Blood Glucose Levels And Diabetes
Your blood sugar level normally rises after you eat. Then it dips a few hours later as insulin moves glucose into your cells. Between meals, your blood sugar should be less than 100 milligrams per deciliter . This is called your fasting blood sugar level.
There are two types of diabetes:
- In type 1 diabetes, your body doesn’t have enough insulin. The immune system attacks and destroys cells of the pancreas, where insulin is made.
- In type 2 diabetes, the cells don’t respond to insulin like they should. So the pancreas needs to make more and more insulin to move glucose into the cells. Eventually, the pancreas is damaged and can’t make enough insulin to meet the body’s needs.
Without enough insulin, glucose can’t move into the cells. The blood glucose level stays high. A level over 200 mg/dl 2 hours after a meal or over 125 mg/dl fasting is high blood glucose, called hyperglycemia.
Too much glucose in your bloodstream for a long period of time can damage the vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to your organs. High blood sugar can increase your risk for:
Risks Of High Glucose
There are two types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. In type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks and destroys the pancreatic cells that make insulin. In type 2 diabetes, your body cannot make enough needed insulin or use it properly. This is the most common form of diabetes.
Diabetes can cause hyperglycemia. Blood glucose levels higher than 130 mg/dL while fasting or higher than 180 mg/dL two hours after eating indicate hyperglycemia. Additionally, a level of blood glucose higher than 200 mg/dL anytime is considered hyperglycemia.
Blood sugar levels that are too high can:
- Cause more frequent urination as the kidneys try to pass excess blood glucose through urine
- Increases a persons thirst, which increases the risk of dehydration
Severe low blood sugar can lead to more serious issues like feeling very weak, difficulty walking, and blurry vision. It can also lead to seizures, or involuntary movements and possibly a loss of consciousness.
Ketogenic Diet And Diabetes
The keto diet has gained popularity, but its a medical diet with risks. According to a 2019 study, a low carb or keto diet may reduce body weight, but people with diabetes and taking certain medications may have an increased risk of developing ketoacidosis.
Everyone may experience other adverse effects, such as high cholesterol, which is associated with cardiovascular disease. Its best to speak with your doctor before starting any diet plan in order to help prevent complications.
According to the ADA, monitoring glucose levels is important for people with diabetes. The needs and goals of each person with diabetes should dictate how often and when they check their blood sugar level.
To stay on top of your glucose levels, talk with your doctor about when and how frequently you should check your levels. Your doctor may suggest checking the levels:
- before and after meals
- during long or intense exercise
- when starting new medications or a new insulin schedule
- when starting a new work schedule
- when traveling across time zones
Speaking with your doctor helps set glucose level goals since they depend on your condition and other factors like age and health history.
The says a simple blood test is one of the most common ways to test glucose at home when living with diabetes. You use a blood glucose meter by:
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What Are The Symptoms Of Lactic Acid Build Up
The body makes lactic acid when it is low in the oxygen it needs to convert glucose into energy. Lactic acid buildup can result in muscle pain, cramps, and muscular fatigue. These symptoms are typical during strenuous exercise and are not usually anything to worry about as the liver breaks down any excess lactate.
What Abnormal Results Mean
If you had a fasting blood glucose test:
- A level of 100 to 125 mg/dL means you have impaired fasting glucose, a type of prediabetes. This increases your risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
- A level of 126 mg/dL or higher usually means you have diabetes.
If you had a random blood glucose test:
- A level of 200 mg/dL or higher often means you have diabetes.
- Your provider will order a fasting blood glucose, A1C test glucose tolerance test , depending on your random blood glucose test result.
- In someone who has diabetes, an abnormal result on the random blood glucose test may mean that the diabetes is not well controlled.
Other medical problems can also cause a higher-than-normal blood glucose level, including:
- Overactive thyroid gland
- Swelling and inflammation of the pancreas ( pancreatitis
- Stress due to trauma, stroke, heart attack, or surgery
- Rare tumors, including
- Weight loss after weight loss surgery
- Vigorous exercise
Some medicines can raise or lower your blood glucose level. Before having the test, tell your provider about all the medicines you are taking.
For some thin young women, a fasting blood sugar level below 70 mg/dL may be normal.
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How To Use A Glucose Meter
Glucometers are easy to use. A person will:
People with type 2 diabetes normally need to test blood sugar concentrations at least once each day.
Those who need to take insulin, which includes all people with type 1 diabetes and some people with type 2, have to test their blood several times a day.
Continuous glucose monitoring can be an alternative method for glucose monitoring for people with diabetes.
An accurate reading of the blood glucose level can help achieve good diabetes control.
Blood Sugar Level Rises Every Time You Eat
Your blood sugar level rises immediately after eating a meal or snack . In a healthy person, insulin then starts working, and the blood sugar level returns to the pre-meal level 2 hours after eating. In untreated diabetes patients, the blood sugar level does not return to the pre-meal level of its own accord. Some people’s blood sugar level remains high two hours after eating, even though on an empty stomach it would be at a normal level. As a result, the risk of developing diabetes increases as insulin is not properly secreted, or does not work properly in the body. In order to make sure insulin works properly, it is important not to overeat and to avoid becoming obese. Knowing which foods will not cause a sudden and extreme spike in blood sugar level and using this knowledge in your daily life will help you to prevent obesity and diabetes, and maintain good health.
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The Blood Sugar Level Regulation Mechanism
When you eat rice, bread, or any other typical food high in carbohydrates, it is digested by the stomach and small intestine, where it is absorbed into the blood as glucose. Figure 1 shows how it is absorbed into the body.
When glucose enters the bloodstream, insulin facilitates its uptake into the body’s cells. When an excess of glucose is ingested, insulin over secretion occurs. Insulin increases the biosynthesis of fat and suppresses its breakdown. Thus, it becomes easier for fat to accumulate in body tissues.
Blood sugar level will not drop if the sugar in the blood is not properly processed due to, for example, too little insulin being secreted, or resistance to the action of insulin. If blood sugar levels have not decreased several hours after eating on a regular basis, this indicates a susceptibility to diabetes. To avoid this and stay healthy, we should eat types of foods that will not cause a sudden, extreme rise in blood sugar levels.
What is BMI?
What is a healthy blood sugar level
- Fasting blood sugar level 99mg/dL
- Postprandial blood sugar level 7.8mmol/L
Try This Glute And Hamstring Workout
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Keep in mind, however, that before starting a new training program, it may be a good idea to consult a personal trainer to help you get a better sense of proper form. Regardless of your current level, hereâs a customizable lower body workout you can try out to get started with your leg day training.
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Glucose Metabolism: Fueling The Brain
The mammalian brain depends on glucose as its main source of energy. In the adult brain, neurons have the highest energy demand , requiring continuous delivery of glucose from blood. In humans, the brain accounts for ~2% of the body weight, but it consumes ~20% of glucose-derived energy making it the main consumer of glucose . Glucose metabolism provides the fuel for physiological brain function through the generation of ATP, the foundation for neuronal and non-neuronal cellular maintenance, as well as the generation of neurotransmitters. Therefore, tight regulation of glucose metabolism is critical for brain physiology and disturbed glucose metabolism in the brain underlies several diseases affecting both the brain itself as well as the entire organism.
The role of glucose for brain function
How Does High Blood Sugar Affect The Body
Monitoring your blood sugar is essential if you have diabetes. Symptoms will get worse if treatment is not provided, and serious health complications can arise as a result. The signs of high blood sugar to look for include fatigue, blurred vision, and headaches along with:
- Frequent urination and thirst: Excess sugar in the blood is passed through the kidneys and into urine. This draws more water into the urine which means more frequent urination. High glucose levels cause thirst even when you are drinking enough fluids.
- Weight loss: Elevated blood sugar levels over time can lead to unexplained weight loss as a result of cells not getting the glucose they need. As a result, they start burning fat instead.
- Numbness: High blood sugar can cause tingling and numbness in the extremities. It is important to note that this is a complication of long-term diabetes and uncontrolled blood sugar levels.
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Causes Of High Blood Sugar
The leading causes of high blood sugar or hyperglycemia include:
Diet: Glucose comes from food, so what you are eating causes high blood sugar. Carbohydrates are the most common culprit as they are broken down into glucose very quickly in the body. High-sugar foods, high-fat foods, and processed foods also cause blood glucose spikes and should be replaced with healthier options.
Stress: When you are stressed, more stress hormones and chemicals are released, which drives blood sugar levels up too. If the stress is only temporary, this is not a serious issue, but if you experience chronic stress or an anxiety disorder, you may experience high blood sugar levels more often.
Metabolic Syndrome: These are a collection of conditions that occur at the same time and increase your risk for type 2 diabetes. High blood pressures, excess fat around the waist, and high cholesterol or triglycerides are examples of these conditions. When these occur in the body together, your risk for diabetes increases as does your blood sugar and the risk for potential complications.
Physical Inactivity: A lack of physical activity contributes to elevated blood sugar. When you are physically active each day, insulin works more efficiently, and your blood sugar can be maintained.
Hormones Regulate Cell Metabolism
Human cells and tissues adapt to internal metabolicdemands in many ways, mostly in response to hormones and/or nervous stimuli.Demands by one cell type can be met by the consumption of its own reserves andby the uptake of fuel molecules released in the bloodstream by other cells. Energyuse is tightly regulated so that the energy demands of all cells are met simultaneously.Elevated levels of glucose stimulate pancreatic Î²-cells to release insulininto the bloodstream. Virtually all cells respond to insulin thus, during thefed state cell metabolism is coordinated by insulin signaling.
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How Does The Body Process Glucose
Your body ideally uses glucose multiple times a day.
When you eat, it quickly starts working to process glucose and other carbohydrates. Then, enzymes begin to break them down with help from the pancreas.
The pancreas, which produces hormones like insulin, is essential to how your body deals with glucose, per 2021 research . When you eat, your body tells the pancreas to release insulin to manage the rising blood sugar level.
Muscle, fat, and other cells then use glucose for energy or store it as fat for later use.
Diabetes might happen when the pancreas doesnt produce insulin the way it should. In this case, you may need outside help to process and regulate glucose in the body.
A 2018 review suggests that diabetes may also occur from insulin resistance. This is when the bodys cells do not sense insulin, and too much sugar remains in the bloodstream.
When the body does not respond to insulin the way it should, it stops glucose from entering your cells and being used for energy. Your cells respond by signaling the creation of ketones, which occurs at night and during fasting or dieting.
Over time, with insulin resistance, your insulin levels may become low, according to the American Diabetes Association . Your body may also release fat from fat cells. In addition, the liver keeps releasing more ketones, lowering your blood pH to an acidic level.
How Does Lactate Enter The Liver
And, like in red blood cells, the reaction catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase, regenerating NAD+, allows glycolysis to proceed. … Once into the bloodstream, lactate reaches the liver, which is its major user, where it is oxidized to pyruvate in the reaction catalyzed by the liver isoenzyme of lactate dehydrogenase.
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What Are The Side Effects Of Lactic Acid
Burning, itching, stinging, redness, or irritation may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly. If your doctor has directed you to use this medication, remember that he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects.
How Sugar Works With Insulin
After the body absorbs the sugar from your food, whether it breaks it down or not, it goes into the bloodstream. This is where insulin becomes so important.
Insulin is the chemical that the body makes that actually carries the sugar into the cells. Your bodys cells need sugar its what energizes every cell. When there is enough insulin present, the cells are nourished by the sugar from the bloodstream. Any excess sugar is carried into fat cells for storage.
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The Basics Of High Blood Sugar
Diabetes is a problem with your body that causes blood sugar levels to rise higher than normal. This is also called hyperglycemia.
When you eat, your body breaks food down into sugar and sends it into the blood. Insulin then helps move the sugar from the blood into your cells. When sugar enters your cells, it is either used as fuel for energy right away or stored for later use. In a person with diabetes, there is a problem with insulin. But, not everyone with diabetes has the same problem.
There are different types of diabetestype 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes. If you have diabetestype 1, type 2 or gestationalyour body either doesn’t make enough insulin, can’t use the insulin well, or both.
Learn more about blood sugar Learn more about insulin
Does The Body Produce Fructose
4.1/5bodyfructoseproducesabout it here
The fructose/glucose ratio is calculated by dividing the sum of free fructose plus half sucrose by the sum of free glucose plus half sucrose. Fructose is also found in the manufactured sweetener, high-fructose corn syrup , which is produced by treating corn syrup with enzymes, converting glucose into fructose.
Beside above, where is fructose found in body? Fructose needs to be processed and stored in the liver as a back-up energy source called glycogen. Once the liver’s storage capacity is filled, then excess fructose is converted by the liver into various products one main product is triglycerides.
People also ask, what is fructose used for in the human body?
Fructose is a monosaccharide, or single sugar, that has the same chemical formula as glucose but a different molecular structure. Sometimes called fruit sugar, fructose is found in fruit, some vegetables, honey, and other plants. Fructose and other sugars are carbohydrates, an important source of energy for the body.
Can humans digest fructose?
Fructose digestion and absorption in humansFree fructose is absorbed directly by the intestine. When fructose is consumed in the form of sucrose, it is digested and then absorbed as free fructose.
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