Chronic Cannabis Use Insulin Secretion And Pancreatic
Basal and postglucose load absolute insulin secretory rates were comparable between the groups. In order to assess insulin secretion in response to a dynamic change in plasma glucose levels, we measured rate sensitivity and IGI. IGI, the ratio of the rise of the insulin and glucose concentrations over basal level at 30 min , and rate sensitivity were not different between the groups . Insulin secretion and its relationship to plasma glucose concentrations were evaluated by model-derived -cell glucose sensitivity parameter. Other measures of -cell function, -cell glucose sensitivity, and potentiation factor in chronic cannabis smokers were also similar to control subjects.
What Clinicians Are Saying
Clinicians agree that more data is needed.
This research is in its infancy. As far as using marijuana medicinally to improve measures of metabolism or diabetes, there are far more unknowns than knowns, and its way too early to make a recommendation to use cannabis, says Troy Donahoo, MD, an associate professor in the division of endocrinology, diabetes, and metabolism at the University of Florida in Gainesville, who has studied the effect of marijuana use following bariatric surgery. Donahoo was previously at the University of Colorado in Denver, where he saw many patients with diabetes and obesity who used cannabis recreationally or medicinally for anxiety, sleep, or pain control.
He notes that one thing clinicians agree on is that strains of marijuana that produce a feeling of highness many of which are recreational wouldnt be advisable for people with diabetes because they tend to increase appetite. For people with diabetes, strict diet and weight management is crucial to help regulate blood sugar levels and increase insulin sensitivity.
What do doctors also know? Behavior changes like a healthy diet and more physical activity, as well as approved medications for weight loss and diabetes, have proven benefits to halt the development and progression of the disease. We know the risks and benefits to these, he says. That makes these approaches far more preferable than medical marijuana for physicians to recommend.
Cannabis Use Adiposity And Body Fat Distribution
In addition to being age- and BMI-matched, total body fat content was similar between the groups . Relative distribution of abdominal fat was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. While cannabis smokers had a lower total and subcutaneous fat in the abdomen, the percent of visceral fat area was higher when compared with the control group . However, the percent of visceral fat area was unrelated to age or frequency or duration of cannabis use. Contrary to our hypothesis, hepatic fat content as assessed by MRS was not different between the groups . In the combined cohort, age and percent TBF was associated with hepatic fat content. Similar to percent visceral fat, hepatic fat content was unrelated to age or frequency or duration of cannabis use.
Total adiposity and regional fat distribution in chronic cannabis smokers and control subjects. A: Abdominal total fat, subcutaneous fat, and visceral fat content. B: TBF , visceral fat , and hepatic fat content. Values shown are means ± SE. *P< 0.05, paired t test ns, not significant.
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Can Cannabis Help Control Diabetes
While studies investigating marijuana as a diabetes prevention tool have not been conclusive, one study suggests the drug may be used to help relieve diabetes symptoms researchers note those findings are also preliminary.
The research, which was published in July 2015 in the Journal of Pain, found that patients suffering from a condition called diabetic neuropathy, or painful nerve damage due to chronic high blood sugar, may lessen their discomfort by inhaling marijuana. Cannabinoid receptors located in the nervous system across the spinal cord and brain appear to work on multiple planes to relieve pain, including decreasing the excitability of receptors, reducing transmission of pain signals in the brain, and inhibiting discomfort down the spinal cord.
Although the study was conducted in humans, and was randomized, controlled, and double-blinded, it was small involving only 16 participants. Plus, one study doesnt mean marijuana is safe to use for this purpose, says one of its authors, , the chair of the division of pain medicine at the University of California in San Diego.
Because most studies are observational and those that are randomized and controlled are small, results on the relationship cannabis may have to diabetes arent conclusive. Thats why more rigorous, high-quality research in humans is needed.
Disadvantages For People With Diabetes
Using marijuana might provide some benefits for people with diabetes, but the drug also has its drawbacks. Marijuana affects the developing brain, potentially impairing learning and memory, so people under the age of 25 years should avoid it.
If cannabinoids can affect the metabolic system, insulin sensitivity, and appetite, this might mean that frequent marijuana use could disrupt these functions.
Below, we consider some other possible problems.
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Clinical Characteristics Cannabis Use And Energy Intake Of Study Subjects
This study included age-, sex-, race-, and BMI-matched chronic cannabis smokers and control subjects . The median age of cannabis smokers was 25 years . Age at first cannabis smoking was 15 ± 3 years . Participants smoked an average of 10 ± 8 joints per day for 12 ± 9 years . The majority of cannabis smokers in our cohort were African American and men . The median BMI of the cannabis smokers was 26 kg/m2 . The participants in the control group were matched for age, sex, ethnicity, and BMI . Seventeen of the cannabis smokers also smoked tobacco, whereas only two participants in the control group were tobacco smokers. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in cannabis users when compared with control participants .
Total daily energy intake, assessed by 24-h dietary recall, was not significantly different between the groups. However, carbohydrate intake and percent calories from carbohydrates were significantly higher in cannabis smokers . Diet quality was measured using the HEI-2005. As seen in , the quality of diet consumed by cannabis smokers was lower than the control group, reflecting differing food choices. Despite differences in total diet quality, the percent total daily calories from fat and alcohol were not significantly different between the groups. In both groups, women consumed less alcohol than men .
What Does The Study Show
- A risk of ketoacidosis about 2 times higher in people who have used cannabis in the last year.
- Higher average blood sugar levels in consumers. In fact, average glycated hemoglobin was 7.6 % among non-consumers, compared to 8.4 % among consumers.
- A risk of severe hypoglycemia comparable for both groups.
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How Can Marijuana Help Your Diabetes
So lets say you were using marijuana, or wanted to try it. What would the effect be on your diabetes?
A number of PWDs report that with regular use, they see lower blood sugar levels and reduced A1c results over time. The existing scientific evidence shows that marijuana has an effect on improving insulin resistance helpful for people type 2 diabetes, but generally not for type 1s. For them, theres little more than anecdotal evidence to go on.
However, as mentioned, there is a whole body of evidence showing that marijuana is effective in treating eye disorders, chronic pain, sleep disorders, and a number of other ailments often associated with diabetes. So if you are living with one or more complications of diabetes, marijuana may very well ease your pain or slow the progression of the disorder youre living with.
The area of mental health is a big one for marijuana, as it has been shown to effectively treat everything from clinical depression to post-traumatic stress disorder. Why is this? One answer may come from a study published in February 2015, showing that marijuana use in animals helped restore brain levels of endocannabinoids which affect emotion and behavior, and have been linked to reduced feelings of pain and anxiety, and increased feelings of well-being.
Of course, some people with depression will not do well on marijuana, as it can also increase feelings of anxiety and paranoia in some people.
Reports Of Deaths Related To Vaping Marijuana
The Food and Drug Administration has alerted the public to hundreds of reports of serious lung illnesses associated with vaping, including several deaths. They are working with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to investigate the cause of these illnesses. Many of the suspect products tested by the states or federal health officials have been identified as vaping products containing THC, the main psychotropic ingredient in marijuana. Some of the patients reported a mixture of THC and nicotine and some reported vaping nicotine alone. No one substance has been identified in all of the samples tested, and it is unclear if the illnesses are related to one single compound. Until more details are known, FDA officials have warned people not to use any vaping products bought on the street, and they warn against modifying any products purchased in stores. They are also asking people and health professionals to report any adverse effects. The CDC has posted an information page for consumers.
One complexity in comparing the lung-health risks of marijuana and tobacco concerns the very different ways the two substances are used. While people who smoke marijuana often inhale more deeply and hold the smoke in their lungs for a longer duration than is typical with cigarettes, marijuanas effects last longer, so people who use marijuana may smoke less frequently than those who smoke cigarettes.
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Heavy Cannabis Use By Female Adults Associated With Lower Incidence Of Diabetes
A new study recently published in Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research found that women who heavily used cannabis had lower incidence of diabetes, a chronic condition that prevents the body from either making enough insulin or being able to use insulin efficiently .
Approximately one in 10 Americans has diabetes, and the condition accounted for 87,647 deaths in the United States in 2019, making it the seventh leading cause of death for that year.
For the study, Texas A& M University School of Public Health graduate students Ayobami Ogunsola, Samuel Smith, Udeh Mercy and Olatunji Eniola, along with a colleague from Hofstra University, analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey . From approximately 15,000 participants. The majority of participants were female, white , over 40, and had at least a college-level education. Cannabis use was estimated on the basis of exposure and frequency of use with smoking cannabis fewer than four times per month deemed light use, and heavy use defined as four or more times per month. Diabetes status was determined by physician diagnosis or meeting criteria for plasma glucose, fasting blood glucose or hemoglobin A1C levels.
Further research is needed to better understand the association observed in this study, especially to analyze the individual and contextual variables and mechanisms that may be responsible.
by Kelly Tucker
Remember To Avoid Smoking And Stick To Edibles
As you can see, diabetics can benefit from cannabis on many levels.
The research and the experiences of many patients have both shown us just how much marijuana can help in maintaining normal insulin and blood sugar levels.
However, you should remember to avoid smoking and use high CBD and THCV strains in edible form.
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Effects Of Marijuana Use On Insulin Action And Secretion
Daily smoking of marijuana for 7 days or acute intravenous administration of 9-THC induces glucose intolerance in men . However, the effects of chronic marijuana smoking on glucose disposal, insulin action, and -cell function have not been previously investigated. In our study, chronic cannabis impaired adipose tissue insulin sensitivity but not insulin sensitivity parameters related to glucose metabolism. These tissue-specific effects of marijuana may be due to: 1) higher levels of 9-THC and prolonged retention in adipose tissue 2) higher sensitivity to antilipolytic effects of insulin in adipose tissue compared with its action in the liver or skeletal muscle and 3) varying expression of CB1R in insulin-sensitive tissues .
Metabolic Effects Of Chronic Cannabis Smoking
Ranganath Muniyappa, Sara Sable, Ronald Ouwerkerk, Andrea Mari, Ahmed M. Gharib, Mary Walter, Amber Courville, Gail Hall, Kong Y. Chen, Nora D. Volkow, George Kunos, Marilyn A. Huestis, Monica C. Skarulis Metabolic Effects of Chronic Cannabis Smoking. Diabetes Care 1 August 2013 36 : 24152422.
We examined if chronic cannabis smoking is associated with hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, reduced -cell function, or dyslipidemia in healthy individuals.
In a cross-sectional, case-control study, we studied cannabis smokers and control subjects matched for age, sex, ethnicity, and BMI . Abdominal fat depots and intrahepatic fat content were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Insulin-sensitivity indices and various aspects of -cell function were derived from oral glucose tolerance tests .
Chronic cannabis smoking was associated with visceral adiposity and adipose tissue insulin resistance but not with hepatic steatosis, insulin insensitivity, impaired pancreatic -cell function, or glucose intolerance.
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Type Of Marijuana: Sativa Indica And Hybrid
You may have heard about Cannabis indica, Cannabis sativa, or Cannabis hybrid on the news and information articles. Even though all these species of Cannabis are counted as marijuana, they differ slightly in several ways. The first being appearance.
The sativa plants tend to have longer, narrow leaves whereas the indica plants tend to have fatter, broader leaves. And because hybrids are a crossbreed between indica and sativa plants, the appearance can vary from strain to strain depending on the genetic makeup.
Beside the appearance, indica and sativa plants are commonly believed to have different effects on their user. These effects include:
|Best for day use|
|Best for night use|
In todays products, indica strains are usually ones that have a high THC to low CBD content ratio, sativa strains are usually plants that have a high CBD content to low THC content ratio, and hybrid strains are usually plants that have a relatively 50:50 ratio of THC to CBD contents. The strains you hear from movies to pop-culture articles are actually just the results from mixed breeding of the two species of Cannabis. Even within a specific strain of Cannabis, you can still find variation of the cannabinoid contents due to the heredity combination as expressed by the female plants.
How Medical Marijuana Can Be An Effective Treatment For Diabetes
Medical cannabis serves as an effective treatment plan for diabetes. Cannabis can prevent seizures, neurological pain, and blindness. Medical marijuana has provided great potential in many of the troubling areas of diabetes. In addition, the components of marijuana for some treatments do not produce psychoactive results. Therefore, it may be considered for juvenile diabetes. Some forms of medical cannabis can increase hunger and can allow you to eat healthy foods if your appetite increases.
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Pot Can Make Your Periods Suck Less
When it comes to managing premenstrual symptoms, marijuana can be a natural alternative to Midol.
Studies have found that THC is an analgesic and antinociceptive agent that can alleviate the pain of those killer cramps and pounding headaches. Plus, marijuana has also been found to have anti-inflammatory properties that can help with the bloating that occurs around that time of the month.
Dr. Damas says cannabis is a common pain reliever. âSurveys of medical marijuana patients find that upwards of 40% reports using cannabis for the treatment of pain, from nagging aches, episodic pain to chronic conditions like fibromyalgia,â he says. âCannabis users tend to decrease their consumption of prescription analgesics as well as over the counter pain medications.â
Legalisation On The Nhs
On 1 November 2018 medical cannabis products were made available on the NHS for some people in the UK.
Treatments can only be prescribed by specialist doctors in a limited number of circumstances and not by GPs.
The treatments will contain varying quantities of THC and CBD. Treatments will include pills, capsules and oils but smoking cannabis will not be prescribed.
People who stand to benefit will be children with rare, severe forms of epilepsy, adults with vomiting or nausea caused by chemotherapy, and adults with muscle stiffness caused by multiple sclerosis.
Managing Diabetes Without Cannabis
There are quite a few ways that people manage diabetes, including meal planning, exercising regularly, and taking prescribed medicine.
The most crucial thing is to monitor blood sugar and blood pressure levels at all times. Stress and anxiety can also cause complications for people with diabetes. Anxiety can raise blood sugar levels, so it is important for those with diabetes to relax as much as possible.
Smoking Weed Can Also Help You Fall Asleep
While there is considerable debate over the long-term effect marijuana has on sleep cycles, some feel that smoking a bowl before bedtime acts as a better sleep aid than other substances like alcohol and certain sleep-inducing medications.
âIndicas are known for their relaxing properties. This is a result of their unique chemical composition of phytocannabinoids , as well as their concentration of other substances like terpenes ,â explains Dr. Damas.
Terpenes, such as linalool and myrcene, are the oils found in cannabis. Theyâre what cause the aroma of the plant and give certain strains their distinct flavors. Terpenes also can affect the unique roles of different cannabis strains, aka whether theyâre more relaxing or heightehning. However, more research is still necessary to truly understand the extent of their involvement.
Unfortunately, though, it’s been seen that marijuana’s effectiveness as a sleep aid decreases with increased usage. That said, a cannabinoid found in marijuana, CBD, is a great aid for sleep.
âCBD can also be used for sleep because of its effect on receptors that cause sedation ,â says Dr. Damas.
âOne of the benefits of using CBD for sleep is that you won’t be âhighâ like you will if you use an indica.â
âSome indica strains that I think work well are âGMO,â âGarlic Cookies,â and âGrand Daddy Pluto.â These also work great for pain relief or injuries,â Ekl says.
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