What Causes Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes develops when the pancreas makes less insulin than the body needs, and the body cells stop responding to insulin. They dont take in sugar as they should. Sugar builds up in your blood. When cells dont respond to insulin, this is called insulin resistance. It’s usually caused by:
- Lifestyle factors, including obesity and a lack of exercise.
- Genetics, or abnormal genes, that prevent cells from working as they should.
Does Eating Sugary Foods Cause Diabetes
Sugar itself doesn’t directly cause diabetes. Eating foods high in sugar content can lead to weight gain, which is a risk factor for developing diabetes. Eating more sugar than recommended American Heart Association recommends no more than six teaspoons a day for women and nine teaspoons for men leads to all kinds of health harms in addition to weight gain.
These health harms are all risk factors for the development of diabetes or can worsen complications. Weight gain can:
- Raise blood pressure, cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
- Increase your risk of cardiovascular disease.
- Cause fat buildup in your liver.
- Cause tooth decay.
How Should I Store My Insulin
Like food, insulin doesnt have a forever shelf life. Its recommended that you store any insulin youre not using in the fridge.
However, injecting cold insulin may make the injection feel more painful. Because of this, a best practice is to keep the bottle of insulin youre currently using in a safe place, away from direct heat and sunlight. Insulin kept at room temperature can last about a month.
Do not store insulin in the freezer, and always check the expiration date before using it.
Side effects from injecting or receiving insulin are rare, but can occur in certain cases. The symptoms of mild allergic reactions are swelling, itching, or redness around the injection area. More severe insulin allergies may include nausea and vomiting.
In either case, talk with your doctor if you notice any of these signs.
Hypoglycemia, or blood glucose levels that are too low, can sometimes occur when you take insulin.
Its important to balance the insulin that you give yourself with food or calories. If you exercise longer or harder than usual or dont eat the right amount of calories or carbs, your glucose level can drop too low and trigger low blood sugar. Symptoms of low blood sugar include:
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Type 2s: Time For Insulin
Type 2s: Time For Insulin?
Another effective option would be to use an insulin PUMP. Insulin pumps are beeper-sized and battery-operated. They deliver tiny pulses of rapid acting insulin throughout the day and night, which effectively serves as the & ldquo basal& rdquo insulin. The user programs a larger dose, called a & ldquo bolus& rdquo dose, to be delivered at meal and snack times. The insulin is delivered from the pump into a small plastic tube that sits just below the skin.In order to cut down on the number of injections required with MDI or the complexity of using an insulin pump, some people opt to use PREMIXED insulin. Premixed insulin usually consists of intermediate insulin known as NPH combined with rapid insulin. Taken at breakfast and dinner, premixed insulin provides some basal insulin throughout the day and night and rapid insulin to offset breakfast and dinner.
Why Do I Need To Take Insulin
All people who have type 1 diabetes and some people who have type 2 diabetes need to take insulin to help control their blood sugar levels. The goal of taking insulin is to keep your blood sugar level in a normal range as much as possible. Keeping blood sugar in check helps you stay healthy. Insulin cant be taken by mouth. It is usually taken by injection . It can also be taken using an insulin pen or an insulin pump.
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If Not Controlled At The Right Time Diabetes Can Lead To Kidney Failure Partial Or Complete Blindness Nerve Problems Loss Of Limbs And Increase The Risk Of A Heart Attack
Insulin, which is produced by the pancreas in the body, helps control the bodys blood sugar level. Regular insulin intake along with a proper diet and exercise plan is recommended for type 2 diabetes patients to help maintain their blood sugar level. If not controlled at the right time, diabetes can lead to kidney failure, partial or complete blindness, nerve problems, loss of limbs and even increase the risk of a heart attack. However, there are several myths around injecting insulin due to lack of awareness.
A study, published in the American Medical Associations biomedical journal JAMA Network Open, also found that the relative risk of death due to diabetes itself was much stronger among individuals who were underweight. The findings suggest that there is an urgent need to develop diabetes management programs that are tailored to Asian populations and the subsequent strong implementation of these programs in Asia.
Why do Type 2 diabetics need insulin?
The pancreas, that produces digestive enzymes, is also responsible for producing insulin, a hormone that helps regulate blood sugar levels. Insulin helps the body use the carbohydrates in food for energy. If a patient develops Type 2 diabetes, their pancreas stop producing sufficient insulin that is required for the body to control blood sugar level, said Dr Roopak Wadhwa, consultant, department of diabetes endocrinology and metabolism at Fortis Hospital.
Tips while taking insulin injections
How Should This Medicine Be Used
Human insulin comes as a solution and a suspension . to be injected subcutaneously . Human insulin is usually injected subcutaneously several times a day, and more than one type of insulin may be needed. Your doctor will tell you which type of insulin to use, how much insulin to use, and how often to inject insulin. Follow these directions carefully. Do not use more or less insulin or use it more often than prescribed by your doctor.
Human insulin solution may also be injected intravenously by a doctor or nurse in a healthcare setting. A doctor or nurse will carefully monitor you for side effects.
Human insulin controls high blood sugar but does not cure diabetes. Continue to use human insulin even if you feel well. Do not stop using insulin without talking to your doctor. Do not switch to another brand or type of insulin or change the dose of any type of insulin you use without talking to your doctor.
Human insulin comes in vials, prefilled disposable dosing devices, and cartridges. The cartridges are designed to be placed in dosing pens. Be sure you know what type of container your insulin comes in and what other supplies, such as needles, syringes, or pens, you will need to inject your medication. Make sure that the name and letter on your insulin are exactly what your doctor prescribed.
If your human insulin comes in a disposable dosing device, read the instructions that come with the device carefully. Ask your doctor or pharmacist to show you how to use the device.
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Are There Other Treatment Options For Diabetes
Yes. There are two types of transplantations that might be an option for a select number of patients who have Type 1 diabetes. A pancreas transplant is possible. However, getting an organ transplant requires taking immune-suppressing drugs for the rest of your life and dealing with the side effects of these drugs. However, if the transplant is successful, youll likely be able to stop taking insulin.
Another type of transplant is a pancreatic islet transplant. In this transplant, clusters of islet cells are transplanted from an organ donor into your pancreas to replace those that have been destroyed.
Another treatment under research for Type 1 diabetes is immunotherapy. Since Type 1 is an immune system disease, immunotherapy holds promise as a way to use medication to turn off the parts of the immune system that cause Type 1 disease.
Bariatric surgery is another treatment option thats an indirect treatment for diabetes. Bariatric surgery is an option if you have Type 2 diabetes, have obesity and considered a good candidate for this type of surgery. Much improved blood glucose levels are seen in people who have lost a significant amount of weight.
Of course other medications are prescribed to treat any existing health problems that contribute to increasing your risk of developing diabetes. These conditions include high blood pressure, high cholesterol and other heart-related diseases.
A Guide For The Decision To Start Insulin
Most clinicians do not think algorithmically when managing clinical conditions and advising people with diabetes. They often prefer to follow a patient-led agenda, and individuals will highlight their problems and preferences for solutions in quite different ways. As a result, a simple algorithm for starting insulin is not feasible. However, it is possible to provide a checklist that may help to guide the clinician-patient interaction to ensure that decisions occur in a logical way, and importantly without missing the opportunity to obtain relevant information .
The first consideration might be to assess whether an acute need is present, although usually that will be obvious. At diagnosis, other referral, or when admitted for whatever reason as an in-patient, the presence or absence of marked hyperglycemia, weight loss, ketones, ketoacidosis, or dehydration must be ascertained. If marked hyperglycemia alone is present, is there an acute precipitating factor, and if not, is there any prospect that glycemic control can be restored by lifestyle change? Is the patient in a risky or uncertain environment? In these cases, there may be a strong, immediate need, and persuasive advice to consider insulin may be appropriate .
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When Should Insulin Therapy Be Initiated
Type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease, and thus, ultimately this question will arise for many of our patients. Unfortunately, there is no unequivocal answer, which was nicely illustrated by a recent interactive case vignette. The polling results demonstrated once again that the management of patients with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled by two oral glucose-lowering agents is controversial. Furthermore, the preferred treatment option was found to be related to the respondents locations and self-reported specialties .
Stroke Prevention In Diabetes
The 2010 American Heart Association/American Stroke Association guidelines for the primary prevention of stroke include the following recommendations for patients with diabetes:
Regular blood pressure screening
Physical activity 30 minutes or more of moderate-intensity activity on a daily basis
A low-sodium, high-potassium diet to reduce blood pressure a diet emphasizing consumption of fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products may lower stroke risk
A blood pressure goal of less than 130/80 mm Hg
Drug therapy with ACE inhibitors or ARBs
Statin therapy, especially in patients with other risk factors monotherapy with fibrates may also be considered to lower stroke risk
The AHA/ASA guidelines note that the benefit of taking aspirin for the reduction of stroke risk has not been fully demonstrated in diabetic patients.
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Development In Insulin Injections
Ultra-long acting insulins, such as insulin glargine U300 , are more concentrated than regular strength insulin. Most insulin contains 100 units per milliliter , whereas U300 insulin has 300 units per milliliter. This means people requiring large amounts of insulin can take a lower volume of insulin without lowering the actual units of insulin taken.
Insulin degludec is a newer type of basal insulin, but it lasts longer than traditional basal insulins such as Lantus and Levemir. Longer-acting insulins may help reduce hypoglycemia risk.
Those wanting insulin that doesnt require an injection is in luck! The FDA approved an inhaled version of rapid-acting insulin called Afrezza in 2014. Its inhaled, similar to how asthma sufferers use an inhaler to deliver their asthma medication.
Insulin Is Vital To Your Health
Insulin is a hormone produced by your pancreas. It helps your body use and store sugar from food.
If you have type 2 diabetes, your body doesnt respond effectively to insulin. The pancreas isnt able to compensate properly, so theres a relatively decreased insulin production. As a result, your blood sugar levels get too high. Over time, high blood sugar can cause damage to your nerves, blood vessels, eyes, and other tissues.
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How Do I Take And Adjust My Insulin Doses
It is important to learn the different methods of taking insulin and what kinds of insulin can be delivered through each method. There are several ways to take insulin syringe, pen, pump, or inhalation though injection with a syringe is currently the most common for people with type 2 diabetes. There are many apps that can help you calculate your insulin doses.
Your insulin regimen should be tailored to fit your needs and lifestyle. Adjusting your basal insulin dosage and timing will require conversations and frequent follow-up with your healthcare team. When initiating insulin therapy, you may be advised to start with a low dose and increase the dose in small amounts once or twice a week, based on your fasting glucose levels. People with diabetes should aim to spend as much time as possible with glucose levels between 70-180 mg/dl. Insulin may be used alone or in combination with oral glucose-lowering medications, such as metformin, SGLT-2 inhibitors, or GLP-1 agonists.
One of the most important things to consider is the characteristics of different insulin types. To learn more, read Introducing the Many Types of Insulin Is There a Better Option for You? and discuss with your healthcare team.
In order to dose insulin to cover meals or snacks, you have to take a few factors into consideration. Your healthcare team should help you determine what to consider when calculating an insulin dose. Prandial insulin doses will usually be adjusted based on:
Insulin Blood Sugar And Type 2 Diabetes
Insulin is a key player in developing type 2 diabetes. This vital hormoneyou cant survive without itregulates blood sugar in the body, a very complicated process. Here are the high points:
- The food you eat is broken down into blood sugar.
- Blood sugar enters your bloodstream, which signals the pancreas to release insulin.
- Insulin helps blood sugar enter the bodys cells so it can be used for energy.
- Insulin also signals the liver to store blood sugar for later use.
- Blood sugar enters cells, and levels in the bloodstream decrease, signaling insulin to decrease too.
- Lower insulin levels alert the liver to release stored blood sugar so energy is always available, even if you havent eaten for a while.
Thats when everything works smoothly. But this finely tuned system can quickly get out of whack, as follows:
- A lot of blood sugar enters the bloodstream.
- The pancreas pumps out more insulin to get blood sugar into cells.
- Over time, cells stop responding to all that insulintheyve become insulin resistant.
- The pancreas keeps making more insulin to try to make cells respond.
- Eventually, the pancreas cant keep up, and blood sugar keeps rising.
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What Special Dietary Instructions Should I Follow
Be sure to follow all exercise and dietary recommendations made by your doctor or dietitian. It is important to eat a healthy diet and to eat about the same amounts of the same kinds of foods at about the same times every day. Skipping or delaying meals or changing the amount or kind of food you eat can cause problems with your blood sugar control.
Travelling With Diabetes Medicines
If you’re going on holiday:
- pack extra medicine â speak to your diabetes nurse about how much to take
- carry your medicine in your hand luggage just in case checked-in bags go missing or get damaged
- if you’re flying with a medicine you inject, get a letter from your GP that says you need it to treat diabetes
Page last reviewed: 18 August 2020 Next review due: 18 August 2023
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How Long To Get Cats Diabetes Under Control With Insulin
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Is It An Emergency
If you or someone in your care has chest pains, difficulty breathing, or severe bleeding, it could be a life-threatening emergency. Call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number immediately.
If you are concerned about a possible poisoning or exposure to a toxic substance, call Poison Control now at 1-800-567-8911.
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Diabetes can be managed through oral medications. In addition to insulin, metformin, which is a sugar-reducing agent, is also a common treatment for diabetes. It is considered a first-line therapy for diabetes treatment and is often added to insulin. It is important to know the risks of taking diabetes medications. Some drugs can be addictive, so you must consult your doctor before taking any medication. Your physician can prescribe you an appropriate treatment plan based on your medical history.
Your doctor will prescribe medication and check your blood glucose levels on a regular basis. Your A1c level will be checked every six months and your cholesterol levels will be tested regularly. Your doctor will also look for any signs of retinopathy, which is damage to the nerves in the eye caused by diabetes. You will also be examined for any foot problems. It is important to see a foot specialist regularly. Your feet should be thoroughly inspected for damage to the nerves.
While the first two types of insulin are the most common treatments, diabetes can be treated in a variety of ways. Your doctor may prescribe medications to control high blood pressure, which can protect the kidneys. Other types of medication include aspirin and other types of anti-platelet drugs. If your doctor is concerned about your blood sugar level, you may need to try a different medication. Some medications can cause side effects. Your treatment will depend on what type of insulin you need.