Type 1 Diabetes And Diet
People with type 1 diabetes, like everyone else, need to eat a well-balanced diet. This will help their insulin therapy and reduce the chance of diabetic complications. There is no “diabetes diet.” Even a person with type 1 diabetes can eat sweets as long as it is part of a well-balanced diet. That is not to say they can eat anything all the time, but they need to consider how sweets can fit into their well-balanced diet. Type 1 diabetics should also consider the fact that carbohydrates raise blood sugar levels faster than any other food. Food low in carbs, but high in calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and other vitamins are excellent food choices for diabetics. Consider the following guidelines when planning your meals:
- Eat less unhealthy fat
- Keep track of carbohydrate consumption
- Keep track of carbohydrates in sugar-free foods
Healthcare workers such as dietitians can help people with diabetes plan a well-balanced and varied diet.
Types Of Diabetes Tests
- Fasting blood glucose test blood glucose levels are checked after fasting for between 12 and 14 hours. You can drink water during this time, but should strictly avoid any other beverage. People with diabetes may be asked to delay their diabetes medication or insulin dose until the test is completed.
- Random blood glucose test blood glucose levels are checked at various times during the day, and it doesnt matter when you last ate. Blood glucose levels tend to stay constant in a person who doesnt have diabetes
- Oral glucose tolerance test a high-glucose drink is given. Blood samples are checked at regular intervals for two hours.
A Word From Mantra Care
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Understanding Type 1 Diabetes
Itâs not the same as âclassicâ or type 2 diabetes, which is often linked to obesity and seen in adults .
If your child has type 1 diabetes, it means their pancreas — an organ in the upper-right side of the belly — makes little or no insulin. The condition is an autoimmune disorder, which means it happens when the bodyâs defense system attacks and destroys cells that make insulin.
When To See A Doctor About Early Signs Of Diabetes
The early symptoms of diabetes can masquerade as a lesser sickness in any number of ways, so it can sometimes feel confusing to know what to do. Fear not! We are here to help guide you! If you are concerned that you, or someone you know, might be showing signs of diabetes, start by asking yourself a simple series of questions.
- Once a cold or flu has run its course, is recovery quick or is there lingering thirst and malaise?
- Have you had yourvision checked recently to rule out a need for glasses?
- Do yourhands/feet experience numbness and tingling all the time, or is this new?
- Have you always wrestled with yeast infections, or are recurring infections a new struggle?
- How long have you noticed weight loss you cant explain?
- How long have you or your child been guzzling water without feeling satisfied?
When in doubt, just ask!
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Who Gets Type 1 Diabetes
Although type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, about two-thirds of new cases are diagnosed in individuals under the age of 19. Researchers have noted two peak times for development of type 1 diabetes the first is in early childhood and the second occurs at puberty. Type 1 diabetes affects males and females equally, and is more common in Caucasians than in other ethnic groups. A family history of type 1 diabetes also increases one’s risk for developing type 1 diabetes.
What Are Severe Complications Of Type 1 Diabetes
Nerve damage. High blood-sugar levels over a long period of time can actually cause your blood to thicken. When this happens, the blood has a harder time moving through your blood vessels and restricts the amount of oxygen and nutrients that can be supplied to your nerves. If left untreated, this can lead to a complication called neuropathy, or nerve damage. Nerve damage, in turn, can cause certain areas of your body to permanently lose sensation. It most commonly affects hands and feet.
Kidney damage. Thickened blood is harder to move through your body and can damage the delicate vessels inside of your kidneys. Over time, the blood vessels in your kidneys can narrow and clog, limiting their function. Because high blood sugar can damage nerves as well, people with type 1 diabetes may not be able to feel nerve signals when their bladder is full. An overfull bladder puts pressure on the kidneys and can damage them even further.
Remember, all of these symptoms and complications can be prevented if you work with your endocrinologist on a blood sugar management plan and system that works for you. Every symptom on this list can absolutely be stopped before it progresses. There is no reason a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes has to lead to anything other than an advanced awareness and understanding of how your body reacts to sugar and what to do to keep it in check when things start to get out of whack.
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Lifestyle And Home Remedies
Careful management of type 1 diabetes is important to reduce the risk of acute and long-term serious complications. The following tips will help:
- Wear a tag or bracelet that says you have diabetes, in case of emergency
- Get yearly physical check-ups and regular eye checks to look for diabetes-related complications
- Get annual influenza vaccinations as high blood glucose levels can weaken the immune system
- Wash and moisturise your feet daily and check them for blisters, cuts, and sores
- Control blood pressure and cholesterol levels to help minimise the risk of complications
- Dont smoke. Smoking increases the risk of complications
- Drink alcohol responsibly. Alcohol can cause high or low blood glucose levels
- Minimise stress. Stress hormones may prevent insulin from working properly.
Do I Have Other Treatment Options For My Type 1 Diabetes
The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases has played an important role in developing artificial pancreas technology. An artificial pancreas replaces manual blood glucose testing and the use of insulin shots. A single system monitors blood glucose levels around the clock and provides insulin or a combination of insulin and glucagon automatically. The system can also be monitored remotely, for example by parents or medical staff.
In 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved a type of artificial pancreas system called a hybrid closed-loop system. This system tests your glucose level every 5 minutes throughout the day and night through a continuous glucose monitor, and automatically gives you the right amount of basal insulin, a long-acting insulin, through a separate insulin pump. You still need to manually adjust the amount of insulin the pump delivers at mealtimes and when you need a correction dose. You also will need to test your blood with a glucose meter several times a day. Talk with your health care provider about whether this system might be right for you.
The illustration below shows the parts of a type of artificial pancreas system.
Starting in late 2016 and early 2017, the NIDDK has funded several important studies on different types of artificial pancreas devices to better help people with type 1 diabetes manage their disease. The devices may also help people with type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes.
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How To Tell If You Or Your Child Has Type 1 Diabetes
With Ilana Halperin MD and Elena Christofides MD
Type 1 diabetes is a permanent condition. That means youll likely have to deal with symptoms at least a few times in your life, no matter how diligently you monitor your blood sugar. Were here to empower you with clear answers to all your pressing Qs.
Continuous Glucose Monitoring Treatment
Another device that measures glucose is termed a continuous glucose monitoring system . This system consists of a tiny sensor under the skin to check blood sugar levels. It sends the information to a device that records an average glucose value every five minutes for several days, depending on the sensor design. CGM is now accepted for long term use in some people with models that turn off insulin infusion when sugars start to drop. Some devices alert you if the blood glucose level falls outside of preset range.
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Diabetes Type 2 Symptoms
Type 2 diabetes is a condition where your body either does not produces enough insulin or does not use it accordingly. Insulin is normally produced by the pancreas. A person having type 2 diabetes will experience a buildup of glucose in their blood due to its scarcity or misuse while its transfer to the cells. The high amount of glucose in the bloodstream can result in severe health concerns including nerves, eyes, blood vessels, heart, and kidneys. The diabetes type 2 symptoms might not occur for a long term until the situation has turned worse. It mainly arises after your glucose has been for a long time.
Symptoms associated with type 2 diabetes include:
- Yeast infection: Both men and women are at a higher risk of developing a yeast infection. Yeast occurs in the parts where there is plenty of it. Yeast infection will grow in moist and warm folds of skin. These areas of the body including under the breast, between fingers and toes, and in or around the private body parts.
- Slow-healing wounds or cuts: High blood sugar can affect the flow of blood in your body and cause nerve damage over time. It results in making your body incapable of healing wounds fast.
- Feeling of numbness or pain in legs or feet: Due to the nerve damage, your body might cause numbness or pain in the feet or legs.
What Are The Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes are serious and usually happen quickly, over a few days to weeks. Symptoms can include
- increased thirst and urination
- trouble breathing
- trouble paying attention or feeling confused
DKA is serious and dangerous. If you or your child have symptoms of DKA, contact your health care professional right away, or go to the nearest hospital emergency room.
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Complications Of Untreated Type 1 Diabetes
- kidney damage
- increased likelihood of infections such as thrush and also more serious infections
- damage to the eyes
- poor blood circulation in the legs and feet, potentially leading to lower limb amputation
- damage to the nerves of the feet
- much higher risk of heart disease and stroke
- sexual impotence.
What Causes Type 1 Diabetes
When the body’s immune system destroys beta cells in part of the pancreas, type 1 diabetes develops. Beta cells in the pancreas produce insulin. Researchers are not sure why a person’s immune system attacks its own insulin-producing cells. However, researchers and clinicians suspect that genetic susceptibility and environmental factors raise the risk for developing type 1 diabetes.
Scientists have identified genes and gene regions that raise the risk of developing type 1 diabetes, but they are not the only factors that cause the disease. Researchers suggest that environmental triggers such as a viral infection or perhaps dietary or pregnancy-related factors may also play a role in developing type 1 diabetes.
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What Are The Signs & Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes
People can have diabetes without knowing it because the symptoms aren’t always obvious and they can take a long time to develop. Type 1 diabetes may come on gradually or suddenly.
When a person first has type 1 diabetes, they may:
- pee a lot because the body tries to get rid of the extra blood sugar by passing it out of the body in the urine
- drink a lot to make up for all that peeing
- eat a lot because the body is hungry for the energy it can’t get from sugar
- lose weight because the body starts to use fat and muscle for fuel
- feel tired a lot
If these early symptoms of diabetes aren’t recognized and treatment isn’t started, chemicals can build up in the blood and cause stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, breathing problems, and even loss of consciousness. Doctors call this diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA.
There’s good news, though getting treatment can control or stop these diabetes symptoms from happening and reduce the risk of long-term problems.
What Are The Risk Factors For Diabetes
Risk factors for type 1 diabetes are not as well understood as those for type 2 diabetes. Family history is a known risk factor for type 1 diabetes. Other risk factors can include having certain infections or diseases of the pancreas.
Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes are many. The following can raise your risk of developing type 2 diabetes:
- Being obese or overweight
- Ethnic background: Hispanic/Latino Americans, African-Americans, Native Americans, Asian-Americans, Pacific Islanders, and Alaska natives are at greater risk.
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What Are The Different Types Of Diabetes
There are two major types of diabetes, called type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes was also formerly called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus , or juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas undergoes an autoimmune attack by the body itself, and is rendered incapable of making insulin. Abnormal antibodies have been found in the majority of patients with type 1 diabetes. Antibodies are proteins in the blood that are part of the body’s immune system. The patient with type 1 diabetes must rely on insulin medication for survival.
Type 1 Diabetes Treatment: Artificial Pancreas
Researchers are developing an artificial pancreas. This device is a combination of an insulin pump and continuous glucose monitoring system controlled by a computer program. The goal for the system is to have a device that mimics the function of a normal pancreas.
Additional Information on Diabetes
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Whats The Difference Between Signs Vs Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes symptoms are experienced by a person with diabetes, but signs of type 1 diabetes can also be noted by friends and family even if the person who is having the symptoms may not notice them or may be unable to communicate because they are in the throes of diabetic ketoacidosis. Common signs of T1D to watch out for include:
- Weight loss, despite eating more
- Changes to menstruation
- Rapid heart rate
- Reduced blood pressure
- Low body temperature
- Acting or seeming drunk while sober, which is a sign of diabetic ketoacidosis
- Breath that is fruity or smells like nail polish remover which is another sign of ketosis
- Chronic skin infections
Type 1 Diabetes And Exercise
People with type 1 diabetes benefit from exercise, but they need to take precautions to prevent sudden drops in blood glucose levels. Diabetics should check their blood sugars before exercising and may require eating a snack before or during exercise. They may need to adjust their insulin dosage before exercising to ensure they stay within normal ranges of blood glucose. People with type 1 diabetes may also need to check their urine for ketones â ketones suggest that your blood sugar is too high. Strenuous activity needs to be avoided if ketones are detected or if your blood sugar level is either high or low before exercise.
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Maybe It’s A Different Type
If you or someone you know is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes but isnt responding well to the typical treatments for type 2 diabetes, it may be worth a visit to an endocrinologist to determine what type of diabetes is happening. Generally, this requires antibody tests and possibly the measurement of a C-peptide level.
Measuring Blood Glucose Levels
There is a test called the hemoglobin A1c blood test that is used to help determine how well a person is managing their blood glucose levels. This test is taken at the doctor’s office and measures how well the blood sugar has been controlled over a 2- to 3-month span. If the results show poor blood sugar control , this suggests that the person’s insulin therapy, dietary habits, and/or physical activity be modified to lower blood sugar levels into a more healthy and normal range.
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How Can I Best Balance My Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms And Daily Life
Fortunately, there are medications that can help keep T1D at bay and reduce the risk of long-term complications. Type 1 diabetics who cannot make their own insulin will need a way to deliver it to their bodies, either through a pump or through injections underneath the skin with syringes or pens.
When T1D is properly controlled, a person with the condition will show no signs or symptoms, because they are playing an active role in keeping their blood sugar levels steady.
Signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes can come on quickly, and they arent always obvious. Many times, theyre mistaken for other conditions. Making yourself aware of the signs and symptoms of T1D is a great way to be proactive about your health and the health of your family members. If you notice any of these signs or symptoms in yourself or a loved one, get in touch with your doctor ASAP. They can make a diagnosis by checking blood glucose levels and A1C to start treatment before there are any complications.