The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2
30.3 million people have diabetes , in one type or another. 84.1 million adults aged 18 years or older have prediabetes (33.9% of the adult US population. But what exactly is Diabetes? There are a lot of myths and misunderstandings surrounding the disease, particularly when it comes to type 1 versus type 2.
So lets start with the basics.
The two main types of diabetes are type 1 and type 2. In type 1 diabetes , the body completely stops making insulin. People with type 1 diabetes must take daily insulin injections to survive. This form of diabetes usually develops in children or young adults, but can occur at any age.In type 2 diabetes the body produces insulin, but the cells dont respond to insulin the way they should. This is called insulin resistance. In response to this insulin resistance, the pancreas should make more insulin, but in the case of type 2 diabetes, this does not happen. Because of these two problems, insulin resistance and trouble making extra insulin, there is not enough of an insulin effect to move the glucose from the blood into the cells. Type 2 diabetes is more likely to occur in people who are over the age of 40, overweight, and have a family history of diabetes, although more and more younger people, including adolescents, are developing type 2 diabetes.
Its important to know a few things about how your body works before you can take the best care of your diabetes.
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We Know Some People Get Confused Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes And Were Often Asked About The Differences Between Them
Although type 1 and type 2 diabetes both have stuff in common, there are lots of differences. Like what causes them, who they affect, and how you should manage them. There are other types of diabetes like gestational and MODY. But this page is mainly about the differences between type 1 and type 2.
For a start, type 1 affects 8% of everyone with diabetes. While type 2 diabetes affects about 90%.
Lots of people get confused between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This can mean you have to explain that what works for one type doesn’t work for the other, and that there are different causes.
The main thing to remember is that both are as serious as each other. Having high blood glucose levels can lead to serious health complications, no matter whether you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes. So if you have either condition, you need to take the right steps to manage it.
The Symptoms And Complications Are Similar
Consistently high levels of blood sugar cause the symptoms of both types of diabetes and many of those symptoms are the same. “Presenting symptoms are similar in all forms of diabetesincreased thirst, increased urination, blurred vision, worsening fatigue, weight loss,” says Dr. Adimoolam. “Since patients with type 1 diabetes produce very little or no insulin at the time of diagnosis, they are more likely to present to the hospital with a life-threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis .” People with type 1 may also lose weight.
One unique symptom of type 2 diabetes is a condition called acamphotisi nigricans, says Vouyiouklis Kellis. That’s when you see a darkening of the skin at the back of the neck or back of the arm, places where there are folds under the skin. This is a sign of insulin resistance, which is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes but not type 1 diabetes.
Chronically high levels of blood glucose can lead to serious complications which, says Dr. Adimoolam, are similar for both types of diabetes. These include heart disease, kidney problems, nerve damage, amputation, and eye damage that can result in blindness
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Managing Type 1 Diabetes
People with type 1 diabetes may benefit from controlling and counting the amount of carbohydrates they eat because carbohydrates are the body’s primary source of glucose. Insulin levels can be predicted by determining how many grams of carbohydrates were eaten at each meal. It is recommended that people with type 1 diabetes stay active, but they may need to monitor their blood sugar levels and adjust their carbohydrate intake to prevent a low blood sugar condition called hypoglycemia.
Lada Latent Autoimmune Diabetes Of Adults
Up to a third of people who were initially diagnosed as having type 2 diabetes actually have latent autoimmune diabetes of adults , sometimes refer to as type 1.5. People with LADA have features of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes their immune system attacks the cells of the pancreas that produce insulin, but they may also develop insulin resistance.
The destruction of the insulin producing cells is much slower in LADA than in type 1 diabetes. A blood test is needed to tell the difference between type 2 diabetes and LADA.
Some people can manage LADA on diet, exercise and tablets in the initial months or years following diagnosis. However, most with move onto insulin therapy at some point.
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What Is Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is the result of the human immune system mistaking the bodys beta cells, which produce insulin, for foreign cells and causing their destruction. Insulin is a protein that allows the transport of sugar into cells to provide energy. When sugar cant get from the blood into the cells, the cells have no access to the glucose they need and cannot function correctly. The composition of our blood also gets off balance, with high blood sugar levels leading to detrimental effects on other organs of the body.
Injecting synthetic insulin solves this problem because it keeps blood glucose levels in the right range and helps glucose reach our cells.
Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes
MSC, MNSE, MIEE, COREN REG, Regional Technical Manager at power industry, Nigeria
Type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are the two forms of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is a long-term condition that alters how the body processes glucose from diet. Diabetes affects people who are unable to create enough insulin to move sugar into many of their bodys cells. Hyperglycemia, or an excess of sugar, results as a result of this.
Types of diabetes mellitus exist, with type 1 and type 2 diabetes being the most common. Type 2 diabetes is the most frequent type of diabetes in the world. In addition to gestational diabetes, which carries a higher chance of acquiring diabetes over time, there is also Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adults , a less common illness.
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune illness in which antibodies target pancreatic cells, preventing insulin synthesis, whereas type 2 diabetes is caused by errors in the action and/or production of insulin, a hormone that regulates blood glucose levels. Obesity, physical inactivity, and a poor diet are all linked to type 2 diabetes. So that story about sugary foods causing diabetes isnt entirely true.
For more information about difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, Check it here
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Causes Of Type 1 Diabetes
The bodys immune system is responsible for fighting off foreign invaders, such as harmful viruses and bacteria.
In people with type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakes the bodys own healthy cells for foreign invaders. The immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. After these beta cells are destroyed, the body is unable to produce insulin.
Researchers dont know why the immune system sometimes attacks the bodys own cells. It may have something to do with genetic and environmental factors, such as exposure to viruses. Research into autoimmune diseases is ongoing.
Type 1 Diabetes Complications
- Heart disease or heart attack
- Chronic kidney disease and kidney failure
- Damage to macrovascular and microvascular blood vessels
- Type 3 diabetes
- Coronary artery disease
- Heart disease or heart attack
- Chronic kidney disease and kidney failure
- Damage to macrovascular and microvascular blood vessels
- Type 3 diabetes
- Coronary artery disease
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Research Is Changing How Doctors Diagnose Diabetes In Children
In the past, many people believed that there were only two types of diabetes: one that affected kids and one that affected adults . As medical research progresses, doctors have discovered that children can have type 2 and other types of diabetes, too.
Abha Choudhary, M.D., pediatric endocrinologist at Childrens Health, says research is helping physicians better classify the types of diabetes and plan for the right treatment.
The treatment varies for different kinds of diabetes, Dr. Choudhary says. For example, for maturity onset diabetes of the young , some patients can be treated with oral medications and dont need insulin. Genetic testing can help us diagnose MODY and plan treatment options more accurately.
Learn more about diabetes in kids on the Children’s Health Checkup podcast.
How Do You Tell If Its Type 1 Or Type 2 Diabetes
Recently, I have been asked more and more what the difference is between type 1 and type 2 diabetes and whether there is really a type 2.5. The questions have come not only from patients of mine and friends but also from a surprising number of attorneys. Why the attorneys? Its because of the now well-known association between certain medications called atypical antipsychotics and the greatly increased risks for developing type 2 diabetes. There have been quite a number of lawsuits against manufacturers regarding the link between the medications and the development of diabetes, primarily related to the issue of insufficient warning to patients about the risks. There has also been a question of whether some manufacturers hid data from the FDA showing links between their drugs and the development of diabetes. I am not an attorney and have no opinion regarding these legal issues.
Back to the basics: What is diabetes and what is the difference between type 1 and type 2?
I have discussed these topics to some extent in earlier entries but it is worth revisiting the subject. You may want to search my archived articles- maybe I discussed these issues better earlier?
The confusing history of diabetes nomenclature
Enter the age of semi-enlightenment
Is it important to determine which type of diabetes a person has?
A case history
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Strengths And Limitations Of This Study
- We have carried out a comprehensive and robust systematic review in accordance with PRISMA guidelines and our initial published protocol.
- We screened a large number of literature sources, and all reviewing and data extraction was carried out in duplicate independently by two authors .
- Considerable heterogeneity across studies precluded a formal meta-analysis.
- A limited number of studies were found meaning there is still considerable uncertainty around criteria for classification of type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
- Variability in the reference standard of insulin deficiency across studies also led to further uncertainty around findings limiting direct usefulness of criteria.
What Should A Type 2 Diabetes Meal Plan Include
Ask your healthcare provider or a nutritionist to recommend a meal plan thats right for you. In general, a Type 2 diabetes meal plans should include:
- Lean proteins: Proteins low in saturated fats include chicken, eggs and seafood. Plant-based proteins include tofu, nuts and beans.
- Minimally processed carbohydrates: Refined carbs like white bread, pasta and potatoes can cause your blood sugar to increase quickly. Choose carbs that cause a more gradual blood sugar increase such as whole grains like oatmeal, brown rice and whole-grain pasta.
- No added salt: Too much sodium, or salt, can increase your blood pressure. Lower your sodium by avoiding processed foods like those that come in cans or packages. Choose salt-free spices and use healthy oils instead of salad dressing.
- No added sugars: Avoid sugary foods and drinks, such as pies, cakes and soda. Choose water or unsweetened tea to drink.
- Non-starchy vegetables: These vegetables are lower in carbohydrates, so they dont cause blood sugar spikes. Examples include broccoli, carrots and cauliflower.
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When Should I Call My Doctor
Its important to monitor diabetes very closely if youre sick. Even a common cold can be dangerous if it interferes with your insulin and blood sugar levels. Make a sick day plan with your healthcare provider so you know how often to check your blood sugar and what medications to take.
Contact your provider right away if you experience:
- Confusion or memory loss.
- Nausea and vomiting for more than four hours.
- Problems with balance or coordination.
- Severe pain anywhere in your body.
- Trouble moving your arms or legs.
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Type 2 diabetes is a disease where your body doesnt make enough insulin and cant use sugar the way it should. Sugar, or glucose, builds up in your blood. High blood sugar can lead to serious health complications. But Type 2 diabetes is manageable. Regular exercise and a healthy diet can help you manage your blood sugar. You may also need medication or insulin. If you have Type 2 diabetes, you should monitor your blood sugar at home regularly and stay in close communication with your healthcare provider.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 03/25/2021.
Managing And Treating Type 1 And Type 2
Managing and treating your diabetes is so important. This is because itll help you avoid serious health complications. And itll play a big part in your daily life regardless of if you have type 1 or type 2.
If you have type 1 diabetes, youll need to take insulin to control your blood sugar levels. Youll also need to test your blood glucose levels regularly. And count how many carbs you eat and drink. Counting carbs will help you work out how much insulin you should take when you inject with your meals.
And generally you should be trying to have a healthy lifestyle. That includes regular physical activity and a healthy balanced diet. These will help you reduce your risk of diabetes complications.
If you have type 2 diabetes, you also need to eat a healthy diet and be active. These things will help you manage your weight and diabetes.
But quite often people with type 2 also need to take medication. Such as tablets and insulin, or other treatments too. Whether you need to test your blood glucose level like someone with type 1, depends on the treatment you take. Your GP can tell you what you should do at home.
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How To Understand The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes
According to the American Diabetes Association, there are approximately 1.4 million cases of diabetes diagnosed each year. Nearly eighty-six million people in the United States with prediabetes are on their way to becoming diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Although there are several forms of diabetes, there is much confusion about the difference between type 1 and type 2. Here is a look at the differences between the two most common forms of a disease that is becoming a global problem.
Response From Raymond A Plodkowski Md And Stanley Shane Md
The clinical presentations of type 1 and type 2 diabetes have become blurred. In the past, it was often assumed that children and adolescents who presented in diabetic ketoacidosis had autoimmune destruction of their insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. These youngsters were classified as type 1 diabetics. Middle-aged adults with diabetes were assumed to have insulin resistance that resulted in glucose intolerance, and they were classified as type 2 diabetics.
Unfortunately, obesity has become rampant in the adolescent population, and now there are many young people with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In contrast, occasionally there are adults who have autoimmune-mediated destruction and failure of their beta cells. It is important to determine the type of diabetes so that appropriate therapy can be initiated. Patients who are insulinopenic due to beta-cell failure must be managed with insulin. Patients who have insulin resistance can be managed with oral therapies including thiazolidinediones, metformin, and/or sulfonylureas.
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Type 2 Diabetes Risk Factors
- Family history of type 1 diabetes
- Childhood consumption of cows milk, often before 1 year of age
- Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis in dairy and meat products
- Enterovirus infections
- Family history of type 2 diabetes
- Diet high in fats, processed foods, and artificial sweeteners
- Weight above ideal
- Previous diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus
- Sedentary lifestyle
Just like the causes, the risk factors of type 1 diabetes are primarily uncontrollable, while the risk factors of type 2 diabetes are primarily related to your lifestyle.
Type 1 And Type 2 Differences
Below is a guide to some of the main differences between type 1 and type 2.
Your body attacks the cells in your pancreas which means it cannot make any insulin.
Your body is unable to make enough insulin or the insulin you do make doesnt work properly.
We dont currently know what causes type 1 diabetes.
We know some things can put you at risk of having type 2 like weight and ethnicity.
The symptoms for type 1 appear more quickly.
Type 2 symptoms can be easier to miss because they appear more slowly.
Type 1 is managed by taking insulin to control your blood sugar.
You can manage type 2 diabetes in more ways than type 1. These include through medication, exercise and diet. People with type 2 can also be prescribed insulin.
Currently there is no cure for type 1 but research continues.
Type 2 cannot be cured but there is evidence to say in many cases it can be prevented and put into remission.
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