What’s The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes
Most people know there are two types of diabetes, but not everyone understands the difference between them. In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, blood sugar levels can get too high because the body doesnt produce insulin or it does not utilize insulin properly. Though the problem is essentially the same in both types, they have different causes and treatments. Heres what you need to know.
Diabetes And Your Child
For a parent whose child is diagnosed with a life-long condition, the job of parenting becomes even tougher.
Although being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes will involve coming to terms with the diagnosis, getting used to treatment and making changes to everyday life, your child can still lead a normal and healthy life.
The Diabetes UK website has information and advice about your child and diabetes.
Preventing Type 2 Diabetes
If you have prediabetes, losing a small amount of weight if youre overweight and getting regular physical activity can lower your risk for developing type 2 diabetes. A small amount of weight loss means around 5% to 7% of your body weight, just 10 to 14 pounds for a 200-pound person. Regular physical activity means getting at least 150 minutes a week of brisk walking or a similar activity. Thats just 30 minutes a day, five days a week.
Imagine: You and the National Diabetes Prevention Program. Watch the video!
A lifestyle change program offered through the CDC-led National Diabetes Prevention Program can help you make those changesand make them stick. Through the program, you can lower your risk of developing type 2 diabetes by as much as 58% . Highlights include:
- Working with a trained coach to make realistic, lasting lifestyle changes.
- Discovering how to eat healthy and add more physical activity into your day.
- Finding out how to manage stress, stay motivated, and solve problems that can slow your progress.
- Getting support from people with similar goals and challenges.
Ask your doctor or nurse if theres a CDC-recognized National Diabetes Prevention Program offered in your community or find one here. The best time to prevent type 2 diabetes is now.
You May Like: Type 1 Diabetes Emergency Kit
Causes Of Type 1 Diabetes
The bodys immune system is responsible for fighting off foreign invaders, such as harmful viruses and bacteria.
Type 1 diabetes is believed to be caused by an autoimmune reaction. In people with type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakes the bodys own healthy cells for foreign invaders.
The immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. After these beta cells are destroyed, the body is unable to produce insulin.
Researchers dont know why the immune system sometimes attacks the bodys own cells. It may have something to do with genetic and environmental factors, such as exposure to viruses.
Research into autoimmune diseases is ongoing. Diet and lifestyle habits do not cause type 1 diabetes.
Important Facts About Diabetes
People do not outgrow type 1 diabetes, but they can learn to control it by insulin shots, blood glucose testing, diet and exercise.
Diabetes is not contagious .
About 14.6 million Americans have diabetes.
About 1 out of 10 people with diabetes have type 1 DM.
Another type of diabetes is type 2, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus . Type 2 diabetes is more common than type 1. About 9 out of 10 people with diabetes have type 2. Type 2 DM used to occur mostly in adults, but is becoming increasingly more common in children. It is associated with obesity. NIDDM usually starts after 40 years of age. People with type 2 diabetes usually produce enough of their own insulin, but their bodies dont use it right. Type 2 may be controlled by weight loss or with insulin and/or oral medicine.
Read Also: Blood Sugar 83 After Eating
What Happens In Type 1 Diabetes
The cause of diabetes is not known. Some experts believe diabetes is inherited , but the genetics are not clearly understood. Diabetes does not always run in families. The body mistakes the cells that produce insulin for foreign cells. The body then destroys these cells. This is called an auto-immune process. Although something in the environment may trigger the disease, there are no known ways to prevent type 1 diabetes in children.
What Causes Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes develops when the pancreas makes less insulin than the body needs, and the body cells stop responding to insulin. They dont take in sugar as they should. Sugar builds up in your blood. When cells dont respond to insulin, this is called insulin resistance. It’s usually caused by:
- Lifestyle factors, including obesity and a lack of exercise.
- Genetics, or abnormal genes, that prevent cells from working as they should.
Recommended Reading: How Much Does A Medtronic Insulin Pump Cost
What Are The Complications Of Diabetes
“Whether it’s type 1 or type 2,” Drinsic says, “the big picture for diabetes is all about preventing complications,” which are mostly related to nerve and blood vessel damage. For example, if you have either type of diabetes, you have twice the risk of heart attack or heart disease as compared with someone without the disease. Other complications include eye problems, kidney disease, foot infections, skin infections, stroke, high blood pressure, cognitive decline, and high cholesterol.
Can Symptoms Appear Suddenly
In people with type 1 diabetes, the onset of symptoms can be very sudden, while in type 2 diabetes, they tend to come about more gradually, and sometimes there are no signs at all.
Symptoms sometimes occur after a viral illness. In some cases, a person may reach the point of diabetic ketoacidosis before a type 1 diagnosis is made. DKA occurs when blood glucose is dangerously high and the body can’t get nutrients into the cells because of the absence of insulin. The body then breaks down muscle and fat for energy, causing an accumulation of ketones in the blood and urine. Symptoms of DKA include a fruity odor on the breath, heavy, taxed breathing and vomiting. If left untreated, DKA can result in stupor, unconsciousness, and even death.
People who have symptomsof type 1 or of DKAshould contact their health care provider immediately for an accurate diagnosis. Keep in mind that these symptoms could signal other problems, too.
Some people with type 1 have a “honeymoon” period, a brief remission of symptoms while the pancreas is still secreting some insulin. The honeymoon phase usually occurs after someone has started taking insulin. A honeymoon can last as little as a week or even up to a year. But its important to know that the absence of symptoms doesn’t mean the diabetes is gone. The pancreas will eventually be unable to secrete insulin, and, if untreated, the symptoms will return.
Read Also: Recall On Medtronic Insulin Pump
Maybe It’s A Different Type
If you or someone you know is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes but isnt responding well to the typical treatments for type 2 diabetes, it may be worth a visit to an endocrinologist to determine what type of diabetes is happening. Generally, this requires antibody tests and possibly the measurement of a C-peptide level.
How Can I Lower My Chances Of Developing Type 2 Diabetes
Research such as the Diabetes Prevention Program, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, has shown that you can take steps to reduce your chances of developing type 2 diabetes if you have risk factors for the disease. Here are some things you can do to lower your risk:
- Lose weight if you are overweight, and keep it off. You may be able to prevent or delay diabetes by losing 5 to 7 percent of your current weight.1 For instance, if you weigh 200 pounds, your goal would be to lose about 10 to 14 pounds.
- Move more. Get at least 30 minutes of physical activity, such as walking, at least 5 days a week. If you have not been active, talk with your health care professional about which activities are best. Start slowly and build up to your goal.
- Eat healthy foods. Eat smaller portions to reduce the amount of calories you eat each day and help you lose weight. Choosing foods with less fat is another way to reduce calories. Drink water instead of sweetened beverages.
Ask your health care team what other changes you can make to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes.
Most often, your best chance for preventing type 2 diabetes is to make lifestyle changes that work for you long term. Get started with Your Game Plan to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes.
Also Check: What Kind Of Insulin Is Tresiba
When It Becomes An Emergency:
Theres a complication of type 1 diabetes called diabetic ketoacidosis , which results from very high blood sugar and is serious and life-threatening. With DKA, the cells in the body are starved for energy, so they start breaking down fat, producing toxic acids known as ketones. So if you or someone you love experiences these symptoms on top of diabetes symptoms, its time to go to the ER:
- Nausea and vomiting
- Tingling or numbness of the lips, tongue or cheek
How To Treat Type 2 Diabetes:
Unlike type 1, people with type 2 diabetes often do not need to take insulin, because their bodies still produce a small amount of it. Though there are medications like Metformin available to assist in lowering blood sugar, the primary ways to treat type 2 diabetes are:
- A balanced diet. Eating fruits and vegetables, whole grains and lean proteins while avoiding more than the occasional high-fat, high-sugar food is the first and most essential step to treating type 2 diabetes.
- Exercise. Staying active is also very important. There are so many ways to get exercise. Try different activities to find a type of exercise you enjoy and work it into your weekly routine.
- Weight loss. Of course, if you work toward eating healthier and exercising, this may be a byproduct. Losing weight is less about the number on the scale and more about taking care of your body and reducing the strain on your pancreas.
- Blood glucose monitoring. Checking your blood sugar regularly will become a part of your daily routine. Its important to stay up-to-date on how your levels are doing throughout the day and adjust your food and activities accordingly. After a while youll figure out the regimen and balance that works best for you.
Don’t Miss: Bd Insulin Syringe 3 10 Ml
Can Type 2 Diabetes Turn Into Type 1
Type 2 diabetes cant turn into type 1 diabetes, since the two conditions have different causes.
Type 1 diabetes is caused by an autoimmune disease in which the body attacks and destroys the islet beta cells in the pancreas. These cells typically produce insulin.
Symptoms may not appear for months or years. If a doctor diagnoses you with type 1 diabetes, it means that your pancreas no longer produces insulin or produces a very small amount of insulin.
Type 1 diabetes cant be caused by type 2 diabetes. If you have type 2 diabetes, your pancreas still produces insulin, but the cells in your body dont respond to it and use it efficiently. This causes the pancreas to produce even more insulin and typically results in high blood sugar.
. They may have many of the symptoms of type 2 diabetes but actually have another condition that may be more closely related to type 1 diabetes. This condition is called latent autoimmune diabetes in adults .
Researchers estimate that between 4% and 12% of people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes might actually have LADA.
Many physicians are still unfamiliar with the condition. They may diagnose a person has type 2 diabetes because of their age and symptoms.
In general, a misdiagnosis is possible because:
As of now, theres still a lot of uncertainty over how exactly to define LADA and what causes it to develop. The exact cause of LADA is unknown, but researchers have identified certain genes that may play a role.
Diabetes Can Be Managed With Proper Care
Irrespective of the differences between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, all individuals with diabetes must follow up closely with their primary care provider. Diabetes is not a benign illness and can result in devastating complications that can result in loss of vision, kidneys, limbs, heart attacks, stroke, and even premature death if not treated appropriately. The key is to take steps to maintain healthy blood sugar levels every day.
Cano Health has been specializing in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes care managementfor years and knows exactly how to apply that to senior care as well. Contact us today for more information about how to better live with the disease and manage it so you can live well.
Don’t Miss: Healthy Snacks For Diabetic Kids
How Does Diabetes Affect The Body
There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2.
Both types of diabetes are chronic diseases that affect the way your body regulates blood sugar or glucose. Glucose is the fuel that feeds your bodys cells, but to enter your cells it needs a key. Insulin is that key.
People with type 1 diabetes dont produce insulin. You can think of it as not having a key.
People with type 2 diabetes dont respond to insulin as well as they should and later in the disease often dont make enough insulin. You can think of it as having a broken key.
- having very dry skin
- having more infections than usual
People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes may also experience irritability, mood changes, and unintentional weight loss.
Diagnosis Of Type 1 Diabetes
Although, diabetes is confirmed by a fasting or random blood glucose via a pathology blood test, it is likely to be detected with a urine test. Signs and symptoms of diabetes or hyperglycaemia should prompt a doctor to check the urine for glucose and ketones. If a blood glucose and ketone meter is available, a glucose and ketone check should be done via finger prick.
Children and teenagers with glucose in their urine or a high blood glucose result should always be sent to a major hospital for immediate and urgent management.
If the diagnosis isnt clear, a blood test is performed to check for autoantibodies to distinguish type 1 from type 2 diabetes. Type 1 autoantibodies show that the body has created antibodies against its own insulin producing cells.
Also Check: How To Keep Blood Sugar Stable Overnight
What Medicines Do I Need To Treat My Type 2 Diabetes
Along with following your diabetes care plan, you may need diabetes medicines, which may include pills or medicines you inject under your skin, such as insulin. Over time, you may need more than one diabetes medicine to manage your blood glucose. Even if you dont take insulin, you may need it at special times, such as during pregnancy or if you are in the hospital. You also may need medicines for high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or other conditions.
Learn more about medicines, insulin, and other diabetes treatments.
Diabetes: Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus , also known as type 1 diabetes, usually starts before 15 years of age, but can occur in adults also. Diabetes involves the pancreas gland, which is located behind the stomach . The special cells of the pancreas produce a hormone called insulin.
The body is made up of millions of cells. All cells need glucose from the food we eat for energy. Just as a car cant run without gasoline, the body cant work without glucose. Insulin is the key that allows glucose to enter the cells. Without this key, glucose stays in the bloodstream and the cells cant use it for energy. Instead, the glucose builds up in the blood and spills over into the urine. When a person develops type 1 diabetes, the pancreas stops making insulin. To help the bodys cells use the glucose, a child with type 1 diabetes mellitus must receive insulin by injection .
You May Like: Can You Get A Cdl With Diabetes
Is Diabetes Treatment Different Too
A good diabetes diet and regular exercise matters for people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, Knapp explains. “The big difference is that everybody with type 1 diabetes needs to take insulin, she says. People with type 1 diabetes need to check their blood sugar level with a device called a glucometer about four times a day to know how much insulin to take.”
Treatment for type 2 diabetes also starts with diet and exercise, and oral medication can also be used to increase the amount of insulin the pancreas makes, Knapp says. “Over time, if the pancreas stops making insulin, some people with type 2 will also need insulin.”People with type 2 diabetes also need to check their blood sugar, from one to several times a day, depending on their state of health.
Type 1 Diabetes Treatment
Those diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes generally seek medical attention when symptoms become noticeable. For those diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, treatment includes routine insulin injections and blood glucose monitoring. A healthy, low cholesterol diet and plenty of exercise play an active role in diabetes management and maintaining your overall health. As of right now, there is no way to prevent or cure type 1 diabetes.
Also Check: Glucose Meter False High Reading
What Causes Glucose In The Urine
The kidneys filter waste products and excess water out of the blood. When the glucose in the blood is above normal level, the kidneys cant hold it all. The glucose then shows up in the urine. The glucose in the urine causes the urine output to increase in frequency and amount. This increase causes you to be thirstier.