Sunday, December 4, 2022

Relationship Between Triglycerides And Blood Glucose

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Are There Symptoms Of Raised Triglyceride Levels

Understanding Triglycerides | Nucleus Health

High triglyceride levels will not usually result in symptoms but, if you have diabetes and live in the UK, you should be given a cholesterol test at least once each year which will test your triglycerides in addition to cholesterol

Whilst it is less common, some people may develop fat deposits under the skin called xanthomas.

These are yellow lumps that can develop anywhere on the body but are more commonly found around the eyelids and around joints such as the knees, elbows and knuckles.

Low Thyroid Hormone Levels

Thyroid disorders are also common in people with diabetes. Many people with diabetes also have an underactive thyroid or hypothyroidism.

If you have both high triglyceride and high cholesterol levels, it might be a sign of low thyroid hormone levels.

It’s important to talk to your provider if you think you might have a thyroid condition. In some cases, the treatment for hypothyroidism may help lower your triglyceride levels.

Association Between The Tyg Index And First Stroke

During an average follow-up of 1.72 years, there were 82 incident cases of stroke , including 48 patients with ischemic stroke . Overall, there was a significant positive association between the baseline TyG index and the risk of first stroke . Table 2 shows the association of the TyG index with first stroke using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. In models 14, a continuous TyG index was positively correlated with incident stroke. In the fully adjusted model , each 1-unit increase in the TyG index was associated with a 72% increase in the adjusted risk of first stroke . Consistently, when the TyG index was assessed as quartiles, the adjusted HRs for participants in quartiles 2, 3, and 4 were 1.34 , 1.32 , and 2.40 , respectively, when compared with those in quartile 1 . A significantly higher risk of first stroke was found in participants in quartiles 4 compared with participants in quartile 13.

Table 2 The Association Between Baseline TyG Index and Incident Risk of First Stroke

Figure 1 Doseresponse associations of the TyG index with the risk of first stroke and first ischemic stroke*. TyG index and first stroke TyG index and first ischemic stroke. *Adjusted for age, sex, BMI, WC, education, physical activity, duration of hypertension, current smoking, current drinking, BP, DBP, serum homocysteine, SUA, LDL-C, eGFR, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, CHD, anti-hypertensive drugs, anti-platelet drugs.

Abbreviation: TyG, triglyceride glucose.

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Who Is At Risk For Metabolic Syndrome

Knowing your risk factors for any disease can help guide you to take the appropriate actions. This includes changing behaviors and being monitored by your healthcare provider for the disease.

Risk factors most closely tied to metabolic syndrome include:

  • Age. You are more likely to have metabolic syndrome the older you are.
  • Ethnicity. African Americans and Mexican Americans are more likely to get metabolic syndrome. African-American women are about 60% more likely than African-American men to have the syndrome.
  • Body mass index greater than 25. The BMI is a measure of body fat compared with height and weight.
  • Personal or family history of diabetes. Women who have had diabetes during pregnancy or people who have a family member with type 2 diabetes are at greater risk for metabolic syndrome.

Here are the types of treatment that may be recommended for metabolic syndrome.

Triglycerides And Diabetes Risk Connection

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Triglycerides and diabetes are very intimately related. In fact, it is possible to say that one might not exist without the other in some cases. When we eat sugary foods, the body very quickly gobbles up the sugar to use for rapid energy. But, there is often extra leftover. Much of the time this gets stored in the form of fat. But, when storage capacity is as its limit, it is converted into triglycerides.

This is why one of the most important parts of a triglyceride lowering diet is the reduction of sugars. Specifically, the diet means reducing simple sugars, such as those found in candies, cakes and donuts. Additionally, high starchy foods like white rice and white flour should be avoided as part of triglyceride lowering diet. This is because of the way the body can convert these into the blood fats, which can lead to higher than normal triglycerides levels.

The relationship between triglycerides and diabetes is explained in a way that levels of the fats in the blood can be a sign that the bodys mechanism of converting food into energy is malfunctioning. Sometimes, the elevation of blood triglycerides can be a result of insulin resistance. Insulin is what the body uses in order to use triglycerides. A resistance to insulin can cause a situation in which both triglycerides and glucose build up in the blood stream. When insulin resistance is present, type 2 diabetes can often follow.

References:

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Calculation Of Parameters Of Glucose Homeostasis

The quantitative insulin sensitivity check index was used to assess insulin sensitivity at fasting state . Moreover, we used dynamic indices of insulin action from OGTT data such as the composite index as well as the most recently developed PREDIM index to quantify whole- body insulin action . Overall insulin response to glucose was calculated by use of a modified insulinogenic index . The extent to which the pancreatic -cells can adapt to impaired insulin sensitivity was examined by the ISSI-2 index as ISI-comp × AUC-insulin/AUC-glucose 0120. In addition, basal insulin secretion and total insulin secretion rate were assessed by mathematical modelling from insulin and C-peptide data according to .

Hazard Ratios For Incident Diabetes

Over a median of 3.4 years of follow-up, 791 participants have developed diabetes. After controlling for age, gender, education, marriage, smoking, drinking, BMI, WC, SBP, history of hypertension, history of CVD, and usage of lipid-lowering drugs , every SD increase in TyG index was associated with 22% higher risk of developing diabetes . When comparing with the lowest quartile of TyG index, the multivariate HRs for new-onset diabetes were 1.22 for Q2, 1.61 for Q3, and 1.73 for Q4 . In the restricted cubic spline regression models, the relationship between TyG index and risk of incident diabetes was linear .

Table 3. Cox-proportional hazard models for the association between triglyceride glucose index and incident diabetes.

Figure 2. Adjusted cubic spline model of the association between triglyceride glucose index and risk of new-onset diabetes. TyG, triglyceride glucose.

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Take Care Of Your Heart

These lifestyle changes can help lower your risk for heart disease or keep it from getting worse, as well as help you manage diabetes:

  • Follow a healthy diet. Eat more fresh fruits and vegetables, lean protein, and whole grains. Eat fewer processed foods and avoid trans fat. Drink more water, fewer sugary drinks, and less alcohol.
  • Aim for a healthy weight. If youre overweight, losing even a modest amount of weight can lower your triglycerides and blood sugar. Modest weight loss means 5% to 7% of body weight, just 10 to 14 pounds for a 200-pound person.
  • Get active. Being physically active makes your body more sensitive to insulin , which helps manage your diabetes. Physical activity also helps control blood sugar levels and lowers your risk of heart disease. Try to get at least 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical activity, such as brisk walking.
  • Manage your ABCs:
  • A: Get a regular A1C test to measure your average blood sugar over 2 to 3 months aim to stay in your target range as much as possible.
  • B: Try to keep your blood pressure below 140/90 mm Hg .
  • C: Manage your cholesterol levels.
  • s: Stop smoking or dont start.
  • Manage stress. Stress can raise your blood pressure and can also lead to unhealthy behaviors, such as drinking too much alcohol or overeating. Instead, visit a mental health counselor, try meditation or deep breathing, get some physical activity, or get support from friends and family.
  • Triglycerides And Blood Glucose

    5 Ways to Lower Your Triglyceride Levels

    Did you know that high triglycerides and blood glucose levels are linked? Well, they are! Itâs essential to keep blood glucose and triglyceride levels within a healthy range to maintain good health. But to understand why that is, you first need to understand more about triglycerides.

    Triglycerides are a type of fat found in the blood elevated levels can increase your risk of developing heart disease. Elevated blood glucose levels can also lead to health problems. Having high triglycerides and blood glucose levels at the same time increases your risk of heart disease and other serious health problems. But how are triglycerides and blood glucose related?

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    How To Lower Triglyceride Levels

    There are some steps that you can take to try to lower your triglyceride levels. Here are a few ideas recommended by the American Heart Association.

    • Exercise regularly.
    • Eat a diet that’s low in carbohydrates, sugar, saturated fat, and trans fat.
    • Include heart-healthy fats in your diet .
    • Quit smoking or using tobacco products.
    • Limit your alcohol intake.
    • Get and keep your blood sugars within your target range.

    If lifestyle changes don’t help get your triglyceride levels down, talk to your healthcare provider. You might need to take medications or supplements to help lower your triglyceride levelsespecially if they’re high because of genetics.

    Baseline Characteristics Of Study Participants

    The baseline characteristics of all participants according to quartiles of TyG index and the proportion of diabetes development were summarized in Tables 1, 2, respectively. The present study included 7,428 participants . The mean value TyG index was 8.56. Among quartiles of TyG index, we observed significant differences in all baseline covariates except for marriage status and education level . When compared with participants without diabetes during follow-up, subjects who developed diabetes were older in age, having lower education level, less likely to be married, having higher levels of SBP, DBP, BMI, WC, TG, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, FBG, Hemoglobin A1c, and TyG index, more likely to have hypertension and CVD, and more likely to use lipid-lowing drugs .

    Table 1. Baseline characteristics of study participants according to quartiles of triglyceride glucose index.

    Table 2. Comparison of baseline characteristics of study participants who developed diabetes or not.

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    What Is Heart Disease

    Heart disease includes several kinds of problems that affect your heart. The term cardiovascular disease is similar but includes all types of heart disease, stroke, and blood vessel disease. The most common type is coronary artery disease, which affects blood flow to the heart.

    Coronary artery disease is caused by the buildup of plaque in the walls of the coronary arteries, the blood vessels that supply oxygen and blood to the heart. Plaque is made of cholesterol deposits, which make the inside of arteries narrow and decrease blood flow. This process is called atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. Decreased blood flow to the heart can cause a heart attack. Decreased blood flow to the brain can cause a stroke.

    Hardening of the arteries can happen in other parts of the body too. In the legs and feet, its called peripheral arterial disease, or PAD. PAD is often the first sign that a person with diabetes has cardiovascular disease.

    Cac Measurements By Multidetector Ct

    Diabetes/Hypertension/Hypercholesterolemia/Heart (Metabolic Syndrome ...

    Coronary artery calcification was determined using a multidetector CT scanner . A standard prospective ECG-gating protocol with a step-and-shoot technique was used, as previously described . Coronary CT images were analyzed by one of three experienced radiologists, all of whom were blinded to the laboratory and clinical details of the participants at the time of analysis. The quantitative coronary artery calcification score was calculated using dedicated software and was expressed as an Agatston score . The presence of CAC was defined as an Agatston score of > 0.

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    Consuming More Calories Than You Burn

    What you eat is important, especially regarding your triglyceride levels. Consuming more calories than you burn may significantly contribute to high triglycerides. When we consume too many calories this excess energy has to be stored.

    The most common storage is as fat, so the body packages it in the form of triglycerides. These are then transported in the bloodstream for storage in fat cells, causing elevated triglyceride levels. Staying aware of information like this could help you make better dietary choices and improve your health!

    Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests Can Help Diagnose Insulin Resistance

    An OGTT or oral glucose tolerance test remains the current gold standard to diagnose insulin resistance or hyperinsulinemia. During that test, we give you a drink with 75 grams of glucose. Then we check your glucose and insulin levels at 30-minute intervals afterward. Many people who have an OGTT will be shown to have insulin resistance. Their glucose will be elevated above what it should be, and more importantly, the amount of insulin in your blood needed to decrease that glucose level by driving the glucose into your muscle and liver will be increased.

    Researchers at Yale have found evidence of insulin resistance in 30-40% of thin, healthy appearing college student volunteers when subjected to an OGTT.

    Ok lets keep going. Lets say you havent had an OGTT.

    Now we are going to discuss:

    • Why the Triglyceride/HDL ratio helps predict risk and once you understand that,
    • What you can do to improve that ratio and decrease your odds of living with diseases associated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia.

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    Relationships Between Triglycerides Lipoproteins Glucose And Coronary Artery Disease

    Abstract We examined the relationship of apolipoprotein B , glucose, triglycerides and other lipoprotein lipids to coronary artery disease . Using receiver-operating characteristic curves , we noticed that the triglyceride ROC curve crossed above other lipoprotein curves at a triglycerides level of approximately 1.4 g/l. We examined subgroups of < 1.4 g/l and > 1.4 g/l. ANOVA and stepwise logistic regression indicated that triglycerides were the best predictor in the < 1.4 g/l group. The best markers in the > 1.4 g/l group were low density lipoprotein cholesterol and apo B. Glucose did not appear to significantly alter the predictive power of triglycerides. These data suggest that triglyceride appears to be an overall significant univariate marker for CAD because of its effect at lower concentrations. The strong relationship between CAD and triglycerides at low triglyceride levels may reflect increased levels of very low density lipoprotein metabolites in some individuals. We conclude that some triglyceride-rich particles are independently atherogenic, that glucose did not alter this relationship and that when the samples were split into those with high and low levels of triglycerides, triglycerides and apo B but not HDLC was a significant predictor of CAD.Continue reading > >

    Statins And New Onset Diabetes

    Lowering Triglycerides – Mayo Clinic

    It was first observed in the JUPITER trial that patients receiving high dose rosuvastatin have a higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes compared to those receiving placebo . This contrasted with earlier studies were no such effect or even a protective effect was observed . Following the WOSCOP study a number of smaller trials tried to clarify the effect of statins on insulin resistance and insulin secretion without giving clear results .

    After the JUPITER trial many data sets were reanalyzed and it was shown that the risk for new onset diabetes is increased with statin therapy. The increased incidence was confirmed in the Women’s Health Initiative and also in a Finish observational study evaluating almost 8,500 nondiabetic men as well as in a number of meta-analyses. One such meta-analysis evaluated whether reaching certain LDL-C levels is associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes. It was shown that the OR for developing diabetes is 1.33 in those reaching an LDL-C < 70 mg/dL , while the OR is 1.16 in those achieving an LDL-C between 70 and 100 mg/dL and not elevated in those with LDL-C above 100 mg/dL . Further analyses then indicated that the risk for new onset diabetes holds probably true for all statins and occurs in a dose dependent fashion .

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    Study Design And Participants

    Data for our analysis were from the China H-type Hypertension Registry Study . The CHRS study is an observational, real-world, ongoing prospective cohort study evaluating the treatment, related risk factors and prognosis of patients with hypertension in Wuyuan, Jiangxi Province, China. The study protocol and informed consent were approved by the Ethics Committee of the Anhui Medical University Biomedical Institute. All participants signed the written informed consent form.

    The study design and methods of data collection have been described in detail previously.23 Briefly, from March 2018 to August 2018, a total of 14,268 hypertensive patients in the community were enrolled in the CHRS study. At each visit site, face-to-face interviews via a structured questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and collection of blood samples were completed at baseline. The follow-up investigation was conducted from 31 August 2018 to 31 March 2020, and 14,227 individuals remained in the cohort. We excluded 4324 participants who were younger than 60 years old. After the exclusion of 750 participants with a history of stroke, 459 patients using glucose-lowering drugs, 201 patients using lipoprotein-lowering drugs, and 6 participants without data on the TyG index, a total of 8487 elderly hypertensive patients were selected for the final analysis .

    Diabetes + High Triglycerides = High Risk For Heart Disease

    Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce insulin, a hormone the body needs to get glucose from the bloodstream into the cells of the body. Glucose is a simple sugar used for energy which is created by the bodyspecifically the pancreasby breaking down the sugars and starches that are consumed.

    Triglycerides are a type of fat in the blood that is used for energy in between meals, created from extra calories. If more calories are consumed than are burned on regular basis, an excess of triglycerides may be stored, causing hypertriglyceridemia .

    According to the Mayo Clinic, high triglycerides are often a symptom of obesity and metabolic syndrome and a sign of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes, hypothyroidism, liver or kidney disease, or rare genetic conditions. They can also be a side effect of taking beta blockers, birth control pills, diuretics, or steroids.

    Having high triglycerides does not cause diabetes. However, having them increases the likelihood of developing diabetes. And both diabetes and high triglycerides increase the risk of heart disease which can lead to heart attack or stroke, so having both compound that risk.

    While diabetes has several warning signs and symptoms, high triglycerides usually do not. Thats why its important to have them checked as part of a cholesterol test or lipid panel blood test that requires fasting. Per the Mayo Clinic results are categorized as follows:

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