Alternative Anatomical Sites For Islet Transplantation
Even though the pig could provide an unlimited supply of islets, the inefficiency of islet transplantation into the portal vein resulting from IBMIR remains an obstacle for applying islet xenotransplantation on a clinical scale. To avoid or minimize IBMIR, an alternative approach is to place the islets in a site where they are not immediately exposed to blood, and investigation in this area is ongoing. A number of sites have been investigated, some of which seem worthy of continued assessment.
Transplantation into the gastric submucosal space can be achieved through endoscopy and offers the advantage of possible endoscopic biopsy of the graft for investigation of rejection, apoptosis, or both . Intramuscular transplantation has already reached the clinical stage in islet autotransplantation . In diabetic monkeys, islets loaded onto a biodegradable scaffold, wrapped with omentum and placed between abdominal muscle layers, resulted in significant metabolic improvement in allotransplantation experiments .
What Stem Cells Can Do
Thompson said that treating type 1 diabetes this way involves bringing stem cells into the lab that are then coached into becoming beta cellsthe type of cell that makes insulin in the body.
In people with type 1 diabetes, the immune system has attacked and destroyed the body’s beta cells, meaning that the pancreas does not produce insulin on its own. Therefore, a person’s blood sugar levels need to be controlled with injectable insulin.
According to Thompson, there are different ways to bring those cells into the body of a patient. He is also using stem cell-derived therapy to treat diabetes in his own research and recently published findings from a human phase 1/2 study.
Thompson’s team is working with California-based biotechnology company ViaCyte to develop implantable devices that contain millions of cells that are derived from a stem cell. These implants are placed under the skin of the abdomen. In the Vertex study, Shelton received an infusion of cells into his liver.
Both methods have the same goal: getting a patient’s body to create its own insulin and effectively cure them of type 1 diabetes.
Thompson said that his study proved the scientific principle that a stem cell-derived product can mature and function in a normal, physiological manner”meaning that when a person eats, the cells will make insulin, and when they are not eating, the cells will stop making insulin.
Natural Or Dietary Supplements
Dietary supplement manufacturers must state that, FDA has not evaluated the claim and the dietary supplement is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
Many different types of dietary supplements have falsely claimed to offer people with diabetes a quick and easy path to a cure. In fact, in September 2021, the FDA sent a letter to ten companies that were illegally selling dietary supplements that claimed to cure, treat, or prevent diabetes. Based on a lack of evidence to support their claims, the FDA issued a cease and desist letter, meaning that they would take legal action unless the claims were removed.
Among these companies were several manufacturers of products like weight loss shakes, diabetic support formula, or glucose-stabilizing beverages that combine different natural ingredients. Many of them sold their products and listed these claims on websites like Amazon, Instagram, or Facebook.
These companies were able to advertise their false claims through the internet and social media, selling to people with personal stories about how, for instance, this product helped me lower my A1C by X%. However, they often do not disclose the actual ingredients in these products, which can lead to more harm than good, and are far more likely to focus their efforts on selling their products rather than helping people with diabetes.
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And Thats Just For Type 1
For type 2 diabetes, researchers have found evidence that beta cells do not burn out and die as previously thought, but instead revert to more primitive cells or ones with altered function, leading some scientists to believe that if they can prevent this dedifferentiation or somehow push dedifferentiated cells to turn back into beta cells, they could prevent or cure type 2.
Findings like these represent a shift in our thinking, says Richard J. Santen, MD, president of the Endocrine Society and professor of medicine, endocrinology, and metabolism at the University of Virginia School of Medicine in Charlottesville. We are learning much more about the biology of diabetes, and it is beginning to pay major dividends. As time goes on, our increased understanding will play a key role in altering the course of the disease.
The Short Answer It Depends
Diabetes mellitus is not curable: There is no treatment that will eliminate the disease completely.
That being said, weve come a long way since the days before insulin, when diabetes was often a fatal disease.
There is growing evidence that certain treatments involving major lifestyle and behavior changes canreverse certain aspects of the disease. More on this below.
Reversing diabetes is not easy, and it requires true dedication. Research shows that the most lasting reversals only happen with significant and sustained lifestyle changes.
Heres a guide to what treatments are available for diabetes, and those that come as close as currently possible to a cure.
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Inflammation After Islet Xenotransplantation
The initial hurdle faced by islets transplanted into the portal vein is IBMIR, which results in significant destruction of islets within minutes. IBMIR is believed to be a nonspecific inflammatory response related to the transplantation of islets directly into the blood stream of the portal vein, which is the current site for clinical islet transplantation. Isolated islets can express tissue factor, which activates coagulation. As a result, platelets and complement are activated and the islets become infiltrated with neutrophils and macrophages . The extent of tissue factor expression on the islet graft negatively correlates with the clinical success of allotransplantation . Incompatibilities between the human and pig coagulation-anticoagulation systems render IBMIR even more problematic in xenotransplantation. Inhibition of tissue factor expression or thrombin formation prevented islet damage in vitro . However, in vivo, anticoagulation does not fully prevent IBMIR .
Schematic overview of the instant blood-mediated inflammatory response. Tissue factor expression and antibody binding to non-Gal antigens activate coagulation and complement cascades, leading to clotting, direct cellular membrane damage through the membrane attack complex , and recruitment of macrophages and monocytes through the chemoattractants C3a and C5a. TF, tissue factor.
Why Are False Or Unproven Treatments So Dangerous
The FDA approval process for a diabetes medication is rigorous and requires clinical research to ensure that treatments are safe and effective. The treatments and cures described above lack sufficient evidence to show exactly how they help people with diabetes. Some false cures can even harm people with diabetes by interfering with their treatment regimens, encouraging them to ingest dangerous chemicals, or by relying on extremely limited diets. When these false treatments are marketed as a quick fix for diabetes, they can tempt people to give up on their proven diabetes treatment, further disrupting an established treatment routine.
Another danger of the cures described above is that it makes diabetes management look simple to those who are not impacted by the disease. As we know, managing diabetes is far from easy. Framing diabetes as something that can be fixed with a daily vitamin or morning tea could fuel the blame and shame that those with diabetes too often feel. Helping your loved ones and peers understand what sort of support you need can help avoid unwanted advice. Setting these boundaries can help the next time someone recommends you eat more garlic to lower your A1C.
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Rewind The Clock And Retrain Your Body To Work For You
James Shapiro and his U of A team created a global standard for diabetes treatment with the Edmonton Protocol. Two decades later, hes using stem cell therapy to tie up the loose ends on a cure.
How it works
Stem cells have the ability to transform into any type of cell if nudged in the right direction. Shapiro and his team will genetically engineer a patients own blood cells to revert into stem cells and then reprogram them to become insulin-producing islet cells. These islets will be transplanted into the patients liver, where they will produce insulin. The super-liver will replace the normal functions of the pancreas. Since the cells are the patients own, theres no need for the anti-rejection drugs that accompany traditional transplants.
Yesterdays research, tomorrows treatment
Shapiros research is the capstone on a treatment he and a team of researchers with the Clinical Islet Transplant program developed 22 years ago at the U of A the Edmonton Protocol, which gives patients islet transplants from organ donors. While it remains a global standard for diabetes treatment today, it has its hangups. Patients need to take immunosuppressants for life, which can cause a host of serious and long-term side effects. And with the number of people living with diabetes expected to skyrocket to 700 million by 2045, there will never be enough donor islets to go around. Today, only people living with the severest forms of diabetes are eligible for a transplant.
What Is The Potential For Stem Cells To Treat Diabetes
Developing and testing a truly effective stem-cell based treatment for diabetes will take years. The two main challenges are finding an adequate supply of insulin-producing cells and protecting these cells from attack by the immune system. There has been impressive progress in solving the beta cell supply problem in that it is now possible to generate insulin-producing cells from human ESCs and iPS cells.
Researchers are looking at ways to restore the number of functional beta cells in patients with diabetes, pursuing both the replacement of lost beta cells and the protection of beta cells from further damage. Several different approaches are being used, including:
Key to these approaches is getting beta cells into a place in the body where they can work and protecting them from what was damaging them in the first place. This includes transplantation into parts of the body where the replacement cells are less likely to be attacked by the immune system or placement of the cells into protective capsules. Such capsules are porous and would allow small molecules such as glucose and insulin to pass through while protecting the beta cells from the cells of the immune system.
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Automated Treatment With An Artificial Pancreas
For people that have already lost their insulin-producing cells, a shorter-term solution could be the artificial pancreas a fully automated system that can measure glucose levels and inject the right amount of insulin into the bloodstream, just like a healthy pancreas would.
Type 1 diabetes is very different from your standard disease. Insulin requirements vary greatly from one day to another and there is no way patients can know what they need, saidRoman Hovorka, Professor at the University of Cambridge.
His research group is working on the development of an algorithm that can accurately predict insulin requirements for a specific patient in real-time, which can be used to control insulin delivery via an insulin pump.
Replacing humans with computers could help patients better control their sugar levels and suffer fewer complications in the long term. However, in order to fully automate insulin therapy, there are several challenges yet to be addressed. First of all, faster forms of insulin are needed to react quickly enough to changes in sugar blood. In addition, current algorithms need to significantly improve to be able to make accurate predictions.
Whats Next In Diabetes Treatment
The global diabetes drugs market is expected to reach a massive 68B by 2026, and we can expect all sorts of revolutionary technologies to come forward and claim their market share.
Researchers are already speculating about microchips that can diagnose diabetes type 1 before the symptoms appear, nanorobots traveling in the bloodstream while they measure glucose and deliver insulin, or silica particles that can slow down the digestion of food to prevent diabetes and obesity.
Whatever the future brings, it will undoubtedly make a huge difference in the lives of millions of people worldwide.
This article was originally published in November 2016 and has since been updated to reflect the latest developments in diabetes treatment.
Images via DRI Biohub MaSTherCell
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Viacytes Encaptra Cell Delivery System
Without a doubt, ViaCytes implantable capsule device is closest to paving the way to a successful cure.
How it works
First developed by doctors, ViaCytes technology was tested on over 1000 rodents with medically induced type 1 diabetes.
It currently has two clinical trials in progress with two different devices: the Encaptra capsule device which contains pancreatic beta cell precursors , and the PEC-Direct works very similarly but is for a more vulnerable portion of the diabetes population.
ViaCyte began working with the University of California, San Diego as its first clinical site.
Garlic Ginger Mint And Anarchy
Here, I would like to mention one of the most effective home remedies for diabetes .
To prepare it, you need:
- 100-gram Garlic
- 100-gram Anardana
Want to Buy Anardana?
You can get it from here.
All the things are easily available at home or at stores, use them fresh.
How to prepare it?
Mix all the things without adding anything else to a sauce.
Note: You can only store the sauce for 1-2 weeks after that you have to prepare a new one.
How to use?
- Take almost 200 to 250-gram yogurt and add one teaspoon of the mixture that you have prepared.
- After adding the mixture in yogurt mix it thoroughly and then eat it.
- Each day you have to repeat the process and make sure you eat it once a day.
You can consume it anytime, but it is highly recommended that you use it early in the morning without eating anything else and I guarantee you that youll see improvement day by day.
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The Future Of Diabetes Treatment: Is A Cure Possible
Diabetes has become an epidemic, sentencing over 460 million people worldwide to lifelong medication. Science is striving to find a diabetes treatment that can cure this chronic disease, but how close are we?
Diabetes is the major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attack, and stroke. It is estimated that the number of people affected by diabetes will rise to 700 million by 2045. This has led the World Health Organization to consider diabetes an epidemic.
Despite its huge impact on the global population, there is still no cure for any type of diabetes. Most treatments help patients manage the symptoms to a certain extent, but diabetics still face multiple long-term health complications.
Diabetes affects the regulation of insulin, a hormone required for glucose uptake in cells, resulting in high levels of blood sugar. While there are some similarities in symptoms, the two main types of diabetes develop in different ways.
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that destroys insulin-producing beta-pancreatic cells. In contrast, patients with type 2 diabetes develop insulin resistance, meaning that insulin is less and less effective at reducing blood sugar.
The biotech industry is striving to develop new diabetes treatments and chasing the holy grail: a cure. Lets have a look at whats brewing in the field and how it will change the way diabetes is treated.
Islet Cell Encapsulation Therapy
In October 2014, the first person with diabetes was implanted with an islet cell encapsulation system, with insulin-producing cells injected into the body and protected from destruction by the immune system.
Further trials are currently in progress to test its safety among participants with type 1 diabetes, with this treatment set to allow patients to produce their own insulin automatically.
Islet cells are derived from stem cells, the foundation for another advancement made by Harvard University, who have used them to create large quantities of insulin-producing beta cells.
The Harvard team have been able to manufacture the millions of beta cells necessary for human transplantatio, and trials could take place within a matter of years.
In the meantime, the need for patients to take immunosuppressive drugs and insulin is unavoidable, but a cure for type 1 diabetes is more within reach than ever before.
Should ongoing trials prove successful in negating insulin dependence, with no side effects or issues with safety, an end to type 1 diabetes could yet be discovered.
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What About Islet Cell Transplantation As A Cure For Diabetes
A successful islet cell transplant can improve the quality of life for a person with diabetes. It’s an evolving technology that’s still being researched.
Islet cells sense blood sugar levels and make insulin. The cells come from a donor.
Once transplanted successfully, the donor cells begin to make and release insulin in response to blood sugar levels. This procedure can provide more flexibility with meal planning and help protect against serious long-term diabetes complications such as heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, and nerve and eye damage.
The person receiving the transplant must take medicine for the rest of their life to prevent their body from rejecting the donor’s cells.
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Kim Shepherd didnt tell her husband of 34 years where she was going when she hopped in the car three years ago and drove an hour and a half from their house in search of a solution to her health problems. Shed tried so many treatments before, she couldnt bear to get anyones hopes up again.
Shepherd weighed 328 pounds, and was a type 2 diabetic. I say was because she is no longer one.
I had been on the Toujeo pen about a month, maybe six weeks, Shepherd said. It was miserable. I mean, youre sticking your stomach, you know? And I just thought, I cant do this.
Shepherd isnt the only one who has endured this suffering. More than half of Americans are prediabetic or diabetic, and those figures are only projected to growas are the costs. Currently, the disease runs the United States $350 billion a year, with an estimated one in every three Medicare dollars spent on care. Diabetes is one of the biggest global health crises of the 21st century, said Margaret Chan, the former director general of the World Health Organization, in late 2016. Its a slow-motion disaster.
The disease is, by definition, an intolerance to carbohydrates: When the body fails to produce enough insulin to stabilize the blood-sugar spikes caused by carbohydrates, especially sugar, it needs an outside source. For most diabetics, the course of treatment focuses on management: As you get sicker, medical professionals prescribe more drugs.
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