Why Do Some People Get Type 2 Diabetes
No one knows for sure why some people get type 2 diabetes, but its likely a combination of genes and the environment. Many teens who get it have someone in their family who has it too.
Type 2 diabetes happens more often in people:
- who are overweight. When a person has extra weight, sugar in the blood doesnt get into the cells as well as it should. But people dont have to be overweight to get type 2 diabetes.
- during puberty. Many kids and teens are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes around puberty. As growth hormone levels normally rise during puberty, insulin does not work as well.
- with polycystic ovary syndrome . Girls and women with PCOS have insulin resistance and are more likely to get type 2 diabetes.
- whose mothers had diabetes during pregnancy. Babies are exposed to more sugar in the womb when their mother has diabetes. This along with genetic factors increase the chance of getting type 2 diabetes later in life.
Why Your A1c Matters
In a nutshell: your A1c is one of the clearest indicators of your risk for developing diabetes complications like neuropathy , retinopathy , nephropathy , and severe infection in any part of your body that requires healing.
For instance, a small cut on your toe could become infected due to high blood sugars, struggle to heal, and become severe enough that the infection could lead to an amputation.
The general guidelines from the American Diabetes Association recommend an A1c at or below 7.0 percent for the best prevention of diabetes complications. Your risk of developing a diabetes complication continues to drop as your A1c drops closer to 6 percent.
Some people with diabetes aim for A1c levels in the 5s and lower especially those who follow strict low-carb diets like the ketogenic diet and the Bernstein diet. However, this hasnt been proven in research as especially necessary, nor is it reasonably achievable for the larger population of people with diabetes.
Its also important to remember that your blood sugar levels and your A1c are just information that tells you whether your body needs more or less of factors like insulin, other diabetes medications like Metformin, changes in your nutrition, and changes in your exercise.
If you dont like the number youre seeing on your glucose meter or your A1c results, use that number as motivation to make changes in how you safely manage your diabetes in order to get different results.
How Often Should I Check My Blood Sugar Level
For those with type 2 diabetes, it is usually recommended to check your blood sugar before meals and just before you go to bed if you take insulin injections. If you use long-acting insulin, you may only need to test at breakfast and bedtime. Those who don’t use insulin and rely on other medications and lifestyle changes may not need to test their blood sugar every day.
Your doctor will help you determine how often you should check your blood sugar levels, and they may ask you to write the information in a logbook for your next appointment.
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Who Should Monitor Blood Glucose
If youve been diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, or youre pregnant and have developed gestational diabetes, a form of the disease that occurs during pregnancy and goes away after a baby is born, testing your blood glucose levels regularly and at specific times throughout the day will be a key aspect of managing your disease.
The American Diabetes Association recommends that, for ideal use and implementation, anyone prescribed continuous glucose monitoring should receive robust education, training, and support and should be able to perform self-monitoring of blood glucose in order to calibrate their monitor and/or verify readings if they dont represent their symptoms.
It will be helpful to keep a log of your results, as well as details about what youve eaten throughout the day and how much physical activity youve gotten. With this information, you and your healthcare provider can get a grasp on how certain foods or activities affect your blood sugar and what adjustments you should make to meet your target goals.
|Target Blood Glucose Goals|
Remedies For High Sugar Level
If the blood sugar level is between 180 to250 mg/dL, seek medical advice and take medicines. Cut off a fast-acting carb diet. Dont take processed food and sugary items.
If the blood sugar level is> 250 mg/dL, you need immediate medical attention. If left untreated, it can lead to coma and high ketones in the blood. So test for ketones and get insulin therapy as soon as possible.
If you experience high sugar levels on regular basis, you are advised to do the following:
Many diabetic patients are aware of the changes they need to make in their diet or daily routine but are not able to follow them due to various reasons. Lack of motivation and proper knowledge is the most common reasons. A constant push from a diabetes reversal coach along with the guidance of a Diabetologist can help regulate blood sugar levels.
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Testing Your Own Blood Glucose
Usually, blood glucose testing is done by your doctor or nurse. But some people might be able to do this at home with a continuous glucose monitor or finger prick hometesting kit. If your doctor or nurse thinks CGM or finger prick testing would be suitable for you:
they will give you training and support so you know what to do
they will assess your blood glucose testing skills and needs regularly, as part of the reviews of your diabetes care plan.
Not everyone needs to monitor their blood glucose at home. You should only do this if your doctor or nurse advises it.
Normal Blood Sugar Ranges In Healthy Non
For a person without any type of diabetes, blood sugar levels are generally between 70 to 130 mg/dL depending on the time of day and the last time they ate a meal.
Newer theories about non-diabetic blood sugar levels have included post-meal blood sugar levels as high as 140 mg/dL.
Here are the normal blood sugar ranges for a person without diabetes according to the American Diabetes Association:
- Fasting blood sugar : Less than 100 mg/dL
- 1-2 hours after a meal: Less than 140 mg/dL
- 2-3 hours after eating: Less than 100 mg/dL
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Prevent Type 2 Diabetes
If your test results show you have prediabetes, ask your doctor or nurse if there is a lifestyle change program offered through the CDC-led National Diabetes Prevention Program in your community. You can also search for an online or in-person program. Having prediabetes puts you at greater risk for developing type 2 diabetes, but participating in the program can lower your risk by as much as 58% .
What Else Can I Do To Help Manage My Blood Sugar Levels
- Keep track of your blood sugar levels to see what makes them go up or down.
- Eat at regular times, and dont skip meals.
- Choose foods lower in calories, saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and salt.
- Track your food, drink, and physical activity.
- Drink water instead of juice or soda.
- Limit alcoholic drinks.
- For a sweet treat, choose fruit.
- Control your food portions .
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What Is The A1c Test
The A1C test is a simple blood test that measures your average blood sugar levels over the past 2 or 3 months. The test is done at a lab or your doctors office in addition tonot instead ofregular blood sugar testing you do yourself.
A1C testing is part of the ABCs of diabetesimportant steps you can take to prevent or delay health complications down the road:
- A: Get a regular A1C test.
- B: Try to keep your blood pressure below 140/90 mm Hg .
- C: Manage your cholesterol levels.
- s: Stop smoking or dont start.
The A1C goal for most adults with diabetes is between 7% and 8%, but your goal may be different depending on your age, other health conditions, medicines youre taking, and other factors. Work with your doctor to establish a personal A1C goal for you.
Infant Mortality And Birth Defects
There is a slight increase in the risk of infant mortality or birth defects in babys of mother with diabetes than without, however preconception care can reduce this risk by ensuring the mother is as healthy as possible before and through out pregnancy
In addition to this if a woman has diabetes before pregnancy, diabetes related complications can worsen this includes things like hypertensio, kidney disease, nerve damage and retinopathy which is a form of diabetic eye disease.
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High Blood Sugar Levels During The Night And In The Morning
Your blood sugar levels may be normal before bed but rise during the night.
Symptoms of high blood sugar levels while you sleep include:
When you sleep, your body doesnt require as much fuel as it does when you are awake. However, when you wake up, your body gets ready to work and produce energy, and your liver begins releasing glucose into the blood. This causes the pancreas to release extra insulin to handle the rising blood sugar levels in your body.
With diabetes, your body cant produce sufficient insulin to process the released glucose. This causes blood sugar levels to rise in the morning.
Type 2 Diabetes And Blood Sugar Levels
Type 2 diabetes prevents glucose sugar from entering your body’s cells to properly use for energy. Insulin is a hormone released by your pancreas , which helps glucose get into your cells to carry out body functions.
However, in those with type 2 diabetes, the cells become resistant to insulin. This makes it more difficult for the glucose in your bloodstream to get into the cells to provide your body with the energy it needs for many of its functions. This can lead to high levels of sugar in your blood that can’t get into your cells, which over time may result in dangerous health consequences.
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What Should My Bgl Be
For a personwithout diabetes, throughout the day blood glucose levels will generally range between 4.0 7.8 millimoles of glucose per litre of blood regardless of how they eat or exercise, or what stress theyre under.
When youre living with diabetes your body cannot, or finds it hard to, keep your BGLs within a healthy range.
Because each person living with diabetes is different, your GP or specialist will set target BGLs that are right for you. However, here is some information you can use as a general guide. The information below is a general guide for target blood glucose levels before meals and after eating.
What Abnormal Results Mean
If you had a fasting blood glucose test:
- A level of 100 to 125 mg/dL means you have impaired fasting glucose, a type of prediabetes. This increases your risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
- A level of 126 mg/dL or higher usually means you have diabetes.
If you had a random blood glucose test:
- A level of 200 mg/dL or higher often means you have diabetes.
- Your provider will order a fasting blood glucose, A1C test glucose tolerance test , depending on your random blood glucose test result.
- In someone who has diabetes, an abnormal result on the random blood glucose test may mean that the diabetes is not well controlled.
Other medical problems can also cause a higher-than-normal blood glucose level, including:
- Overactive thyroid gland
- Weight loss after weight loss surgery
- Vigorous exercise
Some medicines can raise or lower your blood glucose level. Before having the test, tell your provider about all the medicines you are taking.
For some thin young women, a fasting blood sugar level below 70 mg/dL may be normal.
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Type 2 Diabetes: High Blood Sugar Levels Before Bed
Diabetes is a common condition that affects around 10%¹ of people in the US. Approximately 9095% of these people have type 2 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is not curable, but you can effectively manage it and even put it into remission. Monitoring your blood sugar levels is one of the best ways to keep the condition under control.
Blood glucose levels can change throughout the day. The reading you get will depend on many factors. Knowing what to expect from these fluctuations can help you identify a problem and take the necessary steps to manage it.
Lets take a closer look at type 2 diabetes and what you should expect from your blood sugar levels before bed, in the morning, and throughout the rest of the day.
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Low Blood Sugar Levels Before Bed
Low blood sugar levels before bed are just as problematic as hyperglycemia for people with type 2 diabetes.
Some people with diabetes have a condition called nocturnal hypoglycemia. This occurs when blood sugar levels fall below 70 mg/dl.
You are at risk of suffering from this condition if you:
Dont eat dinner
Do strenuous exercise before going to bed
Drink alcohol in the evening
Develop an infection
The symptoms of nocturnal hypoglycemia include a racing heartbeat, changes in your breathing, poor sleep, nightmares, and sweating.
If they are low, you can increase your blood sugar levels by eating a healthy snack before bed.
The following steps can help prevent the problem from happening in the future:
Check your blood sugar levels before going to bed
Speak to your doctor about changing your insulin dosage and timing
Dont skip meals
Avoid drinking alcohol before bedtime
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Follow Your Diabetes Meal Plan
Make a diabetes meal plan with help from your health care team. Following a meal plan will help you manage your blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol.
Choose fruits and vegetables, beans, whole grains, chicken or turkey without the skin, fish, lean meats, and nonfat or low-fat milk and cheese. Drink water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages. Choose foods that are lower in calories, saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and salt. Learn more about eating, diet, and nutrition with diabetes.
Target Blood Sugar Levels For Children And Adolescents With Diabetes
Age 6-12 Bedtime 100-180
Kids aged 6 to 12 should have blood sugar levels that range between 80 to 180 mg/dL over the course of a day. Blood sugar levels go up after eating a meal because the body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, which is then distributed throughout the bloodstream. Other macronutrientsprotein and fatturn into glucose as well, but at a slower rate. Many people learn how to use these factors to their advantage. For example, if a childs sugar is trending low, a bedtime snack that includes something with protein and fat, like chocolate milk or peanut butter, will help raise blood sugar levels and help keep blood sugar levels steady through the night.
When you wake up in the morning, your fasting blood sugar is generally at its lowest because you havent consumed food for about eight hours. However, many people experience an increase in blood sugar levels in the early morning hours. If youre an adult and struggling with glucose control, your healthcare provider can help you develop a treatment plan to manage your blood sugar better.
Blood glucose levels outside the ranges listed above are categorized as either high or low blood sugar. For example, according to this chart, blood sugar levels are considered high if theyre over 130 mg/dL before a meal or 180 mg/dL within one to two hours after a meal. Many people wont start to experience symptoms from high blood sugar until their levels are at 250 mg/dL or higher. .
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Diabetes: Suffering From High
The following symptoms can indicate high blood sugar levels or diabetes in men.
There is no disputing that diabetes is on the rise in India a recent research found that the number of men and women diagnosed with the disease has climbed dramatically over the previous few years. First, the Indian diet is getting more westernised, with more and more people eating processed and junk food. Second, sedentary lifestyles are on the increase, with fewer people engaging in regular physical activity. Third, obesity rates are growing.
Type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes exist. Type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune condition, usually affects youngsters. Your body doesn’t produce enough insulin if you have this kind of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is unavoidable. Gestational diabetes fades after delivery. Type 2 diabetes occurs when your body doesn’t react effectively to insulin. Diet and lifestyle changes may prevent it.
1. Urinary complications
A Tool For Simplifying The Recommendations: The Trilogy Of Sevens
The variability in the recommendations results in difficulties for diabetes management. Trying to struggle with the jumble of recommendations and values is obviously more complicated for health care providers than memorizing a single number. As a consequence, the targets should be as simple as possible. An answer to this problem can be obtained from data that we have previously published .
The most important result of this study was that a value of 7 mmol/l measured at 2 h after lunch appeared to be the optimal threshold value for predicting treatment success defined by high specificity A1C levels of < 7%. By considering first that the criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes is a fasting plasma glucose level 7 mmol/l and second that 7% has, for a number of years, been the American Diabetes Associationâs A1C threshold value for satisfactory diabetic control , we suggest that these two number sevens can be joined by an additional postprandial seven to complete the series. As a consequence, the glucose triad could be translated for clinical purpose into the trilogy of sevens that integrates a cluster of measures, including diagnosis , interventional threshold values for completing treatment: A1C goals < 7% and postprandial glucose targets < 7 mmol/l at 2-h after lunch. This seven rule is certainly easier to remember than many recommendations that have been made around the world .
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