How Do Doctors Diagnose Sugar In Urine
If your doctor suspects you may have symptoms of one of the conditions that cause sugar in urine, they will typically order a urine analysis. One of the tests done during this analysis is a glucose in urine test. This type of test is also often done during a routine screening.
Generally, if your doctor suspects you may have diabetes, they will also order a blood glucose test, as these are more accurate.
Why Is A Urine Glucose Test Performed
A urine glucose test used to be performed to check for diabetes. In addition, people with diabetes could use the urine glucose test as a way of monitoring the degree of sugar control, or efficacy of treatments.
Urine tests were once the main type of testing used to measure glucose levels in people who potentially had diabetes. However, they are less common now that blood tests have become more accurate and easier to use.
In some cases, your doctor may order a urine test to check for kidney problems or a urinary tract infection .
Tubular Reabsorption Of Glucose
If the renal tubule capacity for glucose reabsorption is impaired for constitutional or acquired reasons, glucosuria can occur with normal plasma glucose concentrations . The Fanconi syndrome, pregnancy, and acute tubular necrosis are examples of this phenomenon. Normally, as the level of plasma glucose and the filtered load rises, renal tubular reabsorption of glucose rises linearly until a maximum tubular resorptive capacity is reached . This maximal tubular reabsorptive capacity ranges from 0.9 to 2.0 mmol/min and is constant for each individual . The same is true in diabetes. Patients with recent onset of Type I diabetes exhibited a 20% increase in both glomerular filtration rate and maximal tubular reabsorptive capacity . In addition, a reduced glomerular filtration rate in long-term diabetes was accompanied by a lower maximal tubular reabsorptive rate . Glomerulo-tubular balance for glucose was maintained in both situations .
The proximal convoluted renal tubule reabsorbs most of the filtered glucose load both normally and during hyperglycemia. The intermediate segment, between the late proximal and distal tubule, also can reabsorb glucose . It acts as a buffer to aid the response to an increased glucose load overt glucosuria does not occur until its resorptive capacity is exceeded.
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Meaning Of Sugar In Urine
Very small amounts of glucose is present in the urine under normal circumstances. It is usually trace amounts that is unlikely to be detected with tests like urine dipstick. When sugar is detected in the urine it means that sufficient amounts are present in the urine to trigger a positive result on the testing method. This is usually abnormal, especially if it is very high, persistent and not linked to any event, condition or medication.
The presence of sugar in the urine is most likely related to one of two mechanisms:
It is also possible that the urine or testing medium could have been contaminated or tainted. While the result may be accurate, it is not indicative of an abnormality within the body.
How Glucose Gets Into Urine
It’s normal for there to be glucose in your blood which can also end up in your urine. Small organs called kidneys are responsible for filtering blood and removing waste. The cleaned blood is transferred back to the body. The leftover waste goes to the bladder, which collects urine, and is released when you pee.
While most of the sugar is reabsorbed by the kidneys and put back into the bloodstream, some sugar may remain. This sugar travels with the rest of the fluid to the bladder, leaving the body with your urine.
Glycosuria can occur if the kidneys don’t remove enough sugar before it leaves your body as urine. When the amount of sugar in urine is greater than 25 mg/dL, it is considered glycosuria.
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Gestational Diabetes And Glycosuria
Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that happens during pregnancy. Your body needs a lot of energy as your baby grows, but sometimes it canât keep up with demand and doesn’t make enough insulin.â
Without the insulin, you will have too high sugar levels, and it will show up in your urine. â
High blood sugar levels during pregnancy can cause problems for you and your baby:
- Your baby grows too big, and you need a C section
- High blood pressure
- High blood sugar in your baby
- Risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes after your pregnancy is overâ
Your doctor might do in-office urine tests at your regular prenatal visits to check for glycosuria. You will have another test around the 24 to 28 week mark where you drink a glucose drink and have your blood taken. Your doctor might do the blood test earlier if your urine tests show high glycosuria.
What A Urine Glucose Test Measures
Diabetes is a group of conditions that affect the body’s ability to regulate blood sugar levels. It is characterized by an inability to produce enough insulin or use the hormone insulin properly, which causes blood sugar levels to be abnormally high.
Under normal circumstances, insulin shuttles glucose from the bloodstream into the cells to be used for energy or stored as fat, but this does not happen in diabetes. As a result, excess sugar is excreted in the urine. A urine glucose test detects and measures this excess sugar, a condition called glycosuria.
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What Does Sugar In Urine Mean
Glucose, a type of sugar, is not typically present in urine. High amounts of sugar in the urine, known as glycosuria, are generally the result of high blood sugar levels. High blood sugar typically occurs in diabetes, especially when untreated.
However, high sugar levels in urine can mean one of many varying issues.
Generally, when the kidneys filter blood, some sugar remains in the fluid that will later become urine. If the blood sugar level is low, as is typically the case, the body can reabsorb the sugar from this fluid before it leaves the kidney.
When the blood sugar is high, there is too much sugar in the fluid leaving the kidney, so some sugar passes into the urine.
Routine urine screenings can typically find sugar in the urine. When sugar in the urine is due to diabetes, it sometimes accompanies other symptoms. These symptoms include fatigue, unexplained weight loss, excessive thirst or hunger, and frequent urination.
Signs And Symptoms Of Glycosuria
In a person with normal blood sugar levels, there could easily be no signs or symptoms of glycosuria. However, glycosuria in people with diabetes will usually include symptoms also related to high blood sugar levels:
- Needing to urinate more frequently
- Needing to urinate in the middle of the night
- Frequent yeast infections
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Causes Of High Glucose Levels In Urine
High glucose levels in urine can be caused by medical conditions, a genetic mutation, certain medications, and pregnancy.
Keep in mind that some people with high sugar levels in their urine dont show any symptoms. Even when caused by medical conditions, high sugar levels in the urine may go undiagnosed until the underlying condition progresses or is found during normal screening.
Measuring Blood Sugar Levels In A Laboratory
Blood sugar levels can be measured a lot more accurately by taking a blood sample from a vein and having it tested in a laboratory. Blood sugar is sometimes measured as part of a routine blood test in hospital or at the doctors. A special kind of test called a glucose tolerance test involves taking blood samples to see how the body deals with larger amounts of sugar. You have to drink a liquid with a lot of sugar in it before the blood samples are taken.
Most people with diabetes have the HbA1c levels in their blood measured regularly. HbA1c is a measure of how high your blood sugar levels have been on average over the last two to three months This indicates how well controlled your blood sugar is and whether your diabetes treatment might need to be adjusted.
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Healthcare Provider Exam And Tests
To test for glycosuria, your healthcare provider may order a urine analysis to check sugar levels. They may also order blood tests to check your blood sugar levels and your kidney function.
Prediabetes and diabetes are diagnosed based on the results of:
- An A1C test, which is a blood test that examines average blood sugar levels
- A fasting plasma glucose test, which is a blood test that requires overnight fasting and checks for diabetes
- An oral glucose tolerance test , which requires you to ingest a special syrup drink before your blood is taken to check how well your body processes sugar
Results signaling prediabetes are:
- An A1C of 5.7%6.4%
- A fasting blood sugar of 100125 mg/dL
- An OGTT 2 hour blood sugar of 140 mg/dL199 mg/dL
Diabetes is diagnosed at:
- An A1C equal to or greater than 6.5%
- A fasting blood sugar equal to or greater than 126 mg/dL
- An OGTT 2 hour blood sugar greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL
What Does The Reading Mean
It is completely normal for blood sugar levels to go up and down a little. This also happens in people who don’t have diabetes. The amount of sugar in your blood is influenced by things like what you eat and drink, how much exercise you get, and what medications you take. Depending on whether blood sugar levels are measured on an empty stomach or immediately after a meal, they vary between 3.3 and 7.8 mmol/l in people who don’t have diabetes. There are no clear-cut boundaries between the normal range of blood sugar and high or low blood sugar.
Blood sugar: Normal range between hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia
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Difference Between Blood Glucose And Glucose In Urine
Blood glucose is regulated by insulin produced by the pancreas, though in patients with diabetes, the insulin is not produced or processed properly meaning they may need insulin injections to regulate their blood sugar. If left unmanaged, diabetes can cause blood glucose levels to rise and some may enter into the urine. Urine glucose may not always be due to diabetes, and can be a benign symptom that sometimes accompanies pregnancy.
Type 1 Diabetes Hyperglycemia
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What Is Glycosuria
Glycosuria is a term to describe the presence of glucose in your urine which can be tested easily with a urine sample at your next appointment with your primary healthcare team.
Normally, the renal tubes in your kidneys act as a filter to remove excess glucose from your system before it passes through to your urine.
With normal renal function, as blood flows through the kidneys, glucose and other substances are filtered from the fluid portion of the blood, explains National Organization for Rare Diseases .
The filtrate of the blood then moves through a network of canals known as renal tubules, where most of the filtered substances, including glucose, sodium, and water, are reabsorbed and returned to the bloodstream, while certain unwanted substances are eliminated in the urine.
It is normal for a healthy adult to excrete some glucose through your urine about 65 milligrams of glucose per day because while your kidneys absorb most of the glucose that passes through, it cannot absorb all of it.
65 milligrams may sound like a lot, but n fact, its such a small amount, that medical technology cant even measure it.
When glucose levels in your urine begin rising above this amount, however, it indicates a problem either with your kidneys or with your blood sugar.
Lets take a closer look at what causes glycosuria.
Why It Is Done
A urine test may be done:
- To check for a disease or infection of the urinary tract. Symptoms of a urine infection may include colored or bad-smelling urine, pain when urinating, finding it hard to urinate, flank pain, blood in the urine , or fever.
- To check the treatment of conditions such as diabetes, kidney stones, a urinary tract infection , high blood pressure , or some kidney or liver diseases.
- As part of a regular physical examination.
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How To Control Diabetes In Pregnancy
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Glycosuria Symptoms Causes And Potential Complications
Glycosuria, or glucose in the urine, is the presence of higher than normal levels of sugar in the urine and may be due to complications with your kidneys or diabetes. To learn more about this condition, including symptoms, causes, and prevention strategies, as well as what normal and abnormal levels of glucose in the urine are, continue reading.
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What Is Urine Glucose
The process of filtration of blood in the kidney involves several cycles of absorption from, and reabsorption back into, the blood. The initially filtered fluid contains several minerals, water, glucose, and other products like urea and ammonia. A lot of the water, minerals, and glucose is reabsorbed into the blood following the initial filtration. Based on the level of glucose present in the blood, glucose in the initial filtrate is almost entirely reabsorbed when blood sugar is low.
In conditions when blood sugar is extremely high, the kidneys, in their effort to lower blood sugar levels, prevent the reabsorption of glucose back into the blood. This results in the presence of glucose in urine. Glucose in urine is not usually normal and is associated with conditions like diabetes. We look at the causes of sugar in urine in the upcoming section.
Herbal Remedies For Diabetes Management
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