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What Do You Give A Diabetic With High Blood Sugar

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When To See A Doctor

Video 1/15 – How does Type 2 diabetes cause high blood sugar levels?

According to the University of Michigan, blood sugar levels of 300 mg/dL or more can be dangerous. They recommend calling a doctor if you have two readings in a row of 300 or more.

See your doctor if you have consistently high blood sugar levels. Symptoms of this include:

  • increased thirst
  • high levels of sugar in urine

Ask your doctor how often to check your blood sugar and about your ideal blood sugar levels.

If you dont currently see a doctor who specializes in diabetes, known as an endocrinologist, you can find one by searching the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists website.

You can find a certified diabetes educator by visiting the American Diabetes Associations website and searching by zip code.

Summary

Talk to your doctor if you have consistently high blood sugar readings or symptoms of chronic hyperglycemia.

Checking your blood sugar and then treating hyperglycemia early will help prevent any complications.

Health problems can arise when someone has high blood sugar regularly and without treatment.

Examples of complications include:

  • nerve damage, called diabetic neuropathy, that may affect sensations in the feet and hands
  • diabetic retinopathy, or damage to the blood vessels in the eyes that affects vision
  • increased risks for kidney problems
  • increased risks for heart problems

Taking steps to keep your blood sugar at target levels can help to minimize the likelihood that these complications will occur.

How To Test For Ketones

You can use a urine test strip or blood ketone meter and ketone test strip to test for ketones at home. Testing either urine or blood is important, but when possible, a blood test is preferred because it gives you and your care team more precise information about your ketone levels. Because urine may have been in the bladder for some time, the results from these tests may show levels that are either higher or lower than the ketone levels that are actually circulating in your body. It is also very important to know that urine test trips degrade over time, so if you are using this method, you need to look at expiration dates carefully.

Your diabetes care team can give you specific directions about when you should check for ketones, but in general, you should check for them when your blood glucose is 240 mg/dL or higher. You should also check for ketones if you notice any of the DKA symptoms listed above or if you are sick it is possible to have ketones while your blood glucose levels are within range .

At-home urine test strips will change color to show the level of ketones in the urine. They typically report results as negative, trace, small, moderate or large. Blood ketone meters will provide a number that indicates the ketone levels. The following ranges are generally used:

Preventing High Blood Sugars

Everyone with diabetes experiences high blood sugars sometimes there are simply too many variables in the human body out of your control to prevent them altogether.

That being said, there are a few guidelines we can all follow to minimize the frequency of high blood sugars:

  • Avoid full-sugar beverages including soda, juice, coffee drinks, iced tea, etc.
  • Choose your carbohydrates carefully starchy carbs from pasta, candy, bread, desserts, etc. will spike your blood sugar the most
  • Take your medications as prescribed and contact your healthcare team if you miss a dose to determine if you can take it late
  • Exercise daily even a 20-minute walk makes a big difference on a daily basis
  • Drink plenty of water to prevent dehydration

And of course, if youre experiencing high blood sugars are a daily basis and youre unsure of the cause, talk to your healthcare team about making adjustments in your diabetes management regimen. A slight increase in your medications can have a big impact!

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When To Call For Medical Advice

It is important to note that very high blood glucose levels can be dangerous and it is important to be aware of the symptoms and risk factors of the following conditions:

If you are struggling to keep your blood glucose levels under control, speak to your GP or consultant who can advise you or refer you onto a diabetes education course.

How Do I Prevent Hyperglycemia

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  • Exercise to help lower blood sugar. Work with your healthcare provider to make a daily activity plan.
  • Follow your meal plan if you have one. Learn how carbohydrates impact your blood sugar, and work with your diabetes care team to find the best meal plan for you.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Dont smoke.
  • Limit drinking alcohol. Alcohol can raise blood sugar levels, but can also cause dangerously low blood sugar levels. Work with your provider to determine how much is safe to drink.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 02/11/2020.

References

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Treatment For High Ketone Levels

Treating high ketone levels can immediately help you avoid hospitalization for DKA. Work with your doctor to decide what you need to do to help manage moderate ketone levels. If youre unable to treat at home or if your levels continue to rise, youll need to receive medical treatment. Treatments can include:

What Causes Low Blood Sugar

Low blood sugar has many causes, including missing a meal, taking too much insulin, taking other diabetes medicines, exercising more than normal, and drinking alcohol. Blood sugar below 70 mg/dL is considered low.

Signs of low blood sugar are different for everyone. Common symptoms include:

  • Shaking.
  • Dizziness.
  • Hunger.

Know what your individual symptoms are so you can catch low blood sugar early and treat it. If you think you may have low blood sugar, check it even if you dont have symptoms. Low blood sugar can be dangerous and should be treated as soon as possible.

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Beware Of Low Blood Sugars

Remember, above all else, its very easy to over-treat a high blood sugar and wind up low. Then youll be tempted to binge-eat and wind up high again. This blood sugar roller coaster is exhausting and dangerous, too.

Frequently finding yourself on the blood sugar roller coaster means your approach to taking insulin and/or how you treat low blood sugars isnt working and needs some fine-tuning. Work with your healthcare team to reduce and prevent these wild swings to ensure your overall safety and quality of life!

What To Eat To Better Regulate Your Blood Sugar

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While high blood sugar is the characteristic symptom of diabetes, your blood sugar can also be high even if you dont have the condition. To avoid making high blood sugar worse, it is important to make good dietary choices and choose foods that can help you regulate your blood sugar.

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Check Your Blood Sugar

If you take medication that may cause low blood sugar , its highly advisable to check your blood sugar levels before you try to bring your sugar levels down.

This is just in case your blood sugar is normal or low, which can be the case in some situations.

Testing of blood sugar before bringing your levels down is particularly important if you take insulin.

Monitor Blood Sugar Levels Closely

High blood sugar levels often do not cause symptoms until they run well over 200 mg/dL. As such, it is essential for a person with diabetes to monitor their blood sugar several times a day. Doing so will mean that blood sugar levels never get that high.

A person with diabetes can use a home glucose monitor to check blood sugar levels. These are available for purchase online.

Recommendations for how frequently to check glucose levels during the day will vary from person to person. A doctor can make the best recommendations regarding blood sugar monitoring to a person with diabetes.

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How Do You Prevent High Blood Sugar

Take your medication as directed:

Taking insulin as prescribed is always important when you have type 1 diabetes to keep your blood sugar levels on track. Be sure to monitor your blood sugars regularly and talk to your healthcare provider if you notice unusual blood sugar highs and lows.

Eat a healthy diet:

Plan healthy meals throughout the week. You may need to make changes to your meals to ensure blood sugars are in the target range. For example, eating foods with fibre can help control blood sugars. Speak with a dietitian if you have questions or concerns.

Heres more information on carb counting and how to find the right diabetes dietfor your lifestyle.

Get enough exercise:

Being physically active on a regular basis not only helps to lower your blood sugar, it will keep your insulin working better, too. To better understand how different types of exercise affect blood sugar, check your levels frequently before, during and after physical activity. It is even possible that low blood sugar can happen during or after exercise, when the body has used up too much of its stored sugar. Here are the best exercises for blood sugar control, as well as ways to stay active even when youre stuck indoors.

When To Go To The Er

Fear of Hypoglycemia

High blood sugar can be very concerning because your body can start burning fat for energy instead of blood glucose.

This can cause conditions such as DKA and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome . These conditions are medical emergencies and can be fatal if left untreated.

DKA is a serious complication of type 1 diabetes. Its rare in people with type 2 diabetes, but can occur.

Symptoms that can indicate you should go to the emergency room include:

  • ketones in your urine, as diagnosed using a urine dipstick test
  • confusion
  • stomach pain
  • vomiting

High blood sugar levels can cause a fluid imbalance in the body and can cause the blood to become acidic in a manner that doesnt support life.

Medical treatments for these conditions include administering intravenous insulin on a continuous basis and IV fluids to correct dehydration.

Summary

High blood sugar can become a medical emergency. Go to the ER if you suspect DKA or HHS.

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What To Do If Your Blood Sugar Is Too Low

You’ll need to test your blood sugar if you think you have hypoglycemia.Although type 2 diabetes is characterized by blood sugar that is too high, some people take insulin and others medications that can occasionally drive blood sugar too low. When blood sugar is too lowgenerally less than 70 mg/dLit’s called hypoglycemia, and it can become a medical emergency. You can lose consciousness Hypoglycemia is more likely to occur when you start taking a new medication or if you exercise more than usual. As blood sugar drops to low levels, you may feel: Shaky Irritable Sweaty This can occur within 10 to 15 minutes, and in extreme cases you can even lose consciousness and experience seizures if you don’t consume some glucose . Hypoglycemia”My blood sugar was really plummeting” Watch videoMore about blood sugar monitoring You’ll need to test your blood sugar to confirm that you’re having hypoglycemiasome people become irritable if blood sugar is too high, so it’s not always obvious. If you drink sugar-containing juice, or some other form of carbohydrate, it should bring blood sugar back into the normal range. You can also purchase glucose pills or gels in the pharmacy that can get blood sugar back on track. You should always have a glucose source in the car, says Yvonne Thigpen, RD, diabetes program coorContinue reading > >

What Causes Diabetic Ketoacidosis

DKA occurs when insulin levels are low. Our bodies need insulin to use the available glucose in the blood. In DKA, glucose cant get into the cells, so it builds up, resulting in high blood sugar levels.

In response, the body starts breaking down fat into a useable fuel that doesnt require insulin. Turning fat into energy produces ketones. When too many ketones build up, your blood becomes acidic. This is diabetic ketoacidosis.

The most common causes of DKA are:

  • missing an insulin injection or not injecting enough insulin
  • illness or infection
  • Black , Asian , and Hispanic people
  • people who have overweight or obesity
  • people who are middle-aged
  • males

Its best to talk with your doctor about your risk factors to make sure you have the right treatment plan in place.

Testing for ketones is one of the first steps for diagnosing DKA. If you have type 1 diabetes, you should have a supply of home ketone tests. These test either your urine or your blood for the presence of ketones.

You can buy these in drug stores or online.

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How Can I Pay For Tests And Diabetes Supplies

Medicareexternal icon, Medicaid, and most private insurance plans pay for the A1C test and fasting blood sugar test as well as some diabetes supplies. Check your plan or ask your health care team for help finding low-cost or free supplies, and see How to Save Money on Diabetes Care for more resources.

Learn First Aid For Someone Who Is Having A Diabetic Emergency

How to Lower Blood Sugar Fast

1. Give them something sweet to eat or a non-diet drink.

If someone has a diabetic emergency, their blood sugar levels can become too low. This can make them collapse.Giving them something sugary will help raise their blood sugar levels and improve their bodily function. Avoid giving them a diet drink, as it wont have any sugar in it and will not help them.

2. Reassure the person. Most people will gradually improve, but if in doubt, call 999.

If you cant call 999, get someone else to do it.

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Planning For Sick Days

Your body releases stress hormones when you are sick, which can cause hyperglycemia. Keep taking your insulin and other diabetes medications, even if you are throwing up. If you have ketones and your blood sugar is above 240 mg/dL, call your doctor. They might also want you to call if:

  • You have diarrhea that lasts more than 6 hours
  • You are throwing up
  • You have a high fever or trouble breathing
  • You feel very sleepy or confused

Continue checking your blood sugar levels and keep track of the results.

Test Before You Eat And Two Hours After

This will tell you how well your medication is controlling your blood sugar. It will also shed light on what food is boosting your sugar too highand thus should be avoided. “You should consult your health-care provider to develop a plan that works for you,” says Donna Rice, immediate past president of the American Association of Diabetes Educators, who notes that the frequency and time of day you test will depend on how controlled your blood glucose is.

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So What Causes High Blood Sugar Levels In Non

Now that you know the dynamics of food digestion, glucose absorption into blood circulation and the expected insulin response, explaining what causes high blood sugar in non-diabetics becomes logical.

So, here it goes:

If you have a fully functioning beta cells in your pancreas that produce, store, and release insulin in response to blood sugar rises when you eat, then a quick response is expected to regulate blood sugar. This quick response prevents unnecessary blood glucose fluctuations.

And this process of blood sugar correction works so efficiently that within an hour and half of eating, your blood sugar levels should return to the fasting blood sugar levels of below 100mg/dl .

In fact, at 2 hours after-meal, both the first phase and second phase insulin release from the beta cells should have your blood sugar levels down to 80mg/dl .

However, if your First phase insulin response and more importantly, your Second phase insulin release is defective or sluggish for whatever reason, then you will have high blood sugar level even if you are non-diabetic. This is actually referred to as Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

Persistent impaired glucose tolerance is actually pre-diabetes.

Impaired glucose tolerance precedes Type 2 diabetes. If your blood sugar level remains high despite your first and second phase insulin release best efforts, such that it hits 200mg/dl 2 hours after eating, then by definition, you are now diabetic.

What Should My Blood Sugar Level Be

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When you’re first diagnosed with diabetes, your diabetes care team will usually tell you what your blood sugar level is and what you should aim to get it down to.

You may be advised to use a testing device to monitor your blood sugar level regularly at home.

Or you may have an appointment with a nurse or doctor every few months to see what your average blood sugar level is. This is known as your HbA1c level.

Target blood sugar levels differ for everyone, but generally speaking:

  • if you monitor yourself at home with a self-testing kit a normal target is 4 to 7mmol/l before eating and under 8.5 to 9mmol/l 2 hours after a meal
  • if your HbA1c level is tested every few months a normal HbA1c target is below 48mmol/mol

The Diabetes UK website has more about blood sugar levels and testing.

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