Non Fasting Blood Tests
An HbA1c test is the main blood test used to diagnose diabetes. It tests your average blood sugar levels for the last two to three months. You dont need to prepare for a HbA1c . Its a quick and simple test where a small amount of blood is taken from a vein in your arm. This is different to a finger-prick test, which is a snapshot of your blood sugar levels at that moment.
Youll normally get the test results in a few days. From these results, your healthcare professional will be able to see if you have diabetes. If you didnt have any of the symptoms of diabetes before you were tested, youll need to have the test again to confirm the result.
You have diabetes if your HbA1c level is 48mmol/mol or above..
You are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes if your HbA1c is between 42 and 48mmol/mol.
Random blood glucose test
If you have severe symptoms of diabetes, you may have a random blood test at any time of the day. This is a quick test, through a finger-prick or a vein in your arm.
If you have a finger-prick test, youll get the results straight away. If you have a blood test through a vein in your arm, youll get the results in a few days.
You or your loved one have diabetes if your blood glucose levels are 11.1mmol/l or more – regardless of how recently you ate.
But any diagnosis from a finger prick test will need to be confirmed by a blood test sent to a laboratory for results.
How To Test For Diabetes
This article was medically reviewed by Shari Forschen, NP, MA. Shari Forschen is a Registered Nurse at Sanford Health in North Dakota. She received her Family Nurse Practitioner Master’s from the University of North Dakota and has been a nurse since 2003.There are 10 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been viewed 41,941 times.
Studies show that diabetes can effect your entire body over time, but managing your blood sugar may help you prevent complications.XTrustworthy SourceCenters for Disease Control and PreventionMain public health institute for the US, run by the Dept. of Health and Human ServicesGo to source Diabetes is a chronic health condition where your body either doesn’t make enough insulin to control your blood sugar or doesn’t properly use insulin anymore. Since it’s so important to start treatment right away, you likely want to know for sure if you have diabetes. Experts agree that it’s important to see your doctor as soon as you notice symptoms of diabetes so you can get tested.XTrustworthy SourceMayo ClinicEducational website from one of the world’s leading hospitalsGo to source
How To Reverse Prediabetes
The CDC-led National Diabetes Prevention Program helps people with prediabetes make lasting lifestyle changes to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes.
Working with a trained coach, youâll learn to eat healthy, add physical activity into your life, and manage stress. With other participants, youâll celebrate successes and work to overcome challenges.
If you have prediabetes, now is your time to take action.
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Why Are Blood Tests Done To Screen For Diabetes
Many people who have diabetes don’t feel unwell in the early stages. By the time you get symptoms of diabetes, there may already be damage to important parts of your body. Treatment of diabetes can slow down further complications but cant usually repair this damage. This is why your healthcare provider might test you for diabetes even if you feel well.
Testing people for a condition like diabetes when they do not have any symptoms is called screening. Studies have been done to work out who is more likely to have diabetes so they can be screened.
Diabetes is more common in:
- Mori, Pasifika and Indo-Asian people
- older people
- people who have whnau/family members with diabetes.
These people should have regular screening tests for diabetes.
Diagnosed With Diabetes What Next
Being told you have diabetes or prediabetes will probably come as a shock. Being diagnosed with a long-term condition feels different for everyone. You might not know how to cope or what to do next. But if you get the right treatment and support, you can manage it and live well with diabetes.
Its usually quite difficult to take everything in and remember it. So think about asking a family member or friend to go along with you to meet your healthcare team and make a note of any questions you might have.
Often, your GP will start speaking to you about treatment and the steps you can take to start managing diabetes effectively. Theyll probably want to discuss your lifestyle habits, including what you eat and what exercise you do. Its important to consider whether you smoke and the amount of alcohol you drink as well. Knowing all this vital information can help them identify what steps need to be taken by you to live with diabetes safely.
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Random Plasma Glucose Test
A random plasma glucose test measures the level of glucose in your blood at the given time. In this case, random simply means that the test can be taken at any time of day without fasting. An RPG test is typically used when a patient is exhibiting serious symptoms of diabetes and needs to be screened immediately.
A random plasma glucose test result above 200 mg/dL, paired with symptoms like extreme thirst, hunger, or fatigue, is indicative of diabetes.
A positive result from any of the above tests is not an automatic diabetes or prediabetes diagnosis your doctor will perform at least one follow up test to confirm the results.
What Is Being Tested
Glucose is the primary energy source for the body’s cells and the only short-term energy source for the brain and nervous system. A steady supply must be available for use, and a relatively constant level of glucose must be maintained in the blood. Glucose tests measure the level of glucose in your blood or detect glucose in your urine.
A few different protocols may be used to evaluate glucose levels. This article focuses on:
Other types of glucose tests include:
- A glucose tolerance test measures glucose levels after fasting and after you drink liquid containing a specific amount of glucose .
- A specific protocol is used to help diagnose gestational diabetes, which is diabetes that first develops during pregnancy .
- Urine is routinely tested for glucose as part of a urinalysis.
If this glucose/insulin blood feedback system is working properly, the amount of glucose in the blood remains fairly stable. If the feedback system is disrupted and the glucose level in the blood rises, then the body tries to restore the balance by increasing insulin production.
Diabetes is the most common disease resulting from an imbalance between glucose and insulin.
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Signs Symptoms And Diagnosis Of Diabetes
The signs and symptoms of Type 1 diabetes usually develop quickly, especially in children, over a period of weeks. In babies and young children, the first indication of Type 1 diabetes may be a yeast infection that causes a severe diaper rash that’s far worse than the common red, puffy and tender skin rash. In young children and infants, lethargy, dehydration and abdominal pain also may indicate Type 1 diabetes.
Once the symptoms appear, a blood test generally will reveal very high blood glucose.
Type 2 diabetes can be detected easily during a routine screening exam and blood test. However, it frequently can go undiagnosed for years unless a physician draws a blood sample to check the blood glucose.
In the early stages of Type 2 diabetes, you experience few to no noticeable signs of the disease. As time goes by and the untreated blood glucose continues to rise, symptoms begin.
If you’re over 40 or have parents or siblings with diabetes, be sure to have your blood glucose checked routinely.
The most common symptoms of undiagnosed Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are:
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The test works like this: Once you receive your test kit, you’ll enter your unique test ID. Then, you’ll complete a finger prick, and apply the blood to a sample collection board. After the sample dries, you’ll send it in via a prepaid shipping envelope. A board-certified physician will read the results, and you will receive your lab results on a secure platform in five to eight days.
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The HbA1C test kit includes a self-collected finger stick blood sample as well as package and mailing products. Theres an instructional video that provides step-by-step instructions on the blood sample collection process. You’ll submit your results in the mail with the included postage-paid envelope. Results must be obtained over the phone.
The cost of the test is $40 at-home screening tests are not covered by Medicare or most types of private insurance. As far as privacy goes, Home Access Health Corporation reports that it may only disclose your health information for the purposes of treatment, payment, or healthcare options.
Who Should Get Screened For Diabetes
Anyone can benefit from a free screening, but there are recommendations for who is most likely to benefit. “Anyone age 45 or older should begin testing,” says Knapp. In addition, adults who are overweight or obese and have one additional risk factor for diabetes including physical inactivity or polycystic ovary syndrome should be tested. And if you do have risk factors for diabetes, you should consider getting tested at an earlier age.
Screening guidelines include the following:
- People age 45 or older should be screened by their doctor every three years.
- Risk factors that should be considered for screening include being overweight, having high blood pressure, having abnormal blood lipids , having a close relative with diabetes, and being a woman who had diabetes during pregnancy.
- Anyone with sustained blood pressure greater than 140/90 should be screened. Those on medication for high blood pressure, even if their blood pressure is lower than the guideline, should also be screened.
Still unsure whether youre in a risk category? Take a type 2 diabetes risk test at the American Diabetes Association’s website.
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What Tests Can Be Done To Find Outif I Have Diabetes
There are a number of tests that may be done to find out if you have diabetes. Laboratories in New Zealand operate under strict quality control. This means that the tests you have done at the laboratory are likely to be very reliable and accurate.
Fasting blood glucose
A fasting blood glucose level is a measure of how much glucose is in your blood when you have not eaten anything for the past eight to ten hours.
The test is normally taken first thing in the morning. Your doctor or nurse will ask you to have nothing to eat after you go to bed at night. When you wake up in the morning you visit the laboratory for the test before you have had anything to eat or drink .
A fasting blood glucose level of either 7mmol/L or greater tells you that you have diabetes. If you have no symptoms of diabetes , the test should be repeated on another day.
Fasting blood glucose level is now the recommended test for finding out if you have diabetes.
A fasting blood glucose level can tell you other things as well.
If your fasting blood glucose level is between 6.1mmol/L and 6.9mmol/L, you may have a condition called impaired fasting glycaemia or pre-diabetes. This means that the level of glucose in your blood after eating nothing overnight is higher than it is in people without pre-diabetes or IFG, but not as high as it is in people who have diabetes.
If you have IFG or IGT you should:
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
An OGTT is how diabetes of pregnancy is usually diagnosed in New Zealand.
Which Tests Help My Health Care Professional Know What Kind Of Diabetes I Have
Even though the tests described here can confirm that you have diabetes, they cant identify what type you have. Sometimes health care professionals are unsure if diabetes is type 1 or type 2. A rare type of diabetes that can occur in babies, called monogenic diabetes, can also be mistaken for type 1 diabetes. Treatment depends on the type of diabetes, so knowing which type you have is important.
To find out if your diabetes is type 1, your health care professional may look for certain autoantibodies. Autoantibodies are antibodies that mistakenly attack your healthy tissues and cells. The presence of one or more of several types of autoantibodies specific to diabetes is common in type 1 diabetes, but not in type 2 or monogenic diabetes. A health care professional will have to draw your blood for this test.
If you had diabetes while you were pregnant, you should get tested no later than 12 weeks after your baby is born to see if you have type 2 diabetes.
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Can You Test For Diabetes At Home
People living with diabetes test their blood glucose levels at home all the time, so cant you do the same?
While the blood glucose testing equipment you can buy over the counter is useful for monitoring diabetes, it is not an effective diagnostic tool. For starters, your ideal blood sugar readings will be different depending on the time of day, your age, or other health conditions. It is in your best interest to get tested by a healthcare professional who can give you an appropriate target range and accurately interpret the results.
So while there is no harm in testing yourself at home, you should take any abnormal results to your doctor for further testing.
Tips For Diabetes Testing Kits
Testing your blood sugar is an essential aspect of managing and controlling diabetes when you know your blood sugar on time, it helps you to see when you are out of the target range and also prevent any likable emergency.
Diabetes self-testing kits can be used to test your blood sugar level anywhere at any time, using an at-home diabetes testing kit helps to regularize your blood glucose using the home blood glucose meter or the glucose monitor.
Meanwhile, getting an accurate result depends on how you make use of the following tips when testing
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Is There A Quick Test For Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes symptoms sometimes appear suddenly, this is the reason patients are asked to check their blood sugar levels as the first test.
Other types of diabetes and prediabetes do not show up at once, it comes gradually and may not be evident. There are guidelines recommended by the American Diabetes Association for screening, they are
- Anyone with a body mass index higher than 25, regardless of age with additional risk factors such as abnormal cholesterol, heart disease, high blood pressure or relatives that have diabetes
- Anyone older than age 45 should receive a pre-blood screening, if the results come out to be expected, the person should go for screening every three years
- Any woman who has had gestational diabetes is admonished to go for screening every three years
- Diagnosed prediabetes patients are advised to go for testing every year
- Individuals between the ages of 19 and 44 who are overweight and obese
For type 2 diabetes which often develops in adults and few children, experts recommend that they test children between the ages of 10 and 18 who are overweight or obese, and maybe have at least two other risk factors for developing diabetes, other factors are
- Low birthweight
- A woman who had diabetes while pregnant with the children