Role Of The Funding Source
The sponsors of the study had no role in study design, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation, writing of the report and the decision to submit for publication. The corresponding author had full access to all the data in the study and had final responsibility for the decision to submit for publication.
Diabetes Effect On Anemia
The elevation of proinflammatory cytokines plays an essential role in insulin resistance and induces the appearance of cardiovascular complications diabetic micro- and macrovascular, kidney disease and anemia. By increasing especially IL-6. IL6 decreases the sensitivity of progenitors to erythropoietin and promotes apoptosis of immature erythrocytes. During the development of diabetes mellitus, nephropathy may arise, which further undermines the renal production of erythropoietin, positively contributing to an deterioration of anemia. According to Escorcio et al. approximately 40% of diabetic patients are affected by kidney diseases. The decreased renal function and proinflammatory cytokines are the most important factors in determining reduction of hemoglobin levels in those patients. Moreover, the inflammatory situation created by kidney disease also interferes with intestinal iron absorption and mobilization of iron. Therefore, diabetic patients with kidney disease have the highest risk for developing anemia.
What Is Diabetes Insipidus
Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder that causes the body to make too much urine. While most people make 1 to 3 quarts of urine a day, people with diabetes insipidus can make up to 20 quarts of urine a day. People with this disorder need to urinate frequently, called polyuria. They may also feel thirsty all the time and drink lots of liquids, a condition called polydipsia.
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You Have Disorders Related To The Spleen
Spleen disorders, like sickle cell or asplenia, can also affect your A1C tests. If you think your levels are suspect and have one of these disorders, that may be the culprit. As theNIH found, these disorders render tests less accurate when a patient inherits a hemoglobin variant.
Thereâs a word for this group of inherited disorders passed down over generations. Take a deep breath before you attempt to say itâthey’re called hemoglobinopathies. If you suffer from any of this, you could start to see false highs in your test results.
Gene Expression Regulating Glucose Homeostasis During Id
Some studies examined the hepatic expression of genes involved in maintenance of glucose homeostasis during ID. These studies have shown that dietary intervention tend to elicit biologically meaningful, transcriptional responses. The ID rats in each group showed significant alterations in the expression of genes representative of glucose metabolism .
Distinguished changes in gene expression include those genes associated with metabolic pathways including both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis.
The significant increase in the glucokinase expression is likely due to the relative increase in circulating insulin levels observed in the ID groups, as insulin is a known inducer of hepatic Gck mRNA expression. Increased expression of Gck could potentially be very important as ID animals have been shown to have an increased reliance on glucose as a metabolic substrate, and Gck is able to rapidly increase the rate of glucose phosphorylation in the liver in response to the elevations in blood glucose levels. Furthermore, as Gck catalyzes the first step in hepatic glucose utilization it can contribute multiple pathways including glycogen synthesis, glycolysis, and de novo lipogenesis which could explain the enhanced glucose utilization and hyperlipidemia reported in response to dietary ID .
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Relation Between Anemia And Hypoglycemia
There is an ongoing debate and confusion concerning the relation between anemia and hypoglycemia. Doctors make it clear that they are two distinctive ailments that individuals suffer from, even though a few symptoms are common to both. At times, both these ailments originate from a common problem-causing source.
The facts indicate that anemia can cause hypoglycemia. The reason behind people finding a relation between them is a study that dates back to 2010. The study suggests that anemia produces false measurements that exhibit a patient having higher sugar levels. To control the sugar levels, the patient uses insulin and ultimately becomes hypoglycemic. In contrast, anemia has a direct relation with higher glucose levels in the blood, thus making hypoglycemia an impossibility under normal circumstances.
The relation between anemia and hypoglycemia becomes deeper with the shared causes these ailments have. Let us look into the causes behind these conditions:
How Do Eating Diet And Nutrition Affect Diabetes Insipidus
Researchers have not found that eating, diet, and nutrition play a role in causing or preventing diabetes insipidus. To reduce symptoms, your health care professional may suggest you eat a diet that is low in salt and protein to help your kidneys make less urine. In some cases, these changes alone may be enough to keep your symptoms under control, particularly if you have nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.2,7
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You Have A B12 Deficiency
One of the reasons your body needs B12 is because it helps create red blood cells. You already know iron-deficiency anemia is one cause of an elevated A1C test. Since a deficiency in B12 often leads to anemia, itâs no wonder that it leads to high A1C readings as well. Taking B12 vitamins can also affect these levels, producing a falsely low A1C reading.
Anemia Can Cause Sugar Problems Indirectly
If you are struggling with anemia, dont rely solely on the HbA1c test to keep tabs on your glycemic status, check your sugar level directly.
And be aware the cause of the anemia matters.
NOTE : Iron is both necessary and toxic, so only supplement with iron if you are genuinely deficient. Be very weary of using an iron supplement as an insurance policy. Insulin is impacting your iron biology and too much iron can cause diabetes
A Red Carpet for Iron Metabolism.
Effect of iron deficiency anemia and iron supplementation on HbA1c levels Implications for diagnosis of prediabetes and diabetes mellitus in Asian Indians. S.V. Madhu, Abhishek Raj, Stuti Gupta, S. Giri, Usha Rusia
The effect of anaemia and abnormalities of erythrocyte indices on HbA1c analysis: a systematic review. Diabetologia 58:14091421. Emma English, Iskandar Idris, Georgina Smith, Ketan Dhatariya, Eric S. Kilpatrick W. Garry John
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Possible Causes Of Anemia
Usually, it happens because you donât have enough red blood cells. That can make you more likely to get certain diabetes complications, like eye and nerve damage. And it can worsen kidney, heart, and artery disease, which are more common in people with diabetes.
Diabetes often leads to kidney damage, and failing kidneys can cause anemia. Healthy kidneys know when your body needs new red blood cells. They release a hormone called erythropoietin , which signals your bone marrow to make more. Damaged kidneys donât send out enough EPO to keep up with your needs.
Often, people donât realize they have kidney disease until itâs very far along. But if you test positive for anemia, it can be an early sign of a problem with your kidneys.
People with diabetes are more likely to have inflamed blood vessels. This can keep bone marrow from getting the signal they need to make more red blood cells.
And some medications used to treat diabetes can drop your levels of the protein hemoglobin, which you need to carry oxygen through your blood. These drugs include ACE inhibitors, fibrates, metformin, and thiazolidinediones. If you take one of these, talk to your doctor about your risk for anemia.
If you have kidney dialysis, you may have blood loss, and that can also cause anemia.
Anemia In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Carine Eloise Prestes ZimmermannMatias Nunes Frizzo
1Regional University of Northwestern Rio Grande do Sul , Ijuí, RS, Brazil
2Program in Respiratory Sciences, the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul , Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
3Department of Life Sciences, the Regional University of Northwestern Rio Grande do Sul , Rua do Comércio No. 3000, Bairro Universitário, 98700 000 Ijuí, RS, Brazil
4Program in Integral Attention to Health , Ijuí, RS, Brazil
5Program in Pharmacology of the Health Sciences Center, The Federal University of Santa Maria , RS, Brazil
6Cenecista Institute for Higher Education, Rua Dr. João Augusto Rodrigues 471, 98801 015 Santo Ângelo, RS, Brazil
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of great impact worldwide. Epidemiological data showed that in 2010 there were 285 million people affected with the disease in the world, and it is estimated that in the year of 2030 we will have about 440 million diabetics . Its worldwide prevalence is increasing fast among developing countries. The type 2 diabetes affects about 7% of the population .
The sample size was calculated by StatCalc application EpiInfo 3.5.3, considering the prevalence of nonspecific outcome of 50%, 5% error, and 95% level of reliability, which resulted in a sample of 269 patients. Foreseeing possible losings a percentage of 5% of this number was added, a total sample of 283 patients with DM2.
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Ethics Approval And Informed Consent
The study was undertaken after the Institutional Review Board of the institute of Health, Jimma University, approved the study protocol. Then Permission and supportive letter to carry out the study was also obtained from Debre Berhan Referral Hospital. The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, and an informed consent was obtained from each study participants. Confidentiality was maintained by omitting their name rather the patients card number was used as patient unique identification number throughout the study and unauthorized persons did not have access to the data. Those patients with anemia, renal insufficiency, and other relevant findings were linked to physician for proper management.
Systematic Review And Meta
Ling Kuang1,2#, Wenxian Li3#, Guochao Xu4, Min You3, Wenqiao Wu5, Chenglong Li2,6
1 Operation Department, Sichuan Provincial Peoples Hospital , University of Electronic Science and Technology of China , Chinese Academy of Sciences Sichuan Translational Medicine Research Hospital , Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research Center , Sichuan Neo-Life Stem Cell Biotech Inc. , Sichuan Neo-Life Stem Cell Biotech Inc. , Chengdu Neo-Life Hope Medical Laboratory Inc. , Department of Hematology, Sichuan Provincial Peoples Hospital , University of Electronic Science and Technology of China , , China
Contributions: Conception and design: L Kuang, W Li, C Li Administrative support: C Li Provision of study materials or patients: W Li, G Xu, M You, W Wu Collection and assembly of data: All authors Data analysis and interpretation: All authors Manuscript writing: All authors Final approval of manuscript: All authors.
#These authors contributed equally to this work.
Background: Diabetes is a common metabolic disease with an increasing incidence in middle-aged and elderly people in recent years. Chronic hyperglycemia is the basic feature of diabetes, which can cause long-term damage to eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels, resulting in functional decline or even failure. Glycosylated hemoglobin can be used as an indicator of an individuals blood sugar status over the past 3 months however, it is slightly affected by ischemic anemia.
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Some Medications Such As Opioids Can Cause High A1c Levels
Several different medications can interfere with A1C test results. Some can even cause errors in readings or bring up inaccurate results. Some opiates and even over-the-counter drugs can increase your A1C levels. According to a study by the NIH, common drugs like aspirin also cause high or low A1C levels.
Of course, taking the occasional aspirin wonât affect your levels too much. It usually only starts to skew the results of an A1C test if you are taking these medications at regular, larger doses over a long period. This isnât a one size fits all rule, though. For example, among those with type 2 diabetes, aspirin didnât show any elevated levels at all.
What Causes Diabetes Insipidus
Diabetes insipidus is usually caused by problems with a hormone called vasopressin that helps your kidneys balance the amount of fluid in your body. Problems with a part of your brain that controls thirst can also cause diabetes insipidus. Specific causes vary among the four types of diabetes insipidus: central, nephrogenic, dipsogenic, and gestational.2
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Inclusion And Exclusion Criteria For Articles
Articles were included in the meta-analysis if they met the following inclusion criteria: the study population was non-pregnant adults over 18 years of age the case group consisted of patients with a definite diagnosis of IDA who had not received iron therapy controls were healthy individuals without IDA or patients with other diseases that did not affect the study study type: case-control study or cohort study the literature was complete or the data required for analysis could be extrapolated from the data given English language, regardless of location.
Articles were excluded from the meta-analysis if they met any of the following exclusion criteria: the study population included children under 18 years of age and pregnant women studies without control groups or cross-sectional studies secondary studies such as reviews studies that were repeatedly published, of poor quality, inconsistent in study type, with too little information, and for which there was a lack of available data data prior to 1990 .
Start Measuring Your Blood Glucose Levels With A Dietitian
The best thing to do for your health is to learn more about how your body handles its blood sugar and what causes it to spike. A continuous glucose monitor lets you see how your body responds to foods with varying glycemic index values.
Those with diabetes have been using these safe, effective, FDA-approved devices for years. Now, you can get your own with NutriSense, which offers the same technology for the public for the first time, to use alongside their team of world-class Registered Dietitians. NutriSense CGMs come with an innovative app that lets you track your blood glucose levels.
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What Is The A1c Test Measuring
There can be several reasons for a spike in blood sugar levels, and itâs a good idea to know whatâs causing yours. But first, itâs essential to understand what A1C is and what the A1C test measures.
Any sugar that enters your bloodstream attaches itself to your hemoglobin on your red blood cells. The A1C test measures the amount of glucose âstuckâ to the hemoglobin, which provides a good proxy of how much average blood glucose was in your bloodstream over a two to three-month period.
A simple way to remember how to read the results is: the higher the percentage, the higher the risk of diabetes. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, under 5.7% is a regular A1C reading. A reading between 5.7% and 6.4% is considered a pre-diabetic range, while values above 6.4% indicate diabetes.
Before you start overanalyzing your results, remember that there are variables at play. For example, the U.S. National Library of Medicine found that adults without a history of diabetes often have A1C levels at 6% or greater. This means not every higher test result is cause for concern. Still, itâs worth checking with a doctor if you see consistently high values. High A1C levels lead to impaired fasting glucose, and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
Which Foods Should I Eat And Which Foods Should I Avoid If I Have Anemia
With anemia, making good food choices is important. Eating junk food means you are getting calories without nutrients. You also have to consider other medical conditions that you have when you make your food choices.
Some things have been shown to impair iron absorption. You should not take calcium and iron supplements at the same time. In addition, you may want to avoid or limit these items:
- Tannin-containing items like coffee, tea and some spices.
- Egg whites.
- Soy protein.
In general, you should eat iron-rich foods and foods that provide vitamins B12, B9 and C. This means that you can enjoy plenty of good food that is for you, whether you eat meat or not. You can get iron from plant sources like lentils, spinach and pistachios. You can get iron from protein sources like lean beef and turkey. Whole grains and dark leafy vegetables are good sources of B vitamins. Some foods are even fortified with iron.
Citrus fruits, berries and other vitamin C-containing foods like peppers and tomatoes improve iron consumption. It is a good idea to get advice from your healthcare provider or perhaps from a registered dietitian about the best ways to eat when you have anemia. Also, make sure that grapefruit does not interfere with any of your medications.
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What Is Reactive Hypoglycemia
Reactive hypoglycemia is a rare condition that causes low blood sugar in the hours following a meal.
Researchers do not fully understand the cause of reactive hypoglycemia. However, they are aware that it stems from having too much insulin in the blood at the wrong time.
Below are conditions and circumstances that can cause both hypoglycemia and anemia at the same time, or individually.
Prevent And Treat Anemia
If you have an issue with glucose such as diabetes, your key to preventing anemia lies in controlling your blood sugar and blood pressure, says the Society for the Advancement of Blood Management. Good glucose control lowers your risk of developing kidney damage which in turn cuts your risk for anemia. Otherwise, treating anemia is based on the cause and severity of the condition. If an illness causes anemia, then treatment of the underlying illness usually resolves anemia. In addition, you may be able prevent and treat anemia by eating a diet rich in iron and vitamin B-12. In other cases, your doctor may recommend taking supplements or receiving injections to treat anemia. Talk to your doctor about your anemia concerns in general. Don’t attempt to self-medicate as too much iron, whether from diet or from pills, can cause adverse health effects.
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