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Symptoms For Low Sugar Diabetes

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Structural Analysis And Synthesis

Early signs and symptoms of low blood sugar – Dr. Ramesh Babu N

Purified animal-sourced insulin was initially the only type of insulin available for experiments and diabetics. was the first to produce the crystallised form in 1926. Evidence of the protein nature was first given by , , and Philip A. Shaffer in 1924. It was fully proven when Hans Jensen and Earl A. Evans Jr. isolated the amino acids phenylalanine and proline in 1935.

The amino acid structure of insulin was first characterized in 1951 by , and the first synthetic insulin was produced simultaneously in the labs of at the and at in the mid-1960s. was achieved by Chinese researchers in 1965. The complete 3-dimensional structure of insulin was determined by in ‘s laboratory in 1969.

The first genetically engineered, synthetic “human” insulin was produced using in 1978 by and at the of the in collaboration with at . Genentech, founded by Swanson, Boyer and , went on in 1982 to sell the first commercially available biosynthetic human insulin under the brand name . The vast majority of insulin used worldwide is biosynthetic recombinant “human” insulin or its analogues. Recently, another approach has been used by a pioneering group of Canadian researchers, using an easily grown plant, for the production of much cheaper insulin.

Two other Nobel Prizes have been awarded for work on insulin. British molecular biologist , who determined the of insulin in 1955, was awarded the 1958 . received the 1977 Nobel Prize in Medicine for the development of the for insulin.

How Can I Prevent Hypoglycemic Episodes

The key to preventing hypoglycemic events is managing diabetes:

  • Follow your healthcare providers instructions about food and exercise.
  • Track your blood sugar regularly, including before and after meals, before and after exercise and before bed.
  • Take all your medications exactly as prescribed.
  • When you do have a hypoglycemic event, write it down. Include details such as the time, what you ate recently, whether you exercised, the symptoms and your glucose level.

Does Everyone Have Symptoms From Hypoglycemia

Some people dont have symptoms or dont notice them. Healthcare providers call that situation hypoglycemia unawareness. People with such a challenge arent aware when they need to do something about their blood sugar. Theyre then more likely to have severe episodes and need medical help. People with hypoglycemia unawareness should check their blood sugar more often.

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What Causes Low Blood Sugar

Despite advances in the treatment of diabetes, low blood sugar episodes occur as a side effect of many treatments for diabetes. In fact, these episodes are often the limiting factor in achieving optimal blood sugar control, because many medications that are effective in treating diabetes carry the risk of lowering the blood sugar level too much, causing symptoms. In large scale studies looking at tight control in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, low blood sugars occurred more often in the patients who were managed most intensively. This is important for patients and physicians to recognize, especially as the goal for treating patients with diabetes becomes tighter control of blood sugar.

While people who do not have any metabolic problems can complain of symptoms that resemble low blood sugar, true hypoglycemia usually occurs in people with diabetes mellitus . People with pre-diabetes or insulin resistance also can have low blood sugars on occasion if their high circulating insulin levels are further challenged by a prolonged period of fasting. There are other rare causes for the condition, such as insulin-producing tumors and certain medications.

These uncommon causes of hypoglycemia will not be discussed in this article, which will primarily focus on the condition occurring with type 1 or 2 diabetes and its treatment.

Can This Be Diabetes

Hypoglycemia faces what a high blood sugar feels like

So since September I had off days where I would pee a lot. When I say a lot, I mean a lot like I had the urge to go every one hour and it was clear. The amount I urinated did not match with how much I drank. By late November and December it started to become a daily thing. The amount I urinated was not on par with how much I urinated in earlier months but I ended up having the urge every 2 hours and could only hold my pee up to 4 hours. I ended up going to my doctors because of this last week. Before I touch upon that date, I would like to also say that I have been experiencing excessive hunger and also an increase of pins and needles feeling in my legs and arms. Anyways, back to the doctor visit. During that visit I told them about what I have been experiencing and they ended up making me do a urine sample. My doctor said he couldn’t find any traces of sugar but they did find a trace of a uti. They prescribed me the medication that starts with a N . Now though I still experience hunger, and pins and needles . So I was wondering if I should go find another doctor and force them to do more tests on me? or is this all in my head?Continue reading > >

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What Causes Low Blood Glucose In People With Diabetes

Low blood glucose levels can be a side effect of insulin or some other medicines that help your pancreas release insulin into your blood. Taking these can lower your blood glucose level.

Two types of diabetes pills can cause low blood glucose

  • sulfonylureas, usually taken once or twice per day, which increase insulin over several hours
  • meglitinides, taken before meals to promote a short-term increase in insulin

The following may also lower your blood glucose level

Tingling In The Hands Or Feet

Since diabetes affects the nerves of the body , a tingling or numb sensation in the hands or feet can be an early sign.

This symptom is commonly worse at night, when the temperature drops. When the brain perceives coldness, tingling or numbness can result. Keeping warm at night may help.

Without early detection, this may lead to a loss of pain and sensation in the extremities. This can be dangerous, as you may not be able to feel or notice minor injuries to these parts of your body.

Why does this happen?: High levels of sugar in the blood damage small nerves of the hands and feet, producing a tingling or numb sensation. The nerves are slowest to repair in your extremities because they are further away from the heart and receive less circulation.

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Skin Changes And Slow Wound Healing

Since high sugar in the blood can affect nerves and blood flow, your body will have a harder time healing wounds or cuts.

As mentioned above, your hands and feet are most susceptible since they already receive less blood flow.

Why does this happen?: With time, lots of sugar in the blood can affect blood flow and nerves necessary for the healing of wounds and cuts. Limited blood circulation can slow down the healing process, especially in the extremities.

No Symptoms Be Alarmed

High and Low Blood Sugar Symptoms

Surprisingly, the most dangerous episodes of hypoglycemia occur with little or no warning. When low blood glucose occurs on a regular basis, the body can become used to the warning signs and the person may stop noticing symptoms. This is a particularly dangerous condition known as hypoglycemic unawareness. People with this condition might not realize they have low blood glucose until it’s dangerously low seizures and coma are sometimes the first indication of a problem. The good news is that this condition can often be reversed allowing people to once again notice the signs of low blood glucose if hypoglycemia is avoided for a few weeks through careful monitoring of blood glucose.

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Treating Low Blood Glucose If You Take Medicines That Slow Down Digestion

Some diabetes medicines slow down the digestion of carbohydrates to keep blood glucose levels from rising too high after you eat. If you develop low blood glucose while taking these medicines, you will need to take glucose tablets or glucose gel right away. Eating or drinking other sources of carbohydrates wont raise your blood glucose level quickly enough.

If A Person Is Unconscious

If a person loses consciousness because of severe hypoglycaemia, they need to be put into the recovery position and given an injection of the hormone glucagon . The injection will raise their blood glucose level.

The injection should be carried out by a friend or family member who knows what they’re doing, or by a trained healthcare professional.

You should dial 999 to request an ambulance if:

  • a glucagon injection kit isn’t available
  • there’s nobody available who’s trained to give the injection
  • the injection is ineffective after 10 minutes

Never try to put food or drink into the mouth of someone who’s unconscious as they could choke.

If you’re able to give a glucagon injection and the person regains consciousness, they should eat some longer-acting carbohydrate food, such as a few biscuits, a cereal bar or a sandwich.

You should continue to monitor the person for signs of recurring symptoms in case they need to be treated again.

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How Can I Prevent Hypoglycemia

You may need to change what and when you eat to prevent low blood sugar levels. Follow the meal plan that you and the dietitian have planned. The following guidelines may help you keep your blood sugar levels under control.

  • Eat 5 to 6 small meals each day instead of 3 large meals. Eat the same amount of carbohydrate at meals and snacks each day. Most people need about 3 to 4 servings of carbohydrate at meals and 1 to 2 servings for snacks. Do not skip meals. Carbohydrate counting can be used plan your meals. Ask your healthcare provider or dietitian for information about carbohydrate counting.
  • Limit refined carbohydrates. Examples are white bread, pastries , regular sodas, syrups, and candy.
  • Do not have drinks or foods that contain caffeine. Examples are coffee, tea, and certain types of sodas. Caffeine may cause you to have the same symptoms as hypoglycemia, and may cause you to feel worse.
  • Limit or do not drink alcohol. Women should limit alcohol to 1 drink a day. Men should limit alcohol to 2 drinks a day. A drink of alcohol is 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1½ ounces of liquor. Do not drink alcohol on an empty stomach. Drink alcohol with meals to avoid hypoglycemia.
  • Include protein foods and vegetables in your meals. Some foods that are high in protein include beef, pork, fish, poultry , beans, and nuts. Eat a variety of vegetables with your meals.

How Do I Treat An Episode Of Hypoglycemia

Los Angeles Medical Clinic: Symptoms of Low Blood Sugar

The American Diabetes Association recommends the 15-15 rule for an episode of hypoglycemia:

  • Eat or drink 15 grams of carbs to raise your blood sugar.
  • After 15 minutes, check your blood sugar.
  • If its still below 70 mg/dL, have another 15 grams of carbs.
  • Repeat until your blood sugar is at least 70 mg/dL.

If you have symptoms of hypoglycemia but cant test your blood sugar, use the 15-15 rule until you feel better.

Note: Children need fewer grams of carbs. Check with your healthcare provider.

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Evolution And Species Distribution

Insulin may have originated more than a billion years ago. The molecular origins of insulin go at least as far back as the simplest unicellular . Apart from animals, insulin-like proteins are also known to exist in the Fungi and Protista kingdoms.

Insulin is produced by of the in most vertebrates and by the in some . and , venomous sea snails that hunt small fish, use modified forms of insulin in their venom cocktails. The insulin toxin, closer in structure to fishes’ than to snails’ native insulin, slows down the prey fishes by lowering their blood glucose levels.

Treat With 5 To 15 Grams Of Carbs And Be Patient

Some lows only require 5 grams of carbohydrates to bring you back up to a safe level. If youre sitting steadily at 65 mg/dL, you likely dont need a full 15 grams of carbs, because that might bring you back well above your target blood sugar range. On the other hand, if youre at 55 mg/dL and continuing to drop, you may need 15 grams of carbohydrateand then more depending on the amount of insulin you have onboard and why youre low.

Then, heres the hardest part: sit on your hands and wait before eating anything else. If you are still low then you would treat with more carbs. .

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Tight Blood Sugar Targets

Aiming for healthy non-diabetic blood sugar ranges means its far more likely youll experience low blood sugars because the line between normal and low blood sugars is a very thin line. Just the slightest bit too much insulin or activity, and your blood sugar is suddenly too low.

TIP: When aiming to improve your A1c, the first priority is to prevent and avoid recurring low blood sugars. If youre constantly going low, its time to take a closer look at the doses youre using for meals and corrections. If taking 2 units of insulin when your blood sugar is 200 mg/dL constantly sends you down to 50 mg/dL, thats a very clear sign that you need far less insulin for your correction doses. Take good notes and pinpoint areas where you can make adjustments.

Especially if youre taking insulin and if you take non-insulin medications that lower blood sugar low blood sugars are something you will be constantly working to avoid, treat, and endure.

Read more about adjusting insulin doses, weight-loss, and exercise:

Do Not Drive When You Have Low Blood Sugar

Low Blood Sugar Symptoms

It’s very dangerous. If you’re driving and you have hypoglycemia symptoms, pull off the road, check your blood sugar, and eat a sugary food. Wait at least 15 minutes, check your blood sugar, and repeat these steps if necessary. Eat a protein and carbohydrate source before you drive on.

Be prepared. Keep a sugar source in your car at all times for emergencies.

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Dosing Insulin For Tricky Carbohydrate Estimates

Taking 3 units of insulin for a medium-sized apple when you may have only needed 2 is another example of the simplest way people with diabetes can experience low blood sugars while doing our best to manage our blood sugars.

TIP: Use CalorieKing.com to doublecheck your carb-counts, and keep a little notebook of the insulin doses you used for meals you eat often!

Low Blood Sugar With Type 2 Diabetes: Is It Possible

6/26/2015 by mySugr

Can you have low blood sugar with type 2 diabetes? The answer is yes! People with type 2 diabetes who take certain types of medication are more at risk for lows . But don’t worry, if you know about the reasons, symptoms, and treatment, there’s no need to be afraid!

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Check Your Blood Sugar Level Regularly

The best way to become familiar with your blood sugar trends is to check your blood glucose. Checking your blood glucose regularly will help you identify how you respond when your blood sugar is high or low.

People who check their blood sugar regularly tend to have better blood glucose control compared to those who dont.

Overdose Of Diabetes Medication

low blood sugar level signs and symptoms.

A common cause of hypoglycaemia is taking too much insulin for your current needs. Insulin is a medication that helps control your blood glucose levels. It’s commonly used to treat type 1 diabetes and is also recommended for some people with type 2 diabetes.

A fall in blood glucose levels can also occur after taking too much oral hypoglycaemia medication, such as sulphonylurea, which causes a release of insulin. This medication is often used to lower blood glucose levels in people with type 2 diabetes.

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Causes Of Low Blood Sugar

There are many reasons why you may have low blood sugar, including:

  • Taking too much insulin.
  • Not eating enough carbs for how much insulin you take.
  • Timing of when you take your insulin.
  • The amount and timing of physical activity.
  • Drinking alcohol.
  • How much fat, protein, and fiber are in your meal.
  • Hot and humid weather.
  • Unexpected changes in your schedule.
  • Spending time at a high altitude.
  • Going through puberty.
  • Menstruation.

Low Blood Sugar And Driving

Having a low blood sugar while driving could be dangerous for you and others.

You can usually still drive if you’re at risk of low blood sugar. But you’ll need to take extra precautions to reduce the chance of this happening while driving.

You also need to tell the Driver & Vehicle Agency and your car insurance company about your condition.

For more information, see:

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What Causes Reactive Hypoglycemia

Reactive hypoglycemia comes from having too much insulin in your blood. It usually happens within a few hours after you eat. Other possible causes include:

  • Having prediabetes or being more likely to have diabetes

What If The 15

Symptoms of low blood glucose and how to spot it

If you dont feel better after three tries, or if your symptoms get worse, call your healthcare provider or 911. Healthcare providers can use a medication called glucagon. They inject it with a needle or squirt it up your nose. Glucagon is also available for home use. Your healthcare provider can prescribe it and teach a family member or friend how to use it in the event of severe hypoglycemia.

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