Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
Although this test isnt as popular as the first two tests this guide compares, it doesnt make it any less effective. In reality, the reverse is more likely only when compared in terms of capabilities. The only downside of this test is that it takes time to execute.
The oral glucose tolerance test ranks blood sugar levels from 0 mg/dL to over 199 mg/dL. Normal/healthy blood sugar range sits just a little below 140 mg/dL. On the other hand, any significant low or high is deemed unhealthy for patients.
Blood sugar levels running from 140 mg/dL to 199 mg/dL are unhealthy and are indications that a person is prediabetic. Whats more, blood sugar levels above 199 mg/dL suggest that a patient has diabetes.
The oral glucose tolerance test is first taken after an overnight fast. That means that patients will have to take it in the morning and at a time when its been at least 8 hours since their previous meal a day ago. After taking that first test, theyll have to take a sugary drink or glucose-filled juice and repeat the test after two hours.
If the patients sugar level settles below 140 mg/dL two hours after taking the glucose drink, the patient is deemed to have a normal blood sugar range.
The following table outlines the different oral glucose tolerance test readings:
|Type of Result|
Things To Do If You Have Diabetes
Common things that people with diabetes should avoid include eating lots of simple sugars, eating too much food for the activity theyve performed recently, and not following medication or exercise plans.
Some things that can be harmful to people with diabetes are smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol in excess, and eating large portions of unhealthy foods.
The person should maintain a healthy diet and exercise regularly. The doctor may also recommend taking insulin or other medications to manage their blood sugar levels.
Can Other Blood Glucose Tests Be Used To Diagnose Type 2 Diabetes And Prediabetes
Yes. Health care professionals also use the fasting plasma glucose test and the OGTT to diagnose type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. For these blood glucose tests used to diagnose diabetes, you must fast at least 8 hours before you have your blood drawn. If you have symptoms of diabetes, your doctor may use the random plasma glucose test, which doesnt require fasting. In some cases, health care professionals use the A1C test to help confirm the results of another blood glucose test.
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Normal Blood Sugar Levels Chart
Every substance present in our body has an optimum level. Above or below that specific range, that particular substance is harmful to our health. And so is sugar. There is a certain range of blood sugar which is considered as standard for almost all age. However, there might be some changes in the level considering different factors like age and other co-morbidities. Lets look at the chart:
|2 hours after the meal||< 140 mg/dl|
Sometimes, random blood is also taken. In this case, the glucose level of 200 mg/dl is considered a diabetic condition.
Going through the chart you will notice certain terms regarding blood sugar which you need to understand in order to evaluate your own glucose level. So, I will just give a small brief regarding those:
- Fasting blood glucose: Here, blood sugar is tested after abstaining from food and drink for at least 8 hours.
- Postprandial blood sugar:In this case, blood sugar is tested 2 hours after a meal to access if its at the optimum level after having a meal or not.
- Random blood glucose: Blood is tested at any time of the day.
- HbA1c: It refers to a blood test which is done to evaluate the average level of blood glucose over the past 3 months. HbA1c is also known as glycosylated haemoglobin or A1C. Moreover, fasting is not required before carrying out the test.
How Is The A1c Test Used To Diagnose Type 2 Diabetes And Prediabetes
Health care professionals can use the A1C test alone or in combination with other diabetes tests to diagnose type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. You dont have to fast before having your blood drawn for an A1C test, which means that blood can be drawn for the test at any time of the day.
If you dont have symptoms but the A1C test shows you have diabetes or prediabetes, you should have a repeat test on a different day using the A1C test or one of the other diabetes tests to confirm the diagnosis.2
What Could Cause A1c To Get Obstructed
Conditions like acute and chronic blood loss, hemolytic anemia, and splenomegaly can cause A1C values that are artificially low. The A1c readings of patients with end-stage renal illness are frequently artificially low. This is because of the chronic anemia that comes with it, which reduces red cell survival.
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How The Test Works
The sugar in your blood is called glucose. When glucose builds up in your blood, it binds to the hemoglobin in your red blood cells. The A1c test measures how much glucose is bound.
Red blood cells live for about 3 months, so the test shows the average level of glucose in your blood for the past 3 months.
If your glucose levels have been high over recent weeks, your hemoglobin A1c test will be higher.
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How Is The A1c Test Used After Diagnosis Of Diabetes
Your health care professional may use the A1C test to set your treatment goals, modify therapy, and monitor your diabetes management.
Experts recommend that people with diabetes have an A1C test at least twice a year.4 Health care professionals may check your A1C more often if you arent meeting your treatment goals.4
What Foods Will Lower Hemoglobin A1c
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Normal A1c Levels Chart For Non
According to American Diabetes Association latest guidelines 2017 and 2018,Hemoglobin A1c levels 3, 4, 5, and up to 5.7 is normal and tell that the person has no DM.Non-diabetes means your blood glucose test results are within the expected normal limits for healthy persons.The normal hemoglobin A1c means youre not diabetic or you are on the goal levels, I mean that:A1c 4.0% and A1c 5.0 means you werent diabetic and this value is the normal levels that all healthy persons must have.But A1c 5.7% means you are on the last step before prediabetes stage.
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Use This Chart To View A1c Values And Comparable Blood Glucose Values:
A note of caution: the A1c measurement is not always accurate. For example, if someone has certain type of hemoglobin mutations , is severely anemic , or is being treated blood transfusions or medications to increase the production of new red blood cells, the A1c test may not be accurate.
If your finger-stick blood tests give an average blood sugar that is much higher or lower than your A1c test, ask your doctor if the A1c is the right test for you. An alternative test to the A1c is a fructosamine test. Unfortunately, the fructosamine test and the A1c are not interchangeable because they are measuring different things. The fructosamine test reflects the average blood sugars only over a 2-3 week period.
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How Often Should You Have An A1c Lab Test
Your healthcare provider may order an A1C test every three months to monitor diabetes treatment changes, such as adjustments to medications, insulin pump settings, or other areas of diabetes self-management. If your blood glucose is within range and stable, your healthcare provider may only order the test every six months.
If you have not been diagnosed with diabetes, sometimes A1C is used along with other measures to help diagnose diabetes. It may also be used as a baseline measurement for people with a strong family history of diabetes or other risk factors to see if levels are increasing over time.
What Does A1c Measure
You may be wondering what makes this test different, especially if you already check your blood sugar multiple times a day. The A1C test goes by a few names, including glycosylated hemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, or hemoglobin A1C . All of these names hint at what is being measured the amount of sugar attached to hemoglobin.
Hemoglobin is a protein found inside red blood cells, and its job is to carry oxygen to the lungs and all of the cells in your body. Glucose enters your blood stream and sticks, or glycates, with the hemoglobin. The higher your blood glucose, the more sugar-coated or glycated the hemoglobin becomes.
Since the lifecycle of a red blood cell is about four months, the A1C percentage reflects average blood sugar levels detected on hemoglobin cells of varying ages days, weeks, or months old. If your blood glucose control has generally been steady, your hemoglobin cells will not be highly sugar-coated, or glycated, leading to a lower A1C value.
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Blood Sugar Calculator Glucose Calculator
A1C The A1C is short for Ã¢glycoslated hemoglobin A1CÃ¢. It measures the glucose that clings to hemoglobin molecules in red blood cells.The A1C test is determined by measuring the percentage of glycated hemoglobin, or HbA1c, in the blood. A1c test reflects your average blood glucose control for the two- to three-month period before the test. The higher the glucose levels in the blood, the more glucose clings to the hemoglobin, and thus the higher the A1C.This test can be done on a sample of blood obtained from a fingerstick or from a small vial of blood drawn from your arm and then tested in a lab. The 2010 American Diabetes Association Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes added the A1c Ã¢Â¥ 48 mmol/mol as another criterion for the diagnosis of diabetes eAG Estimated Average Glucose is a new concept that allows you to take your A1c test results and convert them into numbers like you see on your glucose meter.A1C is reported as a percent. eAG uses either mg/dL or mmol/L. Using eAG may help you get a better idea of how well you are taking care of your diabetes.Continue reading > >
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Risks Of Chronic High Blood Glucose Level
You already know how to calculate A1c levels, but what should you do with the result? If your level is less than 5.7% congratulations this is a normal A1c level, and you have nothing to worry about. Maintain your healthy habits and keep your blood sugar level low.
If you drifted into the prediabetes group thats a red flag. Youre at a high risk of diabetes, but there is still hope. Check out the How to lower A1c? section for some hints. Do not neglect this result, as chronic high blood sugar levels can lead to severe consequences, including:
- Increased risk of cardiovascular diseases myocardial infarction or brain stroke
- Problems getting pregnant
- Diabetic foot, potentially leading to amputation!
If your A1c level is equal to or higher than 6.5%, you may be diagnosed as diabetic. If this is your result, book an appointment with your doctor immediately!
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Fasting Plasma Glucose Test
Also termed the fasting blood glucose test, this blood test measures the sugar level in your blood after undergoing overnight fasting. An average fasting glucose level is usually lower than 100 mg/dL. A prediabetes diagnosis is confirmed when the result sits around 100 to 125 mg/dL, while 126 mg/dL or more indicates diabetes.
Suppose your results show 126 mg/dL or more. In that case, itd be best to retake the test on a different day to confirm your diagnosis.
The following table outlines the different FPG test readings:
|Type of Result|
How Does the Fasting Glucose Test Work?
Blood glucoseor simply sugaris the major sugar in the body. After drinking or eating, the body system breaks down the carbohydrates into sugar for energy purposes. The pancreas produces the insulin hormone, which helps transfer blood sugar into the cells in the body. It also stores part of the blood sugar for later use.
The insulin and glucose in the blood start decreasing as body cells use them up. In the case of diabetes, the body finds it difficult to regulate or control sugar. This problem could arise either because the body cant effectively process the insulin or the pancreas isnt producing enough insulin.
How Do I Take Care Of My Blood Glucose Meter
- Set the date and time when you get a new meter.
- Make sure the date and time are right each time you use your meter.
- Use the control solution as needed. This will let you know the meter and test strips are working right. Use it:
- When you get a new meter.
- When you get new test strips.
- When you think that the meter is not giving you the right blood glucose number.
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Fasting Blood Sugar A1c Fasting Blood Sugar A1c Conversion Conversion
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The Other Two Tests For Blood Glucose Level
While the HbA1C and the FPG tests are the two major blood sugar tests, two more blood sugar tests help point out diabetes as well. These two tests complete the four major sugar tests that people with diabetes or at risk of the condition can go for, and they include the oral glucose tolerance test and random plasma glucose test. The following sections examine them in more detail.
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Normal Blood Sugar Levels After Eating For Diabetics
The American Diabetes Association recommends that the blood sugar 1 to 2 hours after the beginning of a meal be less than 180 mg/dl for most nonpregnant adults with diabetes. This is typically the peak, or highest, blood sugar level in someone with diabetes. Again, this target may need to be individualized for certain people based on such factors as duration of diabetes, age and life expectancy, cognitive status, other health conditions, cardiovascular complications, and hypoglycemia unawareness. Its important that people with diabetes discuss their target blood sugar goals with their health care provider.
Blood Sugar Chart: Summary
The fasting blood sugar, 2-hour post-meal blood sugar, and HbA1C tests are important ways to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes, as well as indicate how well a persons diabetes is being managed. If you think you have diabetes, its important to not try and diagnose yourself by doing a finger-stick with a home blood glucose meter. There are strict standards and procedures that laboratories use for diagnosing diabetes therefore, you should get tested at your doctors office or at a laboratory.
Its also important to talk with your doctor to make sure you understand a) how often you should have certain tests, such as a fasting blood glucose or HbA1C test b) what your results mean and c) what your blood sugar and HbA1C targets are.
If you have not been previously diagnosed with prediabetes or diabetes but your results are above normal, your doctor may recommend other tests and should discuss a plan of treatment with you. Treatment may include lifestyle changes, such as weight loss, a healthy eating plan, and regular physical activity. You may need to start taking diabetes medications, including insulin. If you are diagnosed with diabetes, its recommended that you learn how to check your blood sugars with a meter so that you and your health care team can determine how your treatment plan is working for you.
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