What Do Hormones Have To Do With Diabetes
Hormones regulate blood sugar. The pancreas, an endocrine gland, and secretes insulin and other hormones to help stabilize the amount of glucose in the blood stream. The thyroid and adrenal glands also impact blood sugar levels, helping to keep glucose levels within healthy range.
Over time, poor dietary and exercise habits, combined with hormone deficiencies, can sabotage glucose levels and cause increasing insulin resistance. This generally marks the stages prior to prediabetes and puts the individual at increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Other hormone imbalances commonly accompany blood sugar issues. Research has shown that sex hormone levels are linked to type 2 diabetes and other metabolic disorders. According to a 2014 summary of existing longitudinal studies, lower levels of testosterone in men increase the risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome.4 It is also thought that low progesterone levels can lead to insulin resistance in both men and women.
Mht In Women With T2dm
Some women after menopause present hot flushes or night sweats, knownalso as climacteric or vasomotor symptoms . MHT isindicated in such women, after evaluation of other comorbidities . Recently, such symptoms have been associated with increasedrisk of incident T2DM. A total of 150,007 women from the WHI study wereprospectively examined for the potential association of T2DM with climactericsymptoms . Interestingly, anyvasomotor symptom was associated with an 18% increase in the risk of T2DM and this was independent of obesity. The moresevere the symptoms and the longer their duration, the higher the risk for T2DMdevelopment is .
The favourable effects of MHT on glucose metabolism appear to extendbeyond the correction of metabolic changes caused during menopausal transition. MHTdecreases abdominal fat deposition through the increase of lipid oxidation and enhancement of energy expenditure. However, reduced central obesity is not necessarily the mainmechanism. Indeed, in HERS and WHItrials as well as NHS and E3N observational studies, the reduction inincident T2DM incidence was independent of the reduction in body weight and waistcircumference. There is evidence that oestrogens may act directly on ERs in liver,muscle or adipose tissue, improving insulin sensitivity and contributing to improvedglucose control and homeostasis . Furthermore, oestrogens mayaugment insulin secretion via a direct action on ERs in pancreatic -cells, shown inexperimental studies with rodents .
Symptoms And Effects Of Menopause
Menopause is the time in a womans life when menstruation ceases, signaling the end of her reproductive ability. The timing of menopause varies widely, but this event often occurs naturally in women in the fourth or fifth decades of life, at a mean age of 51 years. Certain medical or surgical conditions may induce the cessation of menses before this age. If menopause occurs before the age of 40 years, it is considered premature.
The STRAW classification proposed by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine depicts the natural transition in a femaleâs life from the reproductive years to the time of menopause.
The reproductive years are divided into early, peak, and late and are characterized by regular menstrual cycles . This is followed by the stage of menopausal transition, which earlier on is characterized by a variable cycle length that is more than 7 days different from normal. During the latter stages of this transition phase, women experience intervals of amenorrhea of more than 60 days. When this duration of amenorrhea lasts for up to 12 months, it is classified as postmenopause. The stage of perimenopause spans from the beginning of the stage of menopause transition up until the completion of 1 year following the final menstrual period.
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How To Stay Healthy In Midlife
As it turns out, the things you do to get a handle on diabetes as you enter midlife arenÃ¢t that different than what youÃ¢ve been doing all along to stay healthy:
- Pay attention to your diabetes. That means you need to keep track of your blood sugar levels and talk to your doctor if theyÃ¢re are all over the place and you canÃ¢t figure out why. Keep a record of your results and go over them with your doctor.
- Watch your weight.
- Eat a healthy diet. Get plenty of vegetables, choose whole-grain foods, and opt for lean proteins and low-fat dairy.
- Get at least 30 minutes of exercise a day. It will give you more energy and boost your mood. YouÃ¢ll get the most benefit by doing a combination of an exercise that ups your heart rate â like brisk walking â along with strength training, like lifting weights.
Research Design And Methods
The setting for this study was the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program of Northern California, which is a group practice, prepaid health plan. The sociodemographic characteristics of KPMCP members are generally representative of the population living in the same area .
The population for this study was drawn from the Northern California Kaiser Permanente Diabetes Registry. The diabetes registry was started in 1993 by identifying probable diabetic individuals from automated health plan sources , abnormal HbA1c values , and any inpatient or outpatient diagnosis of diabetes . As of January 1996, the diabetes registry included 91,018 people aged 19 years and current KPMCP members. At that time, the registry was estimated to have 96% sensitivity for diagnosed diabetes when matched against two large mailed surveys of random membership samples conducted in 1990 and 1993. The registry has also been found to contain 3% false positives.
Type 2 diabetes was defined on the basis of reported treatment according to the following criteria: 1) reported diet and/or exercise and no hypoglycemic medication use, or oral hypoglycemic agents used alone or in combination with insulin 2) insulin use only and diabetes diagnosis at age 30 years and 3) insulin use only and diabetes diagnosis at age 2029 years and initiation of insulin therapy > 2 years after diabetes diagnosis.
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Hormone Therapy In Women Who Have Diabetes
Often women with diabetes have fluctuating hormone levels that may cause other health issues, especially during menstruation and menopause. Hormonal imbalances have been linked to health conditions associated with diabetes, such as heart disease and kidney problems. Discover more about hormone therapy in women who have diabetes and how it may help.
If you have diabetes, talk to your doctor about the benefits and risks of hormone therapy. The right balance of hormones can improve your blood sugar control and help prevent diabetes-related complications such as heart disease, kidney disease and more. Hormone therapy and the right lifestyle choices can make a big difference in the quality of your life.
How Do Hormones Affect Type 2 Diabetes
Hormones play a large role in regulating blood sugar, helping to stabilize the amount of glucose in the bloodstream. Over time, poor eating habits and lack of exercise combined with hormone deficiencies can sabotage your glucose levels and cause increased insulin resistance. According to a recent study, lower levels of testosterone in men increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and other metabolic disorders. Its also thought that low progesterone levels can lead to insulin resistance in both men and women. Restoring vital hormones to optimal levels can make a profound impact on patients with diabetes.
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How Estrogen Therapy Could Prevent Type 2 Diabetes
New research strengthens the idea that estrogen therapy could help to prevent type 2 diabetes following menopause, after it identified the mechanisms by which the hormone helps to control blood sugar levels.
In a study of postmenopausal mice and human cells, researchers found that estrogen targets specific cells in the pancreas and the gut to increase tolerance to glucose.
This is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes.
Study leader Jacques Philippe, who is a diabetes specialist currently working at the University of Genevas Faculty of Medicine in Switzerland, and colleagues recently reported their results in the journal JCI Insight.
It is estimated that around 30.3 million people in the United States or around 9.4 percent of the population are living with diabetes, which is a condition that causes blood glucose levels to become too high.
Type 2 diabetes which arises when the body struggles to effectively use insulin, the hormone that regulates blood sugar accounts for approximately 9095 percent of all diabetes cases.
Following on from such studies, scientists have investigated whether or not estrogen replacement therapy could help to prevent type 2 diabetes among postmenopausal women, and many studies have produced positive results.
Estrogen May Affect How Your Body Uses Insulin
Diabetes is a condition where your blood sugar is too high. With type 2 diabetes, this is typically because your body makes less insulin and because your cells become more resistant to insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps your cells use sugar, but if your cells are more insulin resistant, glucose may stay in the blood unused for energy instead. Recent research led by a team from Texas A& M University found thatestrogen may affect how your body responds to insulin.
Several studies have found a potential link between low estrogen and type 2 diabetes. Yet, many couldnt explain why. The researchers found this may be due to estrogens effects on liver-specific FOXO1. FOXO1 is a protein that basically binds to DNA and helps turn certain genes on or off. This particular protein helps your body regulate insulin to control blood sugar. Estrogen may help reduce how much sugar your body produces by acting on this protein. As your estrogen levels decline during menopause, FOXO1 proteins may not work as effectively to control insulin levels, which may explain the increased risk for type 2 diabetes after menopause.
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Low Estrogen During Menopause May Affect Your Health
Low estrogen can cause many symptoms and health risks, but treatment solutions are available from our providers.
Menopause is a natural stage of life for women, but that doesnt mean it comes without any risks. Unfortunately, declining and fluctuating hormones during menopause can lead to many symptoms and health risks.
For instance, some of the symptoms you may experience because of low estrogen and progesterone during menopause include:
Each of these symptoms can affect your physical, emotional, and mental wellbeing. Many believe hormone levels are the cause of menopause symptoms.
The Link Between Menopause And Type
The number of cases of T2DM is steadily increasing. 3.9 million people are now living in the UK with T2DM, and this figure is set to rise to 5.3 million by 2025 . This is mainly due to the rise in obesity, and the natural effects of ageing. However, declining ovarian function at menopause is also known to increase the risk of diabetes.
For example, premature menopause increases the risk of T2DM by 32% and these findings have also been confirmed in other studies.
But why should this be?
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Why Does Menopause Increase Womens Risk For Type 2 Diabetes
There are several reasons why women have an increased risk for type 2 diabetes once they have reached menopause. As the bodys levels of estrogen shrink, that risk increases. The following can also elevate that risk:
- Body weight changes: Menopausal women see their weight shift when they gain a few pounds. Visceral fat can begin to develop, leading to their bodies shifting from pear-shaped to apple-shaped. This is dangerous and can increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
- Less energy and fat breakdown: The decline of estrogen during menopause can cause womens energy levels to become depleted. This, in turn, also leads to fat breaking down less than during the childbearing years.
- : Menopause leads to women experiencing a notable decrease in their muscle mass. This is a normal part of aging also known as sarcopenia.
- Increased inflammation: An increase of inflammation in the body occurs after menopause, which can result in insulin resistance.
- Pressure on the pancreas: According to animal studies, the pancreas is under more pressure after menopause due to having to work that much harder when insulin resistance occurs. Its believed that if there is a genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes, women are at a greater risk of developing the condition during this time in their lives.
Drug Treatment Of Diabetes Mellitus
, MD, New York Medical College
There are two types of diabetes mellitus
Doctors must be careful when treating diabetes with drugs because insulin and many of the drugs given by mouth can make blood glucose levels too low in the blood. Hypoglycemia is most often caused by drugs taken to control diabetes. Much less common causes of hypoglycemia include otherâ¦ read more ).
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Randomisation And Drug Treatment
Patients were randomised to testosterone first or placebo first using a computer-generated random number. Treatment was with Sustanon 200 mg , a depot preparation of testosterone given by deep i.m. injection. Intramuscular injections were given once every 2 weeks, with patients receiving a total of six injections in each phase. The final assessment in each treatment phase was 1214 days after the previous injection. This regimen is commonly used as standard physiological testosterone replacement therapy in men with androgen deficiency and represents 3 months of testosterone treatment. Placebo was given as 0.9% normal saline. Drugs were drawn in identical syringes by a research nurse in a separate clinical room away from the patient and the doctor assessing the patient.
Other Symptoms That Affect Your Blood Sugar
In addition, several of thesymptoms of menopause can affect your blood sugar, which may increase your risk for type 2 diabetes. For instance, many women gain weight during menopause. Being overweight or obese can raise your risk for developing type 2 diabetes, as it can make you more resistant to insulin.
Poor sleep is another symptom many women experience during menopause that may affect your diabetes risks. Sleep deprivation from issues like insomnia or sleep disturbances from night sweats can negatively affect your blood sugar levels.
Therefore, there may be several different factors that affect your diabetes risk during menopause. Some of the symptoms you might experience during menopause may indirectly affect your risks.
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The Outlook For Women
As women get older, hormone changes before and during menopause often cause hot flashes, irritability, and trouble sleeping. Not only do these drops or spikes in the hormones impact your mood and life, but they can also affect your blood sugar. These ups and downs mean may mean you have to test your levels and make adjustments more often.
If you have type 1 diabetes, you may notice low blood sugar levels more often as you get closer to menopause. This can be a sign that your hormones are going down and you may need less insulin. ItÃ¢s important to know the difference between low blood sugar and moodiness or other perimenopause symptoms.
You may reach menopause early if you have type 1 diabetes, but if youÃ¢re overweight and have type 2, your changes could start later. ThatÃ¢s because estrogen doesnÃ¢t drop as quickly in heavier women.
As your bodyÃ¢s changing, itÃ¢s easy to confuse signs of menopause with symptoms of high or low blood sugar. Dizziness, sweating, irritability, and trouble concentrating could all result from hormonal changes or from blood sugar thatÃ¢s too high or too low. The only way to know for sure â and the safest thing to do â is to test it. But checking too often can take an emotional toll. If youÃ¢re worried, your doctor or diabetes educator can help you figure out how often to do it.
If you canÃ¢t get your blood sugar levels where they need to be, your doctor might suggest hormone replacement therapy .
How Can Low Levels Of Testosterone Affect The Heart
Low levels of testosterone can affect the amount of fat in your body. It can:
- cause a build up of fat around your tummy . This is called central obesity
- increase the amount of fats called cholesterol in your blood
A build up of fat and cholesterol can cause different heart problems. Some problems can be serious. Talk to your doctor about this risk, especially if you already have heart problems.
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Can Hormone Therapy Cause Diabetes
Yes, hormone therapy can increase the risk of diabetes.
Some cancer treatments can lower the levels of sex hormones in the body. The sex hormones are oestrogen and progesterone in women, and testosterone in men. The cancer treatments include hormone therapy for prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer needs testosterone to grow. Hormonal therapy aims to:
- stop the testicles from making testosterone
- stop testosterone from reaching cancer cells
Research suggests that low levels of testosterone can cause heart problems and diabetes in men. More research is needed to find out more about this and ways to prevent these complications.
Estrogen Treatment: Topical Creams Gels And Sprays
- What are they? Estrogen gels , creams , and sprays offer another way of getting estrogen into your system. As with patches, this type of estrogen treatment is absorbed through the skin directly into the bloodstream. The specifics on how to apply these creams vary, although they’re usually used once a day. Estrogel is applied on one arm, from the wrist to the shoulder. Estrasorb is applied to the legs. Evamist is applied to the arm.
- Pros. Because estrogen creams are absorbed through the skin and go directly into the bloodstream, they’re safer than oral estrogen for people who have liver and cholesterol problems.
- Cons. Estrogen gels, creams, and sprays have not been well-studied. While they could be safer than oral estrogen, experts aren’t sure. So assume that they pose the same slight risk of serious conditions, like cancer and stroke.One potential problem with using this type of estrogen treatment is that the gel, cream or spray can rub or wash off before it’s been fully absorbed. Make sure you let the topical dry before you put on clothes. Always apply it after you bathe or shower.
Because the estrogen is absorbed right through the skin, don’t let other people in your family touch these creams or gels. If they do, they could get dosed with estrogen themselves. For the same reason, make sure your hands are clean and dry after applying the medication.
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