.
- Pink or red urine
When eating certain foods, it can change the color of your urine. Beets and carrots, blackberries and rhubarbs, for example, can turn urine pink or reddish. Asparagus and foods with green food dyes may give urine a green color. It could be that your urine is pink or reddish due to blood in your urine, so unless you are sure the color is a result of the food you atge, see your doctor. If there is blood in your urine, it can be from kidney problems, a urinary tract infection, prostate problems, or even from cancer .
- Blue/green urine
- Purple urine
- White urine, milky
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Mass Spectrometry And Data Analysis
After electrophoresis, the strips were immobilized, stained, destained, and added with Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 on a shaker at room temperature for 90 min. Scanning was performed using BioRad GS-800 calibrated densitometer, and PDQuest software was used for data analysis. The protein spots with good repeatability, clear expression, and definite boundary were automatically selected. Spot location data was stored in a relational database and retrieved by a proprietary cutter. The visible stained gel spots were systematically cut out and collected into bar-coded 96-well-microtiter plates for further processing. The differential protein spots were cut off the gel and analyzed by Bruker Dalton Autoflex speedâ¢ MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometer, which was equipped with delayed ion extraction, pulsed nitrogen lasers , dual microchannel plates and 2 GHz transient digitizers. All mass spectra represented signal averaging of 120 laser shots. The performance of the mass spectrometers had sufficient mass resolution to produce isotopic multiplets for each ion species below m/z 3,000. Spectra were internally calibrated using two spiked peptides and database-searched with a mass tolerance of 50 ppm. For protein identification, the NCBI database was searched by BioTools software to look for the matched proteins, the functions of which were also inquired.
Nmr Analysis Of Small
The mouse urine was added with methanol and then centrifuged . The supernatant was collected, and the methanol was removed using nitrogen blowing sample concentrator. Then the product was freezed, dried, and pulverized for detection by 1H NMR.
Phosphate buffer 600 Î¼L was added into the dry powder of mouse urine extract, and vortex oscillation was performed for 30 s. Then the sample was completely transferred onto the ultrafiltration membrane for centrifugation for 15 min at 4Â°C at 13,000 g. This procedure was repeated twice, and 450 Î¼L of transparent filtrate was added into 50 Î¼L of Anachro certified DSS standard solution . The tube was vortex oscillated for 10 s at 13,000 g, followed by centrifugation for 2 min at 4Â°C. Then 480 Î¼L of supernatant was placed into the NMR tube and detected using Bruker Avance III 600 MHz NMR spectrometer . The experimental temperature was 298 K, and proton resonance frequency was 600.13 MHz. Pulse sequence Noesygppr1D was used to collect 1H NMR spectra. Water peak was suppressed, and the spectral width was set as 20 ppm. There were 32 K sampling points and free induction decay signals were accumulated for 64 times.
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What Does Sugar In Your Urine Mean
Though sugar in your urine, as described earlier is merely a symptom of underlying disease, it is no small matter. High blood sugar, the primary cause of glucose in urine, indicates potentially serious conditions. Since sugar in urine indicates conditions like diabetes, kidney disease, and hereditary abnormalities, sugar in urine demands immediate and urgent medical attention.
Glycosuria that goes unchecked can mean high blood sugar is going unchecked as well. Persistent and prolonged high blood sugar can lead to several long-term complications, such as:
- Delayed wound healing, potential infection, and even gangrenous transformation.
- Damage to the retina due to high blood sugar can occur, which is also called diabetic retinopathy. This leads to blurred vision, and eventually, permanent retinal damage.
- Serious damage to the tubules in the kidney. This can cause permanent impairment of the kidneys’ function to filter blood.
- Destruction of nerve endings in the peripheral parts of the body like the hands and feet. This can cause an altered feeling of sensation, and progressively, a complete loss of sensation.
- Cardiac disease due to the accumulation of glucose and its byproducts with hemoglobin around the arterial walls. This leads to an increased risk of cardiac failure, congestive heart disease, stroke, hypertension, and heart attack.
Be sure not to ignore early signs of glucose in urine and visit your physician when faced with doubt or any associated symptoms.
How To Take A Urine Glucose Test
At your appointment with your healthcare provider, you will be given a container to collect a sample of your urine and instructions on the “clean catch” method to help ensure the sample is sterile. Then a healthcare professional will show you to a restroom so you can collect the sample in privacy.
Once you have collected an ounce or two of urine, you will return the container to the healthcare provider, and it will be sent to the lab for analysis.
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When Should I Call The Doctor
A urine test for ketones should always be negative. Report a positive result to your doctor immediately. You should also let them know right away if your blood sugar remains high or if you have stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, rapid breathing, sweet-smelling breath, or if youâre peeing a lot.
The doctor may tell you to:
- Drink plenty of water and fluids to lower the amounts of ketones and stay hydrated.
- Continue to check your blood sugar. If itâs high, you may need to give yourself a small amount of rapid-acting insulin.
- Go to the local emergency room so you can get intravenous fluids and insulin.
Strengths And Limitations Of The Study
This is one of the first studies to determine the prevalence of diabetes and report on the screening accuracy of urine glucose test strips in Cambodia, which are commonly used as screening tests in this setting.
We used a prospective community-based design and had a large sample size with high participation rate, though participation bias towards those able to miss a day of work to attend a clinic visit may still have been an issue.
The use of a composite reference test and not evaluating those with capillary fasting blood glucose > 200mg/dL by the oral glucose tolerance test could have affected our study results, though the use of OGTT allows comparison of our results with those in a number of other studies.
The urine glucose test was self-administered and self-reported, which is pragmatic and aligns with the practices at MoPoTyso and other clinical settings in Cambodia however, errors in interpreting the test result could influence accuracy.
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Measuring Blood Sugar Levels Yourself
You can measure your blood sugar levels yourself using an electronic device called a blood glucose meter. To do this, you prick your fingertip with a small needle, and place a drop of blood on a test strip. The strip is inserted into the blood glucose meter. Shortly after, your blood sugar level is displayed on the device’s screen. More specifically, the procedure involves the following steps:
- First of all, lay out everything you need. This includes a blood glucose meter, a blood-sampling device with a fine needle , and a test strip.
- Wash your hands before measuring your blood sugar because dirt can distort the results.
- Take a test strip out of the package and insert it into the glucose meter.
- Gently prick the tip of a finger with the needle. It hurts less if you prick the side of the finger. Gently squeeze the tip of the finger until a small drop of blood comes out. It should just fill the test field on the strip.
- Then carefully place the drop of blood on the test strip without smearing it.
- After a short while your blood sugar level will be displayed on the meter. Modern devices can save the measurements along with the date and time, and this information can be transferred to a computer or smartphone. If this isn’t possible, it’s a good idea to write the measurements down in a special diary or app, for instance.
What Does A Positive Result Mean
If the test is positive, your kidneys are leaking protein into your urine. This is a sign that your kidneys are not working as well as they should — even if you feel fine and have no symptoms. Your doctor will suggest medications or lifestyle changes to help control these conditions:
- Kidney damage. You may start specific medicines to prevent further harm. If your microalbumin level is high, your doctor may suggest another type of test that requires you to collect samples for 24 hours. This can better tell the extent of damage to the kidneys and see how well theyâre working.
- High blood sugar. Studies show tight control of your blood sugar can lower kidney damage, so your doctor may put you on more aggressive treatments.
- Blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces your risk of diabetes-related kidney damage. Get it checked each time you have an office visit. The recommended reading for most people with diabetes is less than 130/80.
- Cholesterol. Since increases in microalbuminuria over time has been linked to heart disease risk, your doctor will work with you to keep your cholesterol and other fats in a healthy range.
- Other factors that can increase the risk of kidney disease are being overweight or obese and smoking.
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Random Blood Sugar Test
This measures your blood sugar at the time youre tested. You can take this test at any time and dont need to fast first. A blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL or higher indicates you have diabetes.
|140 mg/dL or below||N/A|
*Results for gestational diabetes can differ. Ask your health care provider what your results mean if youre being tested for gestational diabetes.Source: American Diabetes Association
If your doctor thinks you have type 1 diabetes, your blood may also tested for autoantibodies that are often present in type 1 diabetes but not in type 2 diabetes. You may have your urine tested for ketones , which also indicate type 1 diabetes instead of type 2 diabetes.
Who Should Have A Urine Test For Diabetes
A urine test may be given as part of a routine checkup. A lab may test your urine for the presence of glucose and ketones. If either are present in the urine, it could mean that youre not producing enough insulin.
Some diabetes medications such as canagliflozin and empagliflozin cause an increase of sugar to spill into urine. For people taking these medications, glucose levels shouldnt be tested by urine but testing ketones is still okay.
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Changing Your Lifestyle Can Improve Test Results
In the few months after her diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in early 2007, Virginia Shreve, a 51-year-old school social worker in Lynchburg, Va., wanted to follow the regimen of sensible eating and exercise that her doctor recommended. But she wasn’t ready to give up her old life.
“I was compliant, but skating on the edge of compliance. I wanted to follow my diet plan, but I still wanted to eat as much as I could while keeping my blood sugar in line,” she says. “Three months later I woke up and said, ‘I’ve gotta stop fighting this thing. I’m the one being hurt in this battle.'”
She started walking three miles a day, ate healthier carbohydrates, and the results on her next hemoglobin A1C test had fallen well within the healthy range, dropping from 9.5% when she was diagnosed to 5.5% in the fall of 2007.
When Can Ketones In Urine Be A Sign Of Ketoacidosis
High levels of ketones detected in your urine are a potential indicator of diabetic ketoacidosis , a severe complication of diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis is often the first sign that a person has diabetes before they are diagnosed.
If you become ill and have diabetes, your blood sugar and ketone levels can rise and cause ketoacidosis. Consult with your healthcare provider about how to monitor your ketone and blood glucose levels and how to prevent ketoacidosis when youre sick.
Additional symptoms of ketoacidosis can include:
- Trouble breathing
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Correlation Between The Presence Of Gck And Glucose Response By Cells Contributing To Glucose Homeostasis
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