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Blood Sugar Levels: An Overview
Your blood sugar levels can be high, low, or normal depending on multiple factors, including age, gender, and a predisposition or family history of diabetes.
Mg/dL is the value to express the sugar or glucose in the blood. The normal sugar level is between 90 to 100 mg/dL. However, reading often fluctuates during the day and at night. But sometimes, high or low blood sugar levels are signs of health conditions requiring medical attention.
In such cases, blood sugar monitoring is essential to observe fluctuations in blood glucose levels that occur in response to diet, exercise, medications, and pathological processes.
What Is Type 2 Diabetes
Type-2 diabetes is a chronic medical condition that affects the way your body metabolizes or processes blood sugar . In type-2 diabetes, the glucose absorption into the cells decreases due to the cells becoming resistant to insulin. This causes glucose accumulation in the bloodstream.
Due to high glucose levels, insulin production increases. More insulin production weakens the pancreas cells. In the later stages, the body doesnt even produce sufficient insulin.
In Type-2 diabetes blood glucose levels in the body increases when the body cells become resistant to insulin.
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Is 135 Blood Sugar Level High In The Morning
Blood sugar levels exceeding 126 mg/dL in the morning indicate hyperglycemia. If you take the blood sugar reading on an empty stomach in the morning, and it still shows you glucose levels exceeding the 126 mg/dL mark, it highlights hyperglycemia. You should report it to your doctor and start timely treatment.
Target Blood Sugar Levels For Children And Adolescents With Diabetes
Age 6-12 Bedtime 100-180
Kids aged 6 to 12 should have blood sugar levels that range between 80 to 180 mg/dL over the course of a day. Blood sugar levels go up after eating a meal because the body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, which is then distributed throughout the bloodstream. Other macronutrientsprotein and fatturn into glucose as well, but at a slower rate. Many people learn how to use these factors to their advantage. For example, if a childs sugar is trending low, a bedtime snack that includes something with protein and fat, like chocolate milk or peanut butter, will help raise blood sugar levels and help keep blood sugar levels steady through the night.
When you wake up in the morning, your fasting blood sugar is generally at its lowest because you havent consumed food for about eight hours. However, many people experience an increase in blood sugar levels in the early morning hours. If youre an adult and struggling with glucose control, your healthcare provider can help you develop a treatment plan to manage your blood sugar better.
Blood glucose levels outside the ranges listed above are categorized as either high or low blood sugar. For example, according to this chart, blood sugar levels are considered high if theyre over 130 mg/dL before a meal or 180 mg/dL within one to two hours after a meal. Many people wont start to experience symptoms from high blood sugar until their levels are at 250 mg/dL or higher. .
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Low Blood Sugar Chart And Action Plan
Low blood sugar is also called hypoglycemia. The numbers below represent values in the hypoglycemic range and require action to bring blood sugar levels up into a normal range.
|Alert Level and Treatment Plan|
|50 mg/dL or under||Red Flag: Blood sugar is critically low and requires immediate treatment.
If a person is unable to speak and/or is not alert, treat with glucagon via injection or nasal spray. Call emergency medical response if necessary. Do not place food or drink into the mouth.
If a person is alert and able to speak clearly, treat with 15 grams of rapid-acting carbohydrate such as glucose gel, 4 oz regular soda, or fruit juice. Re-test blood sugar in 15 minutes and repeat as needed to bring blood sugar within range.
|51-70 mg/dL||Red Flag: Blood sugar is below normal levels and requires immediate treatment.
Treat with 15 grams of rapid-acting carbohydrate and re-test in 15 minutes. Repeat treatment as needed to bring blood sugar within range.
|71-90 mg/dL||Yellow Flag: Blood sugar levels should be watched and treated as needed.
If youre having symptoms of low blood sugar, treat with 15 grams of rapid-acting carbohydrate and re-test in 15 minutes.
Repeat treatment or follow with a meal. If it is meal time, move forward with eating the meal. People often fall into this range when they are late for a meal or have been especially active.
The Risks Of High And Low Blood Sugar
Ignoring the signs and symptoms of high or low blood sugar can have serious consequences. Dangerously high or low blood sugar can lead to a diabetic coma.
A diabetic coma causes unconsciousness. Mayo Clinic explains, If you lapse into a diabetic coma, youre alive but you cant awaken or respond purposefully to sights, sounds or other types of stimulation. If a diabetic coma is left untreated, it can be fatal.
This is a medical emergency. If you experience any symptoms of low or high blood sugar or you feel like youre about to faint call 911 or your emergency hotline number.
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Blood Sugar Levels For Pregnant Women With Diabetes
Whether you had diabetes before you got pregnant or you developed diabetes during your pregnancy, you’ll need to keep a close eye on your blood sugar levels. Tight control will help you avoid complications and long-term health problems for both you and your baby.
You’re eating differently because your body needs more energy to help your baby grow and be healthy. And your changing hormones affect how your body makes and uses insulin. In the later parts of your pregnancy, you may become more insulin resistant, so blood sugar builds up to higher levels.
How often should you check your blood sugar?
- Pre-existing diabetes: Before and after meals and before bedtime
- Gestational diabetes: Before breakfast and after every meal your doctor can tell you how long after eating you should check.
If you are pregnant and have type 1 diabetes, your doctor might sometimes ask you to check your blood sugar in the middle of the night, around 3 a.m. Your doctor may recommend that you check your fasting urine ketones on a regular basis, as well.
For every type of diabetes, if you’re pregnant you need to see your doctor at least once a month, perhaps as often as once a week.
Mensing, C. The Art and Science of Diabetes Self-Management Education Desk Reference, 2nd Ed., American Association of Diabetes Educators, 2011.
American Diabetes Association. “Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes2014,” Diabetes Care, January 2014.
What Is A Rather Good Blood Sugar Level In The Morning
If youre planning to take your blood sugar readings in the morning before breakfast, it should be around 70 mg/dL to 100 mg/dL. This range is considered normal and is often reported by non-diabetic people. But if you take the glucose reading after breakfast, the readings can spike. Even in the morning, the normal diabetes level should not exceed 140 mg/dL. If it does, talk to your doctor.
Low Sugar Levels Range In Adults
High blood sugar range is between 180 to 250 mg/dL, while below 70 mg/dl is low. Above 250 mg/dL and under 50 mg/dL requires immediate medical attention.
Monitoring Blood Sugar In Older Adults
Monitoring blood sugar regularly is crucial to diabetes management. You check your blood sugar with a device called a glucometer.
First, you prick a fingertip with a small needle called a lancet. Then you place a drop of blood on a test strip in the glucometer. After a few seconds, you’ll get a number.
Generally, blood sugar should be checked before meals and at bedtime. Your healthcare provider may want you to check more or less often.
The following chart outlines what blood sugar levels should be for older adults in the hours following a meal as well as when levels are either too high or too low.
|0-70 mg/dL||0-60 mg/dL|
Cognitive decline and chronic illnesses can make it hard to follow your diabetes care plan. That can happen even if you’ve successfully managed it for years.
In these situations, your healthcare provider may:
- Prescribe a lower dose of medication
- Involve your caregivers in monitoring
- Carefully watch you for low blood sugar
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Lifestyle Changes & Diet
Researches have proved that a proper lifestyle helps in maintaining weight, enhances blood circulation, and enhances the bodys response to medicines. It thus helps in maintaining blood sugar levels and controlling type-2 diabetes. It has proved to help in the reversal of type-2 diabetes for numerous patients.
The following lifestyle changes help to bring the blood sugar level back to normal:
- Do exercise and aerobic activity daily It helps the cells to use insulin.
- Control your weight It can reduce your A1C levels and risk of cardiovascular disease.
- Healthy diet Consume food that is rich in fiber and carbohydrates.
- Proper sleep To control the blood glucose level, you must have proper sleep.
Normal Blood Sugar Levels Chart For Adults
Modified: Mar 11, 2022 by John Coleman Â· This post may contain affiliate links Â·
Glucose level determination in the blood is essential for people with suspected diabetes or diabetics and for completely healthy people. Normal blood sugar levels have been established by specialists based on many years of thorough research and clinical observations.
They allow the diagnosis of metabolic diseases and facilitate the application of appropriate therapy. Early detection of changes in the body and proper treatment and prevention is the key to success.
Sugar plays a vital role in the body. It is one of the primary sources of energy for the body belongs to the group of carbohydrates, which in the process of digestion are broken down into simple sugars
Blood glucose level should be more or less at the same level, but if it starts to decrease or exceed the level, your body will stop functioning correctly, which results in various disorders. Insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas, maintains sugar levels.
The presence of sugar in the blood is so necessary that without it, our bodies may stop functioning correctly, the nervous system, the skeletal and muscular systems, the lymphatic system, and your organs.
Blood sugar testing is used primarily to diagnose diabetes, but healthy people should also monitor blood glucose levels.
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Is 200 Blood Sugar Normal After Eating
Irrespective of what you had for your meal, a blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL or more highlights diabetes. Since the body takes time to process the food you had, you should always take your blood sugar readings after two hours of having a meal. It will give you a relatively accurate reading of your blood glucose levels.
What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis
If you think you may have low blood sugar, check it even if you dont have symptoms.
When too many ketones are produced too fast, they can build up in your body and cause diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA. DKA is very serious and can cause a coma or even death. Common symptoms of DKA include:
- Fast, deep breathing.
- Nausea and vomiting.
If you think you may have DKA, test your urine for ketones. Follow the test kit directions, checking the color of the test strip against the color chart in the kit to see your ketone level. If your ketones are high, . DKA requires treatment in a hospital.
DKA happens most in people with type 1 diabetes and is sometimes the first sign of type 1 in people who havent yet been diagnosed. People with type 2 diabetes can also develop DKA, but its less common.
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For Pregnant People With Type 1
Its very possible to have a healthy pregnancy if you have type 1 diabetes. But if it isnt well controlled and monitored, type 1 can increase your risk of pregnancy complications. As a result, the target blood glucose range may be lower than you are used to and require more regular monitoring.
Fasting blood glucose should be below 95 mg/dL, below 140 mg/dL an hour after eating, and below 120 mg/dL 2 hours after eating. A1c tests may be used to monitor how effectively your blood glucose is being controlled over the course of your pregnancy, with a target of below 6%.
What Is Normal Blood Sugar By Age Know The Range
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A healthy blood sugar level for anyone in the morning, despite age and gender, should be less than 100 mg/dl. However, as each persons health history and body function are unique, their blood sugar level might vary according to their diet, medication and other factors. Low or high blood sugar is related to prediabetic and diabetic conditions and requires medical attention.
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Key Points For Diet Plan:
- Always keep track of the carbs you eat. The best way is to set a limit on Carbs for each meal.
- Consume low glycaemic index fruits like strawberries, blueberries, and apples.
- Consume a more fiber-rich diet. Fiber helps to manage blood glucose levels and decreases cholesterol levels. It also helps in weight control.
- Drink plenty of water
- Avoid processed fruits and foods.
Factors That Contribute To Blood Sugar Range
The bodys level of blood glucose is controlled by , a hormone produced in the that helps your body absorb the sugar and use it in your cells. As your level of blood glucose rises, your pancreas produces more insulin to compensate. This helps keep your average blood glucose level within a safe range.
In diabetes, the body cant produce enough insulin or cant use the insulin properly . This means that your body cant compensate well for increases in blood glucose, which prevents your pancreas from stopping sharp spikes in blood glucose and increases the average blood glucose level over time.
Blood glucose spikes happen to everyone, especially after eating and drinking, but also after skipping breakfast, when youre dehydrated, and after you get a sunburn, among other triggers. They are especially dangerous for people with diabetes because their bodies cant , or even out, the spikes.
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High Blood Sugar: Hidden Dangers
In the short term, high blood sugar levels can zap your energy, cause excessive thirst and urination, and blur your vision. High blood sugar levels can also lead to dehydration, dry and itchy skin, and infections. Minimizing the time spent above your target blood sugar range can help you feel your best and will help prevent complications and injury to your body.
Over time, high blood sugar affects many parts of the body. Chronic high blood sugar can start to cause noticeable changes, including:
- Memory problems
- Vision problems like blurriness, diabetic retinopathy, and blindness
- Gum disease that leads to tooth loss, which can make eating healthy foods difficult due to problems chewing
- Heart attack and stroke due to increased plaque build-up in the vessels and other vascular issues
- Kidney disease, which can lead to the need for dialysis or a kidney transplant
- Nerve damage that can cause decreased sensation in the feet and legs which increases the risk for wounds to turn into serious infections and even amputation
Nerve damage from high blood sugar can also cause a variety of symptoms including:
- Pain and tingling in the feet and hands
- Difficulty emptying your bladder
- Problems during the digestion process after eating, which can cause food to sit in the stomach too long and lead to nausea, vomiting, and erratic blood sugar levels
Checking your blood sugar frequently and taking immediate action when it is above range can reduce your risk of complications.