Insulin For Cell Culture And Organ Preservation
Cell culture, one of the major techniques in life science research, is a complex process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, in a favorable artificial environment. Insulin is required for the growth and development of cells and also stimulates the proliferation of certain cells in culture . Numerous hormones including insulin are used as an essential component of synthetic growth media for cell culture . Insulin has been found to be stimulatory in serum-free medium for the growth of virtually every cell type including mammalian cells . It is used for the manufacture of monoclonal antibodies, virus vaccines, gene therapy products, and other biological drugs .
Insulin, by increasing the permeability of cell membranes to glucose and making nutrients available to the cells, promotes the growth of mammalian cells . The action of insulin in mammalian cell culture is primarily through the binding and activation of IGF-1R . Mammary tumor cell lines, like the MCF-7 cell line, respond to low levels of insulin, suggesting that the growth-promoting effect is mediated by the IR , . Insulin through the IR also inhibits apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal in a variety of cell types , .
What Is Insulin Resistance
Insulin resistance is a term that is used to describe a reduced response by your body to naturally produced insulin, which stops cells in your body from uptaking glucose from the blood to use as an energy source. Over time this causes your blood sugar levels to rise. Insulin resistance can lead to prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.
Insulin resistance has nothing to do with man-made insulin products that people with diabetes inject into their bodies. It refers to a resistance to natural insulin that is produced by the beta cells in the pancreas.
Learn more about insulin resistance.
Who Should Use An Insulin Pump
Using an insulin pump is a personal preference. You may want to use an insulin pump if you:
- Experience delays in food absorption.
- Are active and may want to pause insulin doses when exercising.
- Have severe reactions to low blood sugar.
- Have diabetes and are planning a pregnancy.
Insulin pumps can also be a good option for young people with Type 1 diabetes. A pump can deliver a steady supply of insulin, even for children and others who might have trouble sticking to a schedule for insulin injections.
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Insulin For Body Building
Athletes use performance-enhancing drugs for muscle-building purposes so as to improve their endurance. Commonly used performance-enhancing drugs in athletes include anabolic androgenic steroids, clenbutarol, erythropoietin, diuretics, growth hormone , and, recently, insulin all of these have potential health consequences .
Doping is the use of prohibited substances unlawfully to improve their sporting performance and is detrimental to the overall impact of sporting spirit. Doping in sports has been ongoing since the original Olympic Games, with the desire to win at all cost. The International Olympic Committee Medical Commission and sub-commission Doping and Biochemistry in Sport announce annually a list of banned substances and have developed a sophisticated system for detecting drug abuse. Recent evidences suggest that insulin and GH have now become a significant threat in the sports arena .
GH, due to its anabolic and lipolytic properties, which leads to an increase in lean body mass and reduction in fat mass, has been used in sports since the early 1980s . Insulin was used as a doping agent frequently in the Olympic Games, as in Nagano in 1998 , . Insulin with GH is being used by many athletes and body builders for increasing their muscle mass.
Factors That Speed Insulin Absorption
Variation in insulin absorption can cause changes in blood glucose levels. Insulin absorption is increased by:
- injecting into an exercised area such as the thighs or arms
- high temperatures due to a hot shower, bath, hot water bottle, spa or sauna
- massaging the area around the injection site
- injecting into muscle this causes the insulin to be absorbed more quickly and could cause blood glucose levels to drop too low.
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How Do You Store Insulin
Insulin is easily broken down by extreme temperatures, which means you need to be careful if you live in a part of the U.S. that gets very hot in summer, or very cold in winter.
All unopened vials and cartridges should be kept in the fridge, between 36-46 degrees Fahrenheit . Discard any insulin that you think may have inadvertently got too hot or too cold. The expiry date on insulin applies to unopened, refrigerated insulin.
Why Is This Medication Prescribed
Human insulin is used to control blood sugar in people who have type 1 diabetes or in people who have type 2 diabetes that cannot be controlled with oral medications alone. Human insulin is in a class of medications called hormones. Human insulin is used to take the place of insulin that is normally produced by the body. It works by helping move sugar from the blood into other body tissues where it is used for energy. It also stops the liver from producing more sugar. All of the types of insulin that are available work in this way. The types of insulin differ only in how quickly they begin to work and how long they continue to control blood sugar.
Over time, people who have diabetes and high blood sugar can develop serious or life-threatening complications, including heart disease, stroke, kidney problems, nerve damage, and eye problems. Using medication, making lifestyle changes , and regularly checking your blood sugar may help to manage your diabetes and improve your health. This therapy may also decrease your chances of having a heart attack, stroke, or other diabetes-related complications such as kidney failure, nerve damage , eye problems, including changes or loss of vision, or gum disease. Your doctor and other healthcare providers will talk to you about the best way to manage your diabetes.
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What Is Insulin And Why Do I Need It
Insulin is a hormone that controls the level of blood sugar in your body. People with diabetes may not have enough insulin or may not be able to use it properly. The sugar builds up in the blood and overflows into the urine, passing out of your body unused. Over time, high blood sugar levels can cause serious health problems.
All people with type 1 diabetes, and some people with type 2 diabetes, need to take insulin to help control their blood sugar levels. The goal in treating diabetes is to keep the blood sugar level within a normal range.
What Is Insulin Made Of
Insulin is made in different ways. You and your healthcare team will discuss which insulin you can take.
- Human insulin this is synthetic and made in a laboratory to be like insulin made in the body.
- Analogue insulin the insulin molecule is like a string of beads. Scientists have managed to alter the position of some of these beads to create genetically engineered insulin known as analogues.
- Animal insulin This isnt used much anymore, but some people find that insulin from animals works best for them. It is usually from a cow or pig.
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What Type Of Insulin Goes Into An Insulin Pump A Helpful Guide
Insulin pumps are effective forms of diabetes equipment that diabetes patients use to manage their condition. However, many things about how this piece of equipment works leave people confused and with many questions unanswered.
One of these areas of confusion is the question of what type of insulin goes into an insulin pump. And does it matter what insulin is used in an insulin pump?
This article will give a clear understanding of what types of insulin go into an insulin pump. But first, lets give a quick summary of what type of insulin goes into an insulin pump, then well get into more explanation as to why.
What type of insulin goes into an insulin pump? Short-acting or fast-acting insulin, like Aspart, Lispro, and Glulisine, is what goes into an insulin pump. This helps insulin pumps work similarly to the natural pancreas of an average person. However, basal-bolus insulin therapy replaces the need to use both short-acting and long-acting insulin.
So, now weve seen the quick rundown answer, lets take a deeper dive into some of the nuances of this question.
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How To Reverse Insulin Resistance
If you have insulin resistance, you want to become the oppositemore insulin sensitive .
Physical activity makes you more sensitive to insulin, one reason why its a cornerstone of diabetes management . Dont wait until youre diagnosed with diabetes to start moving more. The earlier you take action , the better off youll be.
Weight loss is important too, as is avoiding high blood sugar, reducing stress, and getting enough sleep .
These lifestyle changes really work. Talk with your health care provider about how to get started.
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How Long Does Insulin Last Out Of The Refrigerator
Opened and in-use cartridges and vials are fine to keep at room temperature for up to 28 days.
The exception is Tresiba which, once in use, is stable for up to 8 weeks at room temperature.
If you are going out in the sun, always use an insulated bag protected by a cool pack to ensure your insulin doesn’t heat up but avoid freezing it. During cold weather, keep your insulin supplies close to your skin so your body heat keeps them at a more even temperature.
Combination With Other Antidiabetic Drugs
A combination therapy of insulin and other antidiabetic drugs appears to be most beneficial in people who are diabetic, who still have residual insulin secretory capacity. A combination of insulin therapy and sulfonylurea is more effective than insulin alone in treating people with type 2 diabetes after secondary failure to oral drugs, leading to better glucose profiles and/or decreased insulin needs.
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How Strong Is Insulin
Most insulin in the U.S. is sold at a concentration of 100 units per ml . However, there are currently four concentrated products on the market:
- Humulin R which has a 500 units per ml strength available
- Humalog which has a 200 units per ml strength available
- Toujeo Solostar which contains 300 units per ml of insulin glargine
- Tresiba which has a 200 units per ml strength available.
What Else Should I Know About Insulin
Our insulin requirements vary depending on the food we eat, how much activity we do, our general and mental health, how much we currently weigh, and our age.
Talk to your doctor about how you should adjust your insulin dose when you:
- Are prescribed other medications that may affect your body’s sensitivity to insulin
- Are unwell or have an infection
- Feel stressed or exceptionally tired
- Gain or lose weight
- Reduce or increase your activity levels
- Are trying for a baby or find out you are pregnant.
You should also regularly monitor your blood glucose levels and be able to count your calories and know how to calculate how much insulin to take and when to adjust it. If you don’t know how to do this, ask your doctor or talk to a diabetes nurse.
You should know what to do if your blood sugar level goes too high or too low and have an action plan in place so that your family and friends also know what to do.
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Types Of Insulin And When To Use
It is necessary to use synthetic insulin in situations where the body cannot produce it in the necessary areas, such as in type 1 diabetes or severe type 2 diabetes. Synthetic drug insulin mimics the bodys insulin secretion throughout the day, both basal and pulsatile, for which reason there are several types that differ one from another in the speed with which they act on the glucose in the blood .
It is important that the insulin is indicated by the endocrinologist and that the regimen prescribed by the same is followed, which will depend on the health condition of the person. The types of insulin are:
Find out more about which types of insulin are and how to use them.
How To Choose The Right Method For Injecting Insulin
Both syringes and insulin pens use a small needle to inject insulin into your body. There are pros and cons to each, and which one you ultimately end up with will depend on your lifestyle and your doctors advice.
Things to know about insulin syringes:
- They come in a few different sizes.
- Your doctor will tell you how much insulin you need per dose.
- You will usually draw the insulin into the syringe when you need it.
- Theyre not as discreet as an insulin pen.
Things to know about insulin pens:
- Some pens use cartridges that are manually inserted into the pen.
- Other pens are prefilled and thrown away after all the insulin is used.
- Needles in pens are often smaller than those in syringes.
- Not all types of insulin can be used with a pen.
- Pens can be more expensive than syringes and are sometimes not covered by insurance.
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Where Do I Put My Needles After I Use Them
Much like your lancing devices, syringes and pen needles are a one-time use product and should not be reused. Do not leave pen needles on your insulin pen. This can cause your insulin to leak or for air to enter the cartridge. Do not share any of your lancing needles, pen needles, or syringes. When you are done with an injection, immediately put any used sharps into one of the following:
Once the container is full, its important that you know what to do with it. Each state has different rules. Some allow trash or recycle disposal, others require you to bring it to a needle disposal site.
Insulin For Type 2 Diabetes
If you have type 2 diabetes and your doctor thinks insulin can help you, it doesnt mean you now have type 1 diabetes. You still have type 2 diabetes, but youve changed treatment.
If you have type 2 diabetes, you may not need to use insulin straight away. But some people have very high blood sugar levels when they are first diagnosed. Insulin can be used as a short-term treatment to help quickly bring down your blood sugar levels.
Some people may need to take insulin for a particular reason, like during pregnancy or a severe illness, or after surgery. But you may also need to start it as a treatment if other medications havent helped managed your blood sugar levels or are not appropriate for you.
If you need insulin it isnt your fault and it doesnt mean you havent managed your diabetes well. Its simply another medication that can help to keep you as healthy as possible. Managing blood sugars effectively is really important in reducing your risk of future diabetes complications and insulin may be the most appropriate treatment choice for you. Many people with type 2 diabetes need to use it as treatment at some point.
Its still important to keep going to your appointments and manage your condition with healthy lifestyle choices. Staying active and eating a healthy diet will reduce the risk of complications from your diabetes.
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How Do I Take Insulin
Insulin is normally injected under the skin with a very small needle. It can also be taken with an insulin pen. Your doctor will teach you exactly how to inject insulin, but here are the basics:
Wash your hands.
Take the plastic cover off the insulin bottle and wipe the top of the bottle with a cotton swab dipped in alcohol.
Pull back the plunger of the syringe, drawing air into the syringe equal to the dose of insulin that you are taking . Put the syringe needle through the rubber top of the insulin bottle. Inject air into the bottle by pushing the syringe plunger forward. Turn the bottle upside down.
Make sure that the tip of the needle is in the insulin. Pull back on the syringe plunger to draw the correct dose of insulin into the syringe .
Make sure there are no air bubbles in the syringe before you take the needle out of the insulin bottle. If there are air bubbles, hold the syringe and the bottle straight up, tap the syringe with your finger and let the air bubbles float to the top. Push on the plunger of the syringe to move the air bubbles back into the insulin bottle. Then withdraw the correct insulin dose by pulling back on the plunger.
Clean your skin with cotton dipped in alcohol . Grab a fold of skin and inject the insulin under the skin at a 90-degree angle . PICTURE 2.
Insulin For Calcium Channel Blockers And
The overdoses of -blockers and calcium channel blockers may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality . General goals of therapy are aimed at improving inotropy and chronotropy. Important interventions to manage their overdose include intravenous fluids, atropine, glucagon, calcium, and vasopressors. Unfortunately, in severe overdoses, these agents do not consistently improve hemodynamic parameters .
From recent clinical and experimental evidence, HDI therapy has emerged as an effective antidote to calcium channel blocker and -blocker overdose , . In the previous literature reports of calcium channel blocker and combined calcium channel blocker and -blocker ingestions, the majority of patients have received between 0.5 and 2 units/kg/h insulin infusions .
The benefit of insulin in -blocker and calcium channel blocker overdose is anticipated to be related to three primary mechanisms: increased inotropy, increased intracellular glucose transport, and vascular dilatation. Exogenous insulin is believed to improve cardiac function by increasing myocardial carbohydrate metabolism, which in turn expedites myocardial oxygen delivery and cardiac contractility . HDI appears to enhance cardiac contractility without increasing myocardial work, unlike cathecholamines.
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