How Well Might A Fourth Dose Protect Against Omicron
In the general population, it appears that booster doses which are third doses protect against severe disease when it comes to the very transmissible variant Omicron.
Vaccines do not necessarily prevent infection, but should make them milder, says Dr. Sparks. It appears this is the case with Omicron. It is very possible that even boosted patients may experience infection, but they are much less likely to require hospital admission or experience other poor outcomes.
However, it gets more complicated when it comes to the immunocompromised population.
If you have generated any antibody responses in the past, the fourth dose is likely to generate protective antibodies against Omicron, says researcher Alfred Kim, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Pathology, and Immunology at Washington University. But if you havent made any antibodies in the past three doses, the chances are much lower that protective antibodies will be made with the fourth dose.
In other words: If you havent already produced antibodies with previous shots, you might not now, either which could leave you more susceptible to Omicron. However, this isnt a hard and fast rule, and some early research is promising.
Plus, antibodies arent the only measure of immune protection, which is why its important to still get the fourth vaccine dose. Experts are working to determine if other parts of the immune system, such as T cells, can provide protection in the absence of protective antibodies.
What Type Of Diabetes Do I Have
When you were diagnosed, your clinician probably said you had either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes. Clear-cut and tidy. Since diabetes typically occurs in two types, you have to fit into one of them. Many people fit clearly into one of these categories, but others do not. And those who fit one type when diagnosed may find these clear lines begin to smudge over time. Are there only two types? Are you the type they said you were? Could you have more than one type of diabetes? Is your original diagnosis still correct after all these years?
Open Sores And Wounds
Having high blood sugar for a long time can lead to poor circulation and nerve damage. You may have developed these if youve had uncontrolled diabetes for a long time.
Poor circulation and nerve damage can make it hard for your body to heal wounds. This is especially true on the feet. These open wounds are called diabetic ulcers.
Diabetes and feet
- Get immediate medical care for an open sore or wound.
- Work with your doctor to better control your diabetes.
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Faq: Frequently Asked Questions
What are the most common symptoms of type 1 diabetes?
Regardless of age, the most common symptoms of T1D are excessive thirst, fatigue, headache, and frequent urination.Why do people with type 1 diabetes urinate so often?
When sugar accumulates in a persons bloodstream, their body acts quickly to get rid of it by making extra urine. Excess glucose also triggers thirst signals in the brain, which results in drinking more and having to go to the bathroom more as well.
Why are type 1 diabetes symptoms different in children and adults?For reasons that still arent totally clear, the onset of T1D is much slower in adults, often taking months for symptoms to fully manifest, whereas in children, it may only take days. High blood-sugar levels are present for longer in the bloodstream of adults, meaning that there is more opportunity for long-term damage to organs and bodily systems. For instance, untreated high blood-sugar over several months time can lead to nerve and kidney damage, which is a complication often found in adults who have recently received a type 1 diabetes diagnosis, but hardly ever in children.What happens if type 1 diabetes is left untreated?T1D symptoms, if left untreated, can lead to complications such as eye damage, kidney damage, nerve damage, heart disease, and osteoporosis. Luckily, by working with your endocrinologist to manage your blood sugar, you can avoid all of them.
When To See A Diabetes Healthcare Specialist
Its a good idea to go to your primary care provider if you have any of the early warning signs of diabetes.
If you suspect you have diabetes, the first step would be to make an appointment with your primary care physician, such as your family practitioner, internist or pediatrician, says Soma Mandal, MD, of Summit Medical Group in Berkeley Heights, New Jersey. They would speak with you about what symptoms you are having, discuss your family medical history, and what your lifestyle is like.
Its important to note: If someone has been having increased thirst and urination, then develops nausea and vomiting, they may need to go to the hospital because very high sugars can be dangerous, Dr. Weitzner says.
Prediabetes and an early stage of Type 2 diabetes is typically managed by your primary care provider, says Dr. Weitzner, but they will likely send you for diabetes testing, which includes a blood test that is typically done twice to confirm the results. During pregnancy, or at other times, testing for diabetes may involve drinking something very sweet and having your blood sugar checked before you drink it and a few times after you drink it, she explains.
If you are diagnosed with diabetes, there are a few different specialists that you may see, including an endocrinologist, a healthcare provider that specializes in treating diabetes.
If youre experiencing symptoms, dont wait for your annual visitcall your healthcare provider right away.
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What Are The Warning Signs Of Prediabetes
You could have prediabetes, but you may not know it. More than one in three adults in the United States have prediabetes.
Prediabetes typically occurs without showing any symptoms or warning signs. However, it helps to know if you do have prediabetes so you can stop it in its tracks. That means you can avoid developing Type 2 diabetes, a more dangerous disease that causes other serious health issues.
How Many Slices Of Cheese Can A Diabetic Eat
Cheese may help to reduce the risk of acquiring type 2 diabetes in some people. According to a 2012 research, eating around two slices of bread each day lowered the risk of developing diabetes by 12 percent. But this should be done with caution because the level of risk varies from one country to the next depending on where you are.
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You Toss And Turn At Night
When you dont get good shut-eye, your body can get out of whack fast. Bad sleep can make you gain weight, which raises your prediabetes risk. Sleep disorders, like obstructive sleep apnea, can wreak havoc on blood sugar, too, says Lee.
Talk to your doctor if youre struggling with snoozing. Treating your sleep problems might help keep you out of the diabetes danger zone.
What Warning Signs And Symptoms Of Diabetes Are The Same In Men And Women
There are diabetes warning signs and symptoms that both women and men have in common, for example:
- Excessive thirst and hunger
Men who have type 2 diabetes are twice as likely to have low testosterone than men who do not have diabetes. Because of the low levels of the hormone testosterone, men with diabetes can have unhealthy symptoms that are not seen in women with diabetes.
Low testosterone can cause , depression, lack of energy, and reduced muscle mass. It can also cause male-specific sexual problems and urological problems.
Erectile dysfunction , or inability to get or maintain an erection, is a common symptom of diabetes in men. Diabetic men experience erectile dysfunction at earlier ages than men who do not have diabetes.
Another diabetes-related sexual dysfunction symptom in men is reduced amounts of ejaculation, or retrograde ejaculation. Retrograde ejaculation is a condition in which the semen goes into the bladder, rather than out of the body through the urethra. Diabetes and damage to the blood vessels causes nerve damage to the muscles that control the bladder and urethra, which results in this problem.
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What Can I Eat That Wont Spike Blood Sugar
Consume them as a healthy alternative to sugar, high-GI carbs, and other sweets and indulgences.
- tuna, halibut, and other seafood high in omega-3 fatty acids
- sour cherries
- apple cider vinegar
- and other foods rich in antioxidants. Chlorophyll-rich leafy greens such as spinach, kale, and chard, as well as chia seeds and cacao
Genes And Family History
As in type 1 diabetes, certain genes may make you more likely to develop type 2 diabetes. The disease tends to run in families and occurs more often in these racial/ethnic groups:
- African Americans
- Native Hawaiians
- Pacific Islanders
Genes also can increase the risk of type 2 diabetes by increasing a persons tendency to become overweight or obese.
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Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes
You might notice:
- Unplanned weight loss. If your body can’t get energy from your food, it will start burning muscle and fat for energy instead. You may lose weight even though you haven’t changed how you eat. See which foods are high in trans fatty acids.
- Nausea and vomiting. When your body resorts to burning fat, it makes ketones. These can build up in your blood to dangerous levels, a possibly life-threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis. Ketones can make you feel sick to your stomach.
Undergoing Diagnostic Tests For Diabetes
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You’re Losing Weightbut Aren’t Trying To
Unexplained weight loss can happen for lots of reasons, and diabetes is one of them. Goundan explains that insulin helps your body move sugar from your blood to your cells, so when you have an insulin resistance, you dont get enough energy into your cells despite all that sugar flowing through your body. Because youre unable to get enough energy from sugar, your body burns your own fat and muscle for energy,” Kellis says. “Weight loss can be pretty significant, sometimes 10 to 20 pounds.”
Generally, doctors recommend visiting the doc if you unintentionally lose between 5 to 10 percent of your body weight over the course of six months.
List Of Foods You Should Avoid If You Have Pre
You should avoid having too many starches or carbohydrates of any kind. It wont matter that you are eating the right kinds of carbohydrates, if you eat too many. There are also unhealthy versions of almost every food.
Starchy vegetables are not like the vegetables on the list of foods to eat with diabetes, but they can be eaten in moderation. You should count carbohydrates when you eat these foods.
- White potatoes
Avoid dried fruits. They have had the water taken out of them, and they are very concentrated with high sugar content. A serving size of dried fruit would only be about a tablespoon, so its important that if you do eat it on an occasion to keep portion sizes very small.
Canned fruits are not the best choice for diabetes. If you must pick up canned fruits, get them packed in water or in their own juices, and rinse them off. Juices dont have any of the healthy fiber in whole, fresh fruits, and they have high sugar content, so avoid them as well.
Fruits to avoid with Pre-Diabetes or Type 2 Diabetes
- Dried fruit
- Fresh juices that are part of fad cleanses
- Canned fruit in syrup
We must have carbohydrates for energy. That said, we must choose wisely when we have diabetes. Try protein and non-starchy vegetables for snacks, instead of high carbohydrate snacks.
Starches and carbohydrates to avoid when you have Pre-Diabetes or Type 2 Diabetes
- All processed grains
Deep fried fish, tofu
High fat content meat
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How Is Diabetes Treated
Diabetes can be treated in several ways. Diet, physical activity, and careful monitoring are important if you have diabetes, no matter which type of diabetes you have.
If you have type 1 diabetes, you will need to take insulin for the rest of your life. Thats because your pancreas doesnt produce the insulin your body needs.
If you have type 2 diabetes, it may be possible to control your diabetes with lifestyle changes, such as diet, weight loss, and exercise. You may also need to take oral or injectable medications, including insulin or metformin, to manage your blood sugar levels.
If you have either type 1 or type 2 diabetes, youll need to carefully track your diet to prevent your blood sugar levels from getting too high. This generally means watching your carbohydrate intake as well as limiting over-processed, low fiber foods, such as:
- sugary sodas
- fruit-flavored yogurt
- flavored coffee drinks
Your doctor will work closely with you to develop a treatment plan to help you control your blood sugar levels.
If You Ignore The Signs Of Diabetes
Its hard to ignore the signs of type 1 diabetes because symptoms can often appear quite quickly. But leaving it untreated can lead to serious health problems, including diabetic ketoacidosis, which can result in a potentially fatal coma.
Although the majority of people with type 1 diabetes are diagnosed in childhood and early adulthood, the symptoms are the same at any age. Adults with type 1 diabetes may not recognise their diabetes symptoms as quickly as children, which could mean their diagnosis and treatment may be delayed.
Type 2 diabetes can be easier to miss as it develops more slowly, especially in the early stages when it can be harder to spot the symptoms. But untreated diabetes affects many major organs, including your heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes and kidneys. Being diagnosed early and managing your blood sugar levels can help prevent these complications. Use our Know Your Risk tool to check your risk of type 2 diabetes.
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Does Your Diabetes Type Ever Change
Even ignoring the high numbers of people with Type 1.5 who are initially misdiagnosed as Type 2, the lines between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes often get blurred over time. Due to aging and weight gain in those with Type 1, the progressive nature of beta-cell failure in Type 2, and the mixture of obesity and antibodies in young people, those with one type of diabetes often tend to take on characteristics of the other.
With less exercise and more weight around the middle, some Type 1s become not only insulin-deficient but also insulin resistant. They can develop the cardiac risks associated with Metabolic Syndrome and benefit from medications that lower cholesterol and blood pressure. More insulin is required to control glucose levels, while certain Type 2 medications, like Glucophage and GLP-1 agonists, may benefit their control.
On the other hand, as Type 2 diabetes progresses, insulin production may diminish to a point where it can no longer maintain normal glucose levels. Insulin will be required to keep glucose levels under control. Some people with Type 2 eventually become dependent on insulin and can go into ketoacidosis in stressful situations. In fact, ketoacidosis is about twice as common in Type 2 diabetes as it is in Type 1.
Lab Tests Used for DiagnosisA variety of lab tests and clinical signs help to provide the information needed to determine which type of diabetes a person has correctly.
Your Breath Smells Awful
Diabetes-related dehydration contributes to dry mouth, and the bad breath that can accompany it.
Whats more, undiagnosed or uncontrolled diabetes can trigger ketosis, a process in which the body uses fat, rather than glucose, for energy. Ketosis releases a chemical byproduct called ketones, which can make your breath smell unpleasantly sweet or fruity, she sayssometimes it might even smell like acetone, since that’s a type of ketone.
Unless you’re on a keto diet , it’s worth talking to your doctor.
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