Low Blood Pressure Definition
Low blood pressure is likewise called hypotension. You might be thinking that low blood pressure is an advantage, especially if yours tends to run on the high side. However the reality is that low blood pressure can be a severe condition for some individuals.
For individuals without diabetes, the American Heart Association suggests a blood pressure of less than 120 over 80 . Low blood pressure is generally defined as a blood pressure of less than 90/60. If your blood pressure tends to hover in that area with no symptoms, then theres most likely no cause for issue. However if symptoms happen, thats a signal that something is awry.
What Is A Pulmonary Hypertension
Abnormally elevated pressure in the pulmonary circulation is referred to as pulmonary hypertension. This condition affects the arteries in the lungs and the right side of the heart.
Pulmonary Hypertension Causes
Pulmonary hypertension is caused by changes in the cells that line the pulmonary arteries. These changes cause the walls of the arteries to become stiff and thick, extra tissue may also form. This can reduce or block blood flow through the blood vessels. Increased blood pressure is then caused because it is harder for blood to flow. Pulmonary hypertension can be an associated condition with scleroderma, sarcoidosis, pulmonary embolism, and dermatomyositis.
Pulmonary Hypertension Symptoms
Symptoms of pulmonary hypertension may not present themselves for months or years. Later on, symptoms become worse. Symptoms of pulmonary hypertension may include:
How Can I Prevent Low Blood Sugar
Your best bet is to practice good diabetes management and learn to detect hypoglycemia so you can treat it earlybefore it gets worse.
Monitoring blood sugar, with either a meter or a CGM, is the tried and true method for preventing hypoglycemia. Studies consistently show that the more a person checks blood sugar, the lower his or her risk of hypoglycemia. This is because you can see when blood sugar levels are dropping and can treat it before it gets too low.
If you can, check often!
- Check before and after meals.
- Check before and after exercise .
- Check before bed.
- After intense exercise, also check in the middle of the night.
- Check more if things around you change such as, a new insulin routine, a different work schedule, an increase in physical activity, or travel across time zones.
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The Dangers Of High Blood Glucose
Some of diabetesâ effects on the brain arenât obvious right away, especially when they are related to high blood sugar.
âWith diabetes, you have an increased risk of damage to blood vessels over time, including damage to the small blood vessels in the brain. This damage affects the brainâs white matter,â says Joseph C. Masdeu, MD, PhD, of the Houston Methodist Neurological Institute.
White matter is the part of the brain where nerves talk to one another. When the nerves in the brain are damaged, you can have changes in thinking called vascular cognitive impairment or vascular dementia.
Vascular cognitive impairment can happen with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes, but there are some differences in risk, says Joel Zonszein, MD, director of the Clinical Diabetes Center at Montefiore Medical Center in New York.
âThe longer you have diabetes , the more of a chance there is of developing dementia, but we see much less of it in people with type 1 whose diabetes is well-controlled,â he says.
People with type 2 may face a double-whammy because they tend to have other problems that also can cause blood vessel damage.
âThese patients tend to be less metabolically fit overall, with low HDL cholesterol, high triglycerides, and high blood pressure, and they are more likely to be obese,â Zonszein says.
Diabetes can combine with these other problems to create inflammation that damages blood vessels, so good diabetes control is all the more important, he says.
Keeping A Healthy Weight
The AHA recommends that you keep a healthy body weight to minimize your risk for hypertension. If you are overweight or obese, losing weight can help a lot if you have diabetes and high blood pressure. For one thing, if you have diabetes, losing weight can lower your blood sugar and prevent any further damage it can cause. Secondly, if you are overweight, losing weight can help lower your blood pressure by about 5 mmHg, according to the AHA.
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Preventing Low Blood Sugar Levels
Here are some other tips to help you avoid low blood sugar levels:
- Eat all your meals and snacks on time and try not to skip any.
- Take the right amount of insulin.
- If you exercise longer or harder than usual, have an extra snack.
- Don’t take a hot bath or shower right after an insulin shot.
- Stick to your diabetes management plan.
- Check your blood sugar levels regularly, so you can tell if your blood sugars are running too low and your treatment plan needs adjustment.
- Carry something containing sugar with you at all times and take it right away if you have symptoms. Don’t wait to see if the symptoms will go away they may get worse!
Alcohol and drugs can cause major problems with your blood sugar levels, so avoiding them is another way to prevent diabetes problems. Drinking can be particularly dangerous even deadly for people with diabetes because it messes up the body’s ability to keep blood glucose in a normal range. This can cause a very rapid drop in blood glucose in people with diabetes. Drug or alcohol use is also dangerous because it may affect someone’s ability to sense low blood sugar levels.
Learning how to recognize the signs of low blood sugar levels and get them back to normal is an important part of caring for diabetes. Keeping track of your blood sugar levels and recording lows when they occur will help you and your diabetes health care team keep your blood sugar levels in a healthy range.
How Do You Know If You Have It
Women with cardiac syndrome X have many of the typical symptoms of classical cardiovascular disease. Common symptoms include chest pain, shortness of breath, especially with exertion, fatigue, and reduced exercise tolerance. If you have any of these symptoms, let your physician know right away. But, people with cardiac syndrome X who undergo angiography to look for a blockage in the coronary arteries, find their arteries are clean or almost clean. Yet, they will often have an abnormal cardiac stress test. During exertion, their EKG heart tracings show signs of strain on the heart.
A cardiac stress test is the biggest clue that something is wrong. A stress test is where you walk or run on a treadmill while technicians monitor your heart activity. In some cases, especially for people who cant exercise, they inject the blood vessels with a dye that dilates the blood vessels, mimicking the effects of exercise and then monitor heart activity. This study is called a thallium stress study. So, an abnormal cardiac stress test in the setting of clear coronary arteries, suggests cardiac syndrome X as a possibility.
So, how do you know if you have it? If a physician suspects cardiac syndrome X, they may recommend a more advanced imaging study, like a PET or PET scan, spiral CT, or cardiovascular MRI to get a closer look at the smaller blood vessels.
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Differences In Patients With Type 1 Vs Type 2
In the American Diabetes Associations 2010 report, Blood Pressure Management in Patients with Diabetes, it is emphasized that hypertension is different in type 1 vs. type 2 patients.
Individuals with type 1 diabetes usually develop hypertension because of diabetic nephropathy , explains the report, with 30 percent eventually being affected.
In contrast, patients with type 2 diabetes often present with hypertension either upon diagnosis of their diabetes or well before their blood sugar levels were even high in the first place. And hypertension is found in 50 to 80 percent of patients with type 2.
Where type 1 and type 2 diabetes overlap in relation to high blood pressure, however, is how it drastically increases a patients risk for heart disease or cardiovascular disease.
With uncontrolled hypertension, there is a consistent relationship between elevated systolic BP and increased risk for micro- and macrovascular diseases, explains the report.
More than 65 percent of the deaths in patients with diabetes are directly related to cardiovascular disease.
And for those not yet diagnosed with diabetes, its estimated that non-diabetic patients with high blood pressure were 2.5 times as likely to eventually develop type 2 diabetes compared to patients with normal blood pressure.
Can Caffeine Cause Nosebleeds
Caffeine, like amphetamines, is a stimulant that produces physical and mental effects. Its consumed orally and while the effects are nowhere as strong as illegal drugs, it can still produce some of the same adverse reactions, including nosebleeds.
The difference is that caffeine dries out your body, sucking the moisture out of your mucus membranes and leaving your nasal passages exposed. Blood pressure increases can also occur, although this is typically only a major problem when large doses are consumed, or the user has a very low tolerance.
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Common Causes And Risk Factors For High Blood Pressure And Diabetes
We already covered the causes of high blood pressure.
Hypertension and diabetes very often occur along and might have some common causes, like obesity, inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance.
Obesity is a global problem, which is identified as the highest risk for developing both, hypertension and diabetes.
A person with diabetes might have less insulin, or their insulin may not function appropriately.
The hormone insulin helps the body to process glucose from food and use it as energy. If a person experience issues with producing insulin, glucose is not providing required amounts of energy, or excess amounts of glucose accumulate in the bloodstream.
Blood full of glucose that travels tough the body can cause colossal damage to kidney and blood vessels. These organs play a significant role in maintaining a healthy blood pressure level, and if those organs are damaged, inevitably blood pressure rises, and further complications may occur.
Also, common risk factors for both diseases include:
- inactive or sedentary lifestyle,
- aging ,
- low levels of vitamin D, and
- consuming tobacco.
Researches interpreted that people with elevated blood pressure are at a higher risk of diabetes.
Preventing A Low Blood Sugar Level
If you have diabetes, you can reduce your chance of getting a low blood sugar level if you:
- Check your blood sugar level regularly and be aware of the symptoms of a low blood sugar level so you can treat it quickly.
- Always carry a sugary snack or drink with you, such as glucose tablets, a carton of fruit juice or some sweets. If you have a glucagon injection kit, always keep it with you.
- Do not skip meals.
- Be careful when drinking alcohol. Do not drink large amounts, check your blood sugar level regularly, and eat a carbohydrate snack afterwards.
- Be careful when exercising eating a carbohydrate snack before exercise can help to reduce the risk of a hypo. If you take some types of diabetes medicine, your doctor may recommend you take a lower dose before or after doing intense exercise.
- Have a carbohydrate snack, such as toast, if your blood sugar level drops too low while you’re asleep
If you keep getting a low blood sugar level, talk to your diabetes care team about things you can do to help prevent it.
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How Common Is High Blood Pressure Amongst Diabetics
The level of high blood pressure risk goes up for people of African-Caribbean or Indian origin.
Furthermore, risk increases for those who are overweight, eat low fruit and vegetable levels, dont take much exercise or drink regularly.
What Drinks And Foods Raise Blood Sugar Fast
- 4 teaspoons of sugar
- 1/2 can of regular soda or juice
Many people like the idea of treating low blood sugar with dietary treats such as cake, cookies, and brownies. However, sugar in the form of complex carbohydrates or sugar combined with fat and protein are much too slowly absorbed to be useful in acute treatment.
Once the acute episode has been treated, a healthy, long-acting carbohydrate to maintain blood sugars in the appropriate range should be consumed. Half a sandwich is a reasonable option.
If the hypoglycemic episode has progressed to the point at which the patient cannot or will not take anything by mouth, more drastic measures will be needed. In many cases, a family member or roommate can be trained in the use of glucagon. Glucagon is a hormone that causes a rapid release of glucose stores from the liver. It is an injection given intramuscularly to an individual who cannot take glucose by mouth. A response is usually seen in minutes and lasts for about 90 minutes. Again, a long-acting source of glucose should thereafter be consumed to maintain blood sugar levels in the safe range. If glucagon is not available and the patient is not able to take anything by mouth, emergency services should be called immediately. An intravenous route of glucose administration should be established as soon as possible.
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Work With Your Health Care Team
Most people with diabetes get health care from a primary care professional. Primary care professionals include internists, family physicians, and pediatricians. Sometimes physician assistants and nurses with extra training, called nurse practitioners, provide primary care. You also will need to see other care professionals from time to time. A team of health care professionals can help you improve your diabetes self-care. Remember, you are the most important member of your health care team.
Besides a primary care professional, your health care team may include
- an endocrinologist for more specialized diabetes care
- a registered dietitian, also called a nutritionist
- a nurse
Nosebleed Definition And Facts
- The definition of a nosebleed is simply bleeding from the blood vessels in the nose. The medical term for nosebleed is epistaxis.
- Nosebleeds are common due to the location of the nose on the face, and the large amount of blood vessels in the nose.
- The most common causes of nosebleeds are drying of the nasal membranes and nose picking , which can be prevented with proper lubrication of the nasal passages and not picking the nose.
- Most nosebleeds can be stopped at home.
- Consult a doctor for a nosebleed if bleeding cannot be stopped, there is a large amount of blood lost, or you feel weak or faint.
- Chronic nosebleeds or persistent nosebleeds may need to be stopped with a heating instrument or chemical swab , or application of a topical medicine called thrombin that promotes local clotting of blood.
- A doctor may use nasal packs to stop nosebleeds when conservative measures fail.
- Do not take aspirin or other blood thinning products when you get a nosebleed .
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People With Diabetes And High Blood Pressure Are More At Risk Of Having A Heart Attack Or Stroke So It’s Important To Know How To Look After Your Blood Pressure
If you have diabetes, you need your blood pressure checked by a healthcare professional at least once a year. This check is part of your annual review.
If your blood pressure is high , youll need treatment to bring it down. This is because it puts a strain on your blood vessels and can damage them. This can make it harder for blood to flow around the body and reach all the vital areas it needs to, like your heart. And youre more at risk of having a heart attack or stroke. It also puts you more at risk of developing all types of diabetes complications, like serious problems with your feet, your eyes and your kidneys.
Theres lots to help manage your blood pressure because your lifestyle has a direct impact. But lots of people also need to take medication to treat high blood pressure and reduce the risk complications.
Its really important to know that you might have high blood pressure and feel fine, because there arent usually any symptoms. But even if you feel healthy, high blood pressure is damaging your blood vessels and you need to get treatment. Thats why you should never miss a blood pressure check its a free test and takes two minutes.
Following The Dash Diet
DASH stands for Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension and consists of dietary recommendations to help treat and prevent hypertension. The diet suggests eating more fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products, and eating less fats . For some people, adopting this diet helped reduce their blood pressure by 11 mmHg. For more food recommendations, see our blog post here.
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What Do Blood Pressure Numbers Mean
Blood pressure is measured in millimetres of mercury, as two figures, for example 124/80 mmHg.
- The first number is known as systolic pressure pressure in the arteries when the heart contracts.
- The second number is diastolic pressure the pressure in the arteries when the heart rests.
Blood pressure is important to track because high blood pressure is associated with a greater risk of organ damage, such as kidney damage and retinal damage, in people with diabetes.
High blood pressure tends to be quite closely associated with people with type 2 diabetes, but keeping blood pressure levels healthy applies to all people with diabetes and we should have our blood pressure measured at least once each year.
Because of the extra threat of organ damage, people with diabetes are actually given more strict targets for blood pressure than other patients.
Non-diabetic people have a target of keeping below 140 over 80 millimetres of mercury.
For people with diabetes, the target is below 130 over 80.
You might ask what these numbers mean. The first number is the pressure in the blood vessels at the point in which the heart pumps. The second number is the measurement of the pressure when the heart is resting between each beats.
The thing about conventional blood pressure checks is that they give a reading only relevant to the time youre having the check.
If youre not completely relaxed at the time of the check, you could get a reading thats higher than it should be.