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Target Blood Sugar Levels For Type 2 Diabetes

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Blood Sugar Target Levels For Nonpregnant Adults With Diabetes

What is the Optimal HbA1c Target for Type 2 Diabetes Patients?

From the 2017 American Diabetes Association Standards of Care, the following chart shows current targets for blood sugars for nonpregnant adult patients with diabetes:

Summary of Glycemic Recommendations for Adults with Diabetes

A1C < 7.0%
Preprandial capillary plasma glucose 80130 mg/dL*
Peak postprandial capillary plasma glucose < 180 mg/dL*
*More or less stringent glycemic goals may be appropriate for individual patients. Goals should be individualized
**based on duration of diabetes, age/life expectancy, comorbid conditions, known CVD or advancedmicrovascular complications, hypoglycemia unawareness, and individual patient considerations.Postprandial glucose may be targeted

Blood sugar target levels for nonpregnant adults with diabetes coincide with A1C less than 7

An A1C less than 7 percent is the guideline for adults with diabetes, and the target ranges of 80-130 mg/dl fasting or pre-meal, and 80-180 mg/dl after meals corresponds with an A1C of less than 7 percent.

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These values represent what research has shown to be the optimal blood sugar targets for nonpregnant adults to avoid complications of diabetes in the long term. Less than 70 mg/dl is considered a low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia, and the newest guideline consider that you want to catch a low blood sugar before it occurs.

Diagnosing Prediabetes Type 2 And Type 1 Diabetes

Depending on which country or medical organization you ask, the qualifying numbers for normal versus prediabetes versus diagnosed type 1 or type 2 diabetes can vary slightly.

The following blood sugar and A1c results are used to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes according to sources including the American Diabetes Association and Diabetes UK:

Prediabetes

  • HbA1c: 5.7 to 6.4 percent
  • Fasting: 100 to 125 mg/dL
  • 2 hours after a meal: 140 mg/dL to 199 mg/dL

Type 1 or 2 diabetes

  • HbA1c: 6.5 percent or higher
  • Fasting: 126 mg/dL or higher
  • 2 hours after a meal: 200 mg/dL or higher

Please note:Type 1 diabetes tends to develop very quickly which means that by the time symptoms are felt, blood sugar levels are generally well above 200 mg/dL all the time. For many, symptoms come on so quickly that they are dismissed as the lingering flu or another seemingly ordinary virus.

By the time blood sugar levels are tested, many newly diagnosed type 1 patients will see levels above 400 mg/dL or higher. If you do suspect that you or a loved one has type 1 diabetes, visit your primary care or urgent care immediately and ask for a urine test to measure ketones in addition to testing blood sugar levels and A1c.

Read more about ketones at diagnosis in ourDiabetic Ketoacidosis Guide.

Whats My Target Range

You might be asking, what’s the normal range for blood sugar levels? The answer is, there is a healthy range that you should ideally be aiming for. The infographics above show the general guidelines, but your individual target range for your blood sugar levels may be different. Youll healthcare team will agree with you what it is.

Youll get different readings at different times of the day, depending on things like what youve eaten and how much you are moving around. Heres a guide to help you get started on finding your target range:

If youre a child with type 1 diabetes

  • when you wake up and before meals: 4 to 7mmol/l
  • after meals: 5 to 9mmol/l

If youre an adult with type 1 diabetes

  • when you wake up and before meals: 5 to 7mmol/l
  • before meals at other times of the day: 4 to 7mmol/l

If you have type 2 diabetes

  • before meals: 4 to 7mmol/l
  • two hours after meals: less than 8.5mmol/l

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Tips For Tracking Your Blood Sugar Patterns And Using Your Results

Here are some great tips:

Have a blood sugar chart on your phone or a written notebook nearby to compare your numbers

For my patients during the class entitled, Monitoring your Blood Glucose, I pass out individual notebooks, and packs of different colored highlighter pens for pattern management. Inside, there are copies of an enhanced blood sugar log.

Patients log their blood sugars at different times of the day, and color-code them with highlighters. This helps patients to pick out their blood sugar patterns, and to do different things to adjust their blood sugars to get them in a target range.

Patients may either take a walk following a high carbohydrate meal, take more insulin if they are correcting blood sugar with insulin, decrease the amount of carbohydrates at the next meal, etc. By seeing what their blood sugars are at different times of the day, they can work their blood sugars into their target ranges. Once blood sugars are in the target range, their A1C should also be on target.

I have included a copy of the enhanced blood sugar log that I use to make a pattern notebook for my patients. Readers here at TheDiabetesCouncil are welcome to copy the form for their own use in self-managing their diabetes. You can also download our comprehensive log book here.

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How Can I Treat Low Blood Sugar

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If youve had low blood sugar without feeling or noticing symptoms , you may need to check your blood sugar more often to see if its low and treat it. Driving with low blood sugar can be dangerous, so be sure to check your blood sugar before you get behind the wheel.

Carry supplies for treating low blood sugar with you. If you feel shaky, sweaty, or very hungry or have other symptoms, check your blood sugar. Even if you dont have symptoms but think you may have low blood sugar, check it. If your blood sugar is lower than 70 mg/dL, do one of the following immediately:

  • Take four glucose tablets.
  • Drink four ounces of fruit juice.
  • Drink four ounces of regular soda, not diet soda.
  • Eat four pieces of hard candy.

Wait for 15 minutes and then check your blood sugar again. Do one of the above treatments again until your blood sugar is 70 mg/dL or above and eat a snack if your next meal is an hour or more away. If you have problems with low blood sugar, ask your doctor if your treatment plan needs to be changed.

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Testing Your Own Blood Glucose

Usually, blood glucose testing is done by your doctor or nurse. But some people might be able to do this at home with a continuous glucose monitor or finger prick hometesting kit. If your doctor or nurse thinks CGM or finger prick testing would be suitable for you:

  • they will give you training and support so you know what to do

  • they will assess your blood glucose testing skills and needs regularly, as part of the reviews of your diabetes care plan.

Not everyone needs to monitor their blood glucose at home. You should only do this if your doctor or nurse advises it.

Symptoms Signs Causes Of Levels Of High Blood Sugar In The Blood

High blood sugar or hyperglycemia is an abnormally high blood sugar level in the blood. Hyperglycemia is a hallmark sign of diabetes and prediabetes.

Signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia include blurred vision, headaches, hunger, and …

The normal ranges for blood sugar levels in adults who do not have diabetes while fasting are 72-99 mg/dL. These ranges may increase to 80-130 mg/dL for those being treated for diabetes.

According to the American Diabetes Association, people with diabetes should have

  • blood sugar levels of 80-130 mg/dL before eating a meal , and
  • less than 180 mg/dL about 1-2 hours after eating a meal

High blood sugar ranges for people who dont have diabetes begin at 140 mg/dL, while those being treated for diabetes have a high range beginning at 180 mg/dL.

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Can I Check My Own Blood Sugar

You can do blood sugar level check by doing a finger-prick test, or by using an electronic blood sugar monitor called a flash glucose monitor or CGM. You can do this several times a day helping you keep an eye on your levels as you go about your life and help you work out what to eat and how much medication to take. Find out your ideal target range.

Not everyone with diabetes needs to check their levels like this. Youll need to if you take certain diabetes medication. Always talk to your healthcare team if youre not sure whether thats you theyll give you advice on whether to check them yourself and how often.

And theres also something called an HbA1c, which is a blood test to measure your average blood sugar level over the last three months. Everyone with diabetes is entitled to this check.

High blood sugar levels increase your risk of developing serious complications. However you manage your diabetes, stay in the know about your blood sugar levels

Your Task: 21 Day Lower Blood Sugar Challenge

ACP recommends moderate blood sugar control targets for most patients with type 2 diabetes
  • Re-evaluate your blood sugar goals you may already be within the healthy range, and thats great keep up the great work so you can keep them there! If youre not, continue to work toward making diet and lifestyle changes. You now understand why its so important to aim toward a healthy range it protects your health from nasty diabetic complications! And it makes you feel better overall. So commit to you, try to follow the guidance weve been providing to you through the challenge and continue to take small steps forward each day.
  • Commit to yourself and apply what we share because we know what we share can help you get results.

    Well there you have it. Hope you find this information helpful and if you do please pin it and share it around to help others. Thanks!

    References

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    Elderly People And Diabetes Medications

    Due to the increased risk of hypoglycemia in elderly people, the Diabetes Canada clinical practice guidelines recommend the following with respect to medications used to treat diabetes:

    • The class of drugs known as sulphonylureas are generally not recommended, as they can cause severe hypoglycemia.
    • Insulin detemir and insulin glargine should be used instead of NPH or human 30/70 insulin.
    • For people who need a mixture of insulin, premixed insulins and prefilled insulin pens are recommended, which can help reduce the risk of dosing errors and therefore help prevent hypoglycemia.

    Recommended Target Blood Glucose Level Ranges

    The NICE recommended target blood glucose levels are stated below for adults with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and children with type 1 diabetes.

    In addition, the International Diabetes Federations target ranges for people without diabetes is stated.

    The table provides general guidance. An individual target set by your healthcare team is the one you should aim for.

    NICE recommended target blood glucose level ranges

    Target Levels

    *The non-diabetic figures are provided for information but are not part of NICE guidelines.

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    Determining The Right A1c Goal For You

    Just because a normal blood sugar range of 70 to 130 mg/dL is considered the healthiest doesnt necessarily mean thats the appropriate goal range for you especially if you have type 1 diabetes, or take insulin as a person with type 2 diabetes.

    The reason this may not be the right goal for you is that extremely tight blood sugar management in people taking insulin can potentially lead to frequent low blood sugars which can be dangerous.

    Achieving extremely tight blood sugar management, like a range of 70 to 130 mg/dL, also often requires a strict nutrition plan, more frequent than usual blood sugar monitoring, precise medication management, and most importantly, years of experience studying your blood sugar levels.

    How Should Blood Sugar Levels Be Before And After Eating

    Pin on Diabetes

    Ideally, before eating , your blood sugars should be between 80-130 mg/dL. One to two hours after eating , your blood sugars should be below 180 mg/dL.

    Blood glucose levels can be affected by the type of food consumed, how much, and when but also many other different factors like physical activity, taking other medications, having other medical conditions, stress, age, an illness, and even menstrual periods.

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    Your Blood Sugar Isnt Just Because Of What You Eat

    Mainstream media would have you believe that your blood sugar levels are impacted only by what you eat and how much you exercise, but people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes who test their blood sugars frequently could tell you otherwise.

    Its especially important to keep this in mind when looking at your own blood sugars and your goals because there are certain variables and challenges that impact blood sugar levels that you cant always control.

    For example:

    • Menstrual cycles: raises blood sugar and insulin needs
    • Adrenaline rushes from competitive sports, heated arguments, or rollercoaster rides: raises blood sugar and insulin needs
    • The common cold and other illnesses: usually raise blood sugar and insulin needs
    • Hormonal changes due to puberty and healthy growth in young adults: raises blood sugar and insulin needs
    • An injury that raises overall inflammation levels: raises blood sugar and insulin needs
    • Glucogenesis during anaerobic exercise: raises blood sugar

    While you cant necessarily prevent these factors that affect your blood sugar from occurring, you can work with your diabetes healthcare team to adjust your insulin, other diabetes medications, nutrition and activity levels to help compensate for them when they do occur.

    For example, when engaging in anaerobic exercise like weightlifting many people with type 1 diabetes find it necessary to take a small bolus of insulin prior to or during their workout because anaerobic exercise can actually raise blood sugar.

    Why Test My Blood Glucose

    Blood testing is the best way to stay in control of your diabetes because it tells you what is happening at any particular moment. It can help determine if you are at risk of a hypoglycaemic episode or a hyperglycaemic episode . You should never change any long-term medication you are taking in response to a one-off high or low reading. You should first try to work out if there is a pattern before making any changes and always talk to your diabetes care team first.

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    A Tool For Simplifying The Recommendations: The Trilogy Of Sevens

    The variability in the recommendations results in difficulties for diabetes management. Trying to struggle with the jumble of recommendations and values is obviously more complicated for health care providers than memorizing a single number. As a consequence, the targets should be as simple as possible. An answer to this problem can be obtained from data that we have previously published .

    The most important result of this study was that a value of 7 mmol/l measured at 2 h after lunch appeared to be the optimal threshold value for predicting treatment success defined by high specificity A1C levels of < 7%. By considering first that the criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes is a fasting plasma glucose level 7 mmol/l and second that 7% has, for a number of years, been the American Diabetes Association’s A1C threshold value for satisfactory diabetic control , we suggest that these two number sevens can be joined by an additional postprandial seven to complete the series. As a consequence, the glucose triad could be translated for clinical purpose into the trilogy of sevens that integrates a cluster of measures, including diagnosis , interventional threshold values for completing treatment: A1C goals < 7% and postprandial glucose targets < 7 mmol/l at 2-h after lunch. This seven rule is certainly easier to remember than many recommendations that have been made around the world .

    How Do I Take Care Of My Blood Glucose Meter

    Diabetes Type 1 and Type 2, Animation.
    • Set the date and time when you get a new meter.
    • Make sure the date and time are right each time you use your meter.
    • Use the control solution as needed. This will let you know the meter and test strips are working right. Use it:
    • When you get a new meter.
    • When you get new test strips.
    • When you think that the meter is not giving you the right blood glucose number.
  • Keep the meter and test strips out of very hot or very cold temperatures. This can cause blood glucose numbers to be wrong.
  • Keep meter and test strips in a case, away from sunlight.
  • Keep test strips in the container they come in. Keep the lid closed.
  • Keep extra batteries with your meter.
  • There is a phone number on the back of each blood glucose meter. Call that number if your meter is not working or you have questions about how to use your meter.
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    Are High Levels Of Blood Sugar Dangerous

    • death.

    Low blood sugar levels begin at 70 mg/dL or less.

    • People with diabetes who take too much medication or take their usual amount but then eat less or exercise more than usual can develop hypoglycemia. Although much rarer, hypoglycemia may develop in some people without diabetes when they take someone elses medication, have excessive alcohol consumption, or have hepatitis or a rare tumor of the pancreas .
    • The treatment for hypoglycemia is oral glucose intake (15.0 grams of sugar, for example, 1 tablespoon of sugar, honey, corn syrup, or IV fluids containing glucose. Rechecking your blood sugar levels in about 15 minutes after the treatment is advised.

    What Should My Bgl Be

    For a personwithout diabetes, throughout the day blood glucose levels will generally range between 4.0 7.8 millimoles of glucose per litre of blood regardless of how they eat or exercise, or what stress theyre under.

    When youre living with diabetes your body cannot, or finds it hard to, keep your BGLs within a healthy range.

    Because each person living with diabetes is different, your GP or specialist will set target BGLs that are right for you. However, here is some information you can use as a general guide. The information below is a general guide for target blood glucose levels before meals and after eating.

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