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Type 1 Diabetes Require Insulin

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What Is Insulin Made Of

U-M Type 1 Diabetes 101 | Module 5 | How Does Insulin Work?

Insulin is made in different ways. You and your healthcare team will discuss which insulin you can take.

  • Human insulin this is synthetic and made in a laboratory to be like insulin made in the body.
  • Analogue insulin the insulin molecule is like a string of beads. Scientists have managed to alter the position of some of these beads to create genetically engineered insulin known as analogues.
  • Animal insulin This isnt used much anymore, but some people find that insulin from animals works best for them. It is usually from a cow or pig.

Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus also known as type 1 diabetes, juvenile diabetes. Do not worry if you or your child have one type of diabetes. Diabetes is a serious disease, but you can live a healthy, long life with proper nutritional therapy, medical treatment, regular exercise and diabetes education. What is Type 1 Diabetes? The

How Can I Keep My Blood Sugar Level From Getting Too High Or Too Low

You need to check your blood sugar level regularly using a blood glucose monitor. Your doctor or his or her office staff can teach you how to use the monitor. Youll need to write down each measurement and show this record to your doctor. He or she will use this information to decide how much insulin is right for you.

Blood sugar measurements can vary depending on your lifestyle. Stress levels, how often you exercise, and how fast your body absorbs food can affect measurements. Hormonal changes related to puberty, menstrual cycles, and pregnancy can, too. Illness, traveling, or a change in your routine may mean that you have to monitor your blood sugar level more often.

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Check Blood Sugar Levels

Checking your blood sugar levels is another part of your diabetes treatment plan. It lets you know how well the other parts of your treatment like your insulin injections and meal plan are working.

Your diabetes care team may recommend that you use a continuous glucose monitor . A CGM is a wearable device that can measure blood sugar every few minutes around the clock. It’s measured by a thread-like sensor inserted under the skin and secured in place. Sensors can stay in place for about a week before they have to be replaced and are accurate enough to replace frequent finger-stick testing. The more frequent CGM blood sugar readings can help you and the care team do an even better job of troubleshooting and adjusting your insulin doses and diabetes management plan to improve blood sugar control.

A blood glucose meter or CGM tells you what your blood sugar level is at the moment. Your doctor may also send you for another type of blood sugar test that tells you how your blood sugar levels have been for the 3 months before the test.

What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Type 1 juvenile diabetes makes you grow up quickly

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening condition. It happens when your liver breaks down fat to use as energy because theres not enough insulin and therefore glucose isnt being used as an energy source. Fat is broken down by the liver into a fuel called ketones. The formation and use of ketones is a normal process if it has been a long time since your last meal and your body needs fuel. Ketones are a problem when your fat is broken down too fast for your body to process and they build up in your blood. This makes your blood acidic, which is a condition called ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis can be the result of uncontrolled Type 1 diabetes and less commonly, Type 2 diabetes.Diabetic ketoacidosis is diagnosed by the presence of ketones in your urine or blood and a basic metabolic panel. The condition develops over several hours and can cause coma and possibly even death.

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Insulin Sensitivity And Your Dose

You may hear your healthcare professional talk about insulin sensitivity. This is how well your body is using insulin to get your blood sugar levels down. People with high sensitivity need less insulin than those with low sensitivity.

Your healthcare professional can test you for insulin sensitivity, and this will help them decide what dose of insulin you will need, and if insulin of you need it at all.

Can Diabetes Kill You

Yes, its possible that if diabetes remains undiagnosed and uncontrolled it can cause devastating harm to your body. Diabetes can cause heart attack, heart failure, stroke, kidney failure and coma. These complications can lead to your death. Cardiovascular disease in particular is the leading cause of death in adults with diabetes.

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Diabetes Sick Day Rules

If you need to take insulin to control your diabetes, you should have received instructions about looking after yourself when you’re ill known as your “sick day rules”.

Contact your diabetes care team or GP for advice if you haven’t received these.

The advice you’re given will be specific to you, but some general measures that your sick day rules may include could be to:

  • keep taking your insulin it’s very important not to stop treatment when you’re ill your treatment plan may state whether you need to temporarily increase your dose
  • test your blood glucose level more often than usual most people are advised to check the level at least four times a day
  • keep yourself well hydrated make sure you drink plenty of sugar-free drinks
  • keep eating eat solid food if you feel well enough to, or liquid carbohydrates such as milk, soup and yoghurt if this is easier
  • check your ketone levels if your blood glucose level is high

Seek advice from your diabetes care team or GP if your blood glucose or ketone level remains high after taking insulin, if:

  • you’re not sure whether to make any changes to your treatment
  • you develop symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis
  • you have any other concerns

Read more about sick day rules

Managing Diabetes With Insulin

Newly diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes – patient story Medtronic MiniMed insulin pump

Injections of insulin can help manage both types of diabetes. The injected insulin acts as a replacement for, or a supplement to, your bodys natural insulin.

People living with type 1 diabetes cant make insulin, so they must inject insulin to control their blood glucose levels.

Many people living with type 2 diabetes can manage their blood glucose levels with lifestyle changes and oral medication. However, if these treatments dont help control glucose levels, people living with type 2 diabetes may also need supplemental insulin.

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What Is Continuous Glucose Monitoring

Advancements in technology have given us another way to monitor glucose levels. Continuous glucose monitoring uses a tiny sensor inserted under your skin. You don’t need to prick your finger. Instead, the sensor measures your glucose and can display results anytime during the day or night. Ask your healthcare provider about continuous glucose monitors to see if this is an option for you.

Perioperative Blood Glucose Management

Surgical proceduresincluding the preoperative emotional stress and the effects of general anesthesia as well as the trauma of the procedure itselfcan markedly increase plasma glucose levels and induce DKA in patients with type 1 DM. In patients going to surgery who have not received a dose of intermediate-acting insulin that day, injection of one third to one half of the total daily dose as NPH insulin or 80% of the dose as glargine or detemir insulin before surgery is often effective.

At the same time, an IV infusion containing 5% glucose in either 0.9% saline solution or water should be started at a rate of 1 L over 6-8 hours . Blood glucose levels should be checked every 2 hours during the surgical procedure, and small doses of regular or rapid-acting insulin should be given if values exceed 140 mg/dL.

After the operation, check plasma glucose levels and assess for a reaction to ketones. Unless a change in dosage is indicated, repeat the preoperative dose of insulin when the patient recovers from the anesthesia, and continue the glucose infusion.

Monitor plasma glucose and ketones at 2- to 4-hour intervals, and administer regular insulin every 4-6 hours as needed to maintain the plasma glucose level in the range of 100-250 mg/dL . Continue until the patient can be switched to oral feedings and a 2- or 3-dose insulin schedule.

Postoperative IV insulin infusion after major surgical procedures is currently considered the standard of care in most hospitals.

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Specific Flexible Insulin Therapy Programs

NPH or Lente Insulin as the Basal Insulin. One popular solution to the problem of nocturnal insulin replacement is to delay administration of the intermediate-acting insulin until bedtime1,2,16.19 With this approach, serum insulin levels before breakfast are higher , and nocturnal hypoglycemia should be less of a problem. When mealtime insulin is only administered twice , mealtime flexibility is not significantly improved.

FIGURE 2.

Idealized insulin effect provided by an insulin regimen consisting of injections of short-acting regular insulin and intermediate-acting insulin before breakfast, short-acting insulin before the evening meal and intermediate-acting insulin at bedtime.

Adapted with permission from Skyler JS. Insulin treatment. In: Lebovitz HE, ed. Therapy for diabetes mellitus and related disorders. 3d ed. Alexandria, Va.: American Diabetes Association, 1998:197.

FIGURE 2.

Idealized insulin effect provided by an insulin regimen consisting of injections of short-acting regular insulin and intermediate-acting insulin before breakfast, short-acting insulin before the evening meal and intermediate-acting insulin at bedtime.

Adapted with permission from Skyler JS. Insulin treatment. In: Lebovitz HE, ed. Therapy for diabetes mellitus and related disorders. 3d ed. Alexandria, Va.: American Diabetes Association, 1998:197.

FIGURE 4.

FIGURE 4.

FIGURE 6.

FIGURE 6.

What Happens When You Have Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

Insulin injection for type 1 diabetes

If you have either type 1 or type 2 diabetes, it means you have too much glucose in your blood. This is the same for both types. But the difference between them is how this happens.

If you have type 1 diabetes, it means you have an autoimmune condition. This means your body has attacked and destroyed the cells that make a hormone called insulin. So you cant make insulin anymore.

We all need insulin as it helps take the glucose from our blood into our bodys cells. We then use this glucose for energy. Without insulin, the glucose level in your blood gets too high.

Type 2 diabetes is different. If youve got type 2, either your body doesnt make enough insulin, or your insulin doesnt work properly. This is known as insulin resistance. Like type 1, this means the level of glucose in your blood is too high.

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The Emotional Impact Of Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

Living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes can sometimes feel overwhelming.

Both types are different but feeling down or anxious because of your diabetes can affect anyone. It is important to understand that a long-term condition can come with an emotional impact, no matter how it has been caused or how you treat it.

If youre struggling with your diabetes, remember that youre not alone.

There is lots of support available to you, like our helpline. There you can speak to our highly trained advisors about how you’re feeling. And you can also speak to people who are going through similar experiences on our forum. There are lots of things you can do to help yourself and its just about finding what works for you.

It can be frustrating to explain the differences between type 1 and type 2.

Both types face confusion over what causes the condition and how it can be treated. This will be slightly different whether you’re type 1 or the more common type 2. Just because something is more common, doesn’t mean it is understood.

And while it is emotionally draining to constantly correct people, you should also know that you’re not alone. There are many people living with diabetes facing similar questions and struggles, regardless of type. You can reach out to them to give or receive support in the forum and at local groups.

Type 1 And Type 2 Differences

Below is a guide to some of the main differences between type 1 and type 2.

Your body attacks the cells in your pancreas which means it cannot make any insulin.

Your body is unable to make enough insulin or the insulin you do make doesnt work properly.

We dont currently know what causes type 1 diabetes.

We know some things can put you at risk of having type 2 like weight and ethnicity.

The symptoms for type 1 appear more quickly.

Type 2 symptoms can be easier to miss because they appear more slowly.

Type 1 is managed by taking insulin to control your blood sugar.

You can manage type 2 diabetes in more ways than type 1. These include through medication, exercise and diet. People with type 2 can also be prescribed insulin.

Currently there is no cure for type 1 but research continues.

Type 2 cannot be cured but there is evidence to say in many cases it can be prevented and put into remission.

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Insulin For Type 2 Diabetes

If you have type 2 diabetes and your doctor thinks insulin can help you, it doesnt mean you now have type 1 diabetes. You still have type 2 diabetes, but you’ve changed treatment.

If you have type 2 diabetes, you may not need to use insulin straight away. But some people have very high blood sugar levels when they are first diagnosed. Insulin can be used as a short-term treatment to help quickly bring down your blood sugar levels.

Some people may need to take insulin for a particular reason, like during pregnancy or a severe illness, or after surgery. But you may also need to start it as a treatment if other medications havent helped managed your blood sugar levels or are not appropriate for you.

If you need insulin it isnt your fault and it doesnt mean you havent managed your diabetes well. It’s simply another medication that can help to keep you as healthy as possible. Managing blood sugars effectively is really important in reducing your risk of future diabetes complications and insulin may be the most appropriate treatment choice for you. Many people with type 2 diabetes need to use it as treatment at some point.

Its still important to keep going to your appointments and manage your condition with healthy lifestyle choices. Staying active and eating a healthy diet will reduce the risk of complications from your diabetes.

Diabetes: Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

U-M Type 1 Diabetes 101 | Module 5 | Giving Insulin at a Meal

Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus , also known as type 1 diabetes, usually starts before 15 years of age, but can occur in adults also. Diabetes involves the pancreas gland, which is located behind the stomach . The special cells of the pancreas produce a hormone called insulin.

The body is made up of millions of cells. All cells need glucose from the food we eat for energy. Just as a car cant run without gasoline, the body cant work without glucose. Insulin is the key that allows glucose to enter the cells. Without this key, glucose stays in the bloodstream and the cells cant use it for energy. Instead, the glucose builds up in the blood and spills over into the urine. When a person develops type 1 diabetes, the pancreas stops making insulin. To help the bodys cells use the glucose, a child with type 1 diabetes mellitus must receive insulin by injection .

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Manage Your Diabetes With Confidence

Managing diabetes can be hard not just for the person who has been diagnosed but for their family as well.

You can manage type 1 diabetes by:

  • taking insulin as recommended
  • monitoring your blood sugar levels regularly using a home blood glucose meter
  • eating healthy meals and snacks
  • enjoying regular physical activity
  • aiming for a healthy body weight
  • managing your stress effectively

Can You Be Born With Diabetes Is It Genetic

You arent born with diabetes, but Type 1 diabetes usually appears in childhood. Prediabetes and diabetes develop slowly over time years. Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy.Scientists do believe that genetics may play a role or contribute to the development of Type 1 diabetes. Something in the environment or a virus may trigger its development. If you have a family history of Type 1 diabetes, you are at higher risk of developing Type 1 diabetes. If you have a family history of prediabetes, Type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes, youre at increased risk of developing prediabetes, Type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes.

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What Are The Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes are serious and usually happen quickly, over a few days to weeks. Symptoms can include

  • increased thirst and urination
  • trouble breathing
  • trouble paying attention or feeling confused

DKA is serious and dangerous. If you or your child have symptoms of DKA, contact your health care professional right away, or go to the nearest hospital emergency room.

Do I Need To Monitor My Blood Sugar Level

Type 1 Diabetes Treatment

Yes. Monitoring and controlling your blood sugar is key to preventing the complications of diabetes. If you dont already monitor your blood sugar level, you will need to learn how. Checking your blood sugar involves pricking your finger to get a small drop of blood that you put on a test strip. You can read the results yourself or insert the strip into a machine called an electronic glucose meter. The results will tell you whether your blood sugar is in a healthy range. Your doctor will give you additional information about monitoring your blood sugar.

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